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Plagiarism - Calgary Board of Education

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Avoiding Plagiarism:
Modified APA style of
Mrs. McGowan, Teacher-Librarian (2011)
Adapted from Ms. E. Hansen, QE (2006)
Adapted from Ms. M. Mirka, Centennial (2004)
Do you know…
• What is Plagiarism?
• What is an in-text Citation?
• What is a reference list?
• What does paraphrasing
Getting Started…
• What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism means using
another’s work
without giving them
credit and saying that
it is your own
From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
Examples of Plagiarism…
• Copying and pasting text from online
• Copying and pasting text from any web
• Using photographs, video or audio
without permission or acknowledgement
• Using another student’s or your parents’
work and claiming it as your own even
with permission
• Using your own work without properly
citing it!
From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
More Examples of Plagiarism…
• Quoting a source without using
quotation marks-even if you do cite it
• Citing sources you didn’t use
• Getting a research paper, story, poem,
or article off the Internet
• Turning in the same paper for more than
one class without the permission of both
teachers (this is called self-plagiarism)
• Can you think of more?
From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
How to Avoid Plagiarism…
• Use your own words and ideas
• Always give credit to the source where
you have received your information
• If you use someone’s exact words - put
them in quotes and give credit using intext citations. Include the source in
your references
From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
How to Avoid Plagiarism…
• If you have paraphrased someone’s
work, (summarizing a passage or
rearranging the order of a sentence and
changing some of the words)-always
give credit
• Take very good notes--write down the
source as you are taking notes. Do not
wait until later to try and retrieve the
original source
• Avoid using someone else’s work with
minor “cosmetic” changes
From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
Getting Started…
• What is a reference list?
– A reference list at the end of a paper
provides the full information
necessary to identify and retrieve
each source. It cites works that
specifically support a particular article.
– References should be alphabetically
listed by author’s last name at the
end of the paper or presentation.
• A bibliography?
– A bibliography cites works for
background or for further reading.
Getting Started…
• What is a Citation?
– References and citations in text
are the formal methods of
acknowledging the use of a
creator’s work.
• An In-Text Citation?
– Direct citations and quotations are
acknowledged in the body of a
research assignment.
(Right in the sentence or paragraph)
How does plagiarism affect you??
WHAT happens if you plagiarize?
• In junior/senior high school?
• In post-secondary?
• In society?
Special Consideration:
• Special recognition needs to be given to the
Internet as a source of information. Due to the
transient nature of information on the Internet,
you may choose to keep a copy (either paper
or electronic) of the website used.
• Internet sites must be evaluated very
carefully for reliability, as all sources are not
authoritative or trustworthy.
Who wrote it? What’s the source? Contact info?
Is the info accurate? Appropriate? Reliable?
When was the information last updated?
Does it agree with other credible sources?
Do the links work? Is it well laid out? Easy to
In text citations identify the source of a quotation or a personal
communication used in research. Format like this (author’s last name,
publication date, and page number p. or pp.).
Citations within the writing (paragraph) are quick and limited in information.
Citations point you to the full information on a back References page.
1. Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author
directly, the source must be credited.
2. In text citations refer the reader to a References
page. The reader then knows where the
information came from.
1. Citations are included in the same sentence or
paragraph as the quotation.
2. The sentence and the citation together must provide
the author’s last name, publication date and page(s)
from which the quotation was taken.
In Text Format for Poetry
пЃ± For poetry, include line numbers at the end of a
quote (Jones, l. 5) or (Stevens, ll. 2-18).
пЃ± Once you know the source, just use line numbers
(l. 18).
 One line? – work the line into a sentence, & use
“quote marks” (l. 7).
 Two or three lines? – separate each line with a
slash / to indicate the end of the lines. Use
quotation marks.
 Four lines or longer? – set the quote apart, and
block indent. Do not use quotation marks. (ll. 12 –
1. Quotation marks “ ” enclose quotations of
less than 40 words and are included in the
sentence or text, then the citation.
2. Quotations of more than 40 words are
indented five spaces from the left margin
and are double-spaced in a free-standing
block (example later). They are also known as
a Block Quotation.
3. Just before the long quotation starts, type a
colon: then indent your long quotation (block
quotation). (then your citation after the period)
4. Brackets ( ) enclose information about the
source of the quotation (this is the citation).
Quotation Examples…
1. less than 40 words:
He confirms our suspicions.
“Because N-Gen children are born with
technology, they assimilate it. Adults must
accommodate – a different and much more
difficult learning process”_ (Tapscott,
1998, p. 40).
(Punctuation is only after in-text citation.)
Quotation Examples…
2. more than forty words (Block Quotation):
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
(2010) explains how to avoid plagiarism:
Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of
another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e.,
summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and
change some of the words), you need to credit the source of
the text.. (p.15)
(Punctuation at end of quote, before the citation.)
Citation Example 1
He states, “anything takes on a new
meaning when we think of it as a
monument” (Boorstin, 1987, p.
215) and adds that monuments can
be both man-made and natural.
Note punctuation
What makes this sentence elegant or
The sentence has both a direct quotation and a
Citation Example 2
Johnston and Cutchins (1988) state that “life
is hard for animal babies of all kinds, but for
young reptiles, surviving their first year is
especially difficult” (p. 36).
пЃ± To put two authors in the brackets, you
must use the ampersand “&” symbol.
(Johnston & Cutchins, 1988, p. 36)
пЃ± For more than 3 authors, you may use the
Latin phrase “et al” which means “and the
(Abrams, et al, 2010, p. 345)
Personal Communications
Personal communications include e-mail letters, telephone
conversations, interviews, etc.
They are mentioned in the body of a paper only, as they are
not locatable.
They are cited (see below), but NEVER included in your
reference list, because a reader cannot refer to or locate
them later.
Author Martine Bates (personal
communication, January 25, 2011) is
excited about Marwen’s latest adventures
and hopes her readers are too.
Citing Electronic Sources
(Internet, Online Communities, etc)
For electronic sources that do not provide page
Use the paragraph number, if available, preceded
by the paragraph symbol В¶ or the abbreviation
If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible,
cite the heading and the number of the paragraph
following it to direct the reader to the location of the
material (APA, 2010, Section 7.11).
(Myers, 2008, В¶ 5)
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
(APA Style, 2005, para. 3)
Citing Internet Sources or
Sources with No Author
Many times, you will encounter and need to cite a
resource that does not have an author. It might be a
Corporation. We are used to doing citations using the
author’s last name. However, this is not always
REFERENCE LISTING of resources that do not have
No Author
Sports nutrition: Nutrition science & the Olympics.
(2008). Retrieved from
Corporate Author
Centre for Systems Science at Simon Fraser University.
[Image]. (2009). Great Canadian scientists. Retrieved
Romeo and Juliet [CD-ROM]. (1997). New York:
**Use the first few words of the title or corporate
author if no author’s name is given
Many people feel that eating healthy foods can help your
performance playing sports: “It is a proven fact that
eating a nutritious meal prior to a game will increase
performance” (Sports Nutrition, 1998).
Why use the American Psychological Association (APA) format
regarding references?
It is very widely recognized and an authoritative source for references
and citations in research work. APA is frequently used in local
universities. It is not the only form.
What other forms are there?
MLA, Turabian, Chicago – Use what the instructor asks!
APA Website
University of Calgary
Son of Citation Machine
Go to the back of your document, and
on a SEPARATE piece of paper…
 Centre the word “References” (not
bolded) at the top of the page.
пЃ± Give the full information on how to
access your sources, in alphabetic
order, (sort↓) and a hanging indent.
пЃ± Double-space the whole page.
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of
the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington,
DC: Author.
APA Style.Org (2005). Electronic references: Citations in text of
electronic material. Retrieved from
Calgary Board of Education. (2000). References and citations in
text: Formats for student research. Retrieved from
(suggested for further information or investigation)
American Psychological Association. (2010). American
Psychological Association Psych Net. Retrieved from
Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information.
(2009). Retrieved from
Thank You!
You are welcome to ask your
teacher-librarian if you need
any help. пЃЉ
The End.
For Better or For Worse – Lynn Johnston
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