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Beyond Classroom Management

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SWPBS:
Beyond Classroom
Management
Carl Cole & George Sugai
OSEP Center on PBIS
University of Connecticut
January 18, 2008
www.cber.org
www.pbis.org
George.sugai@uconn.edu
PURPOSE: Review features &
strategies of SWPBS
1. What is SWPBS (PBIS)?
2. What’s needed to sustain
SWPBS?
3. What have we learned?
4. What can your team do?
Problem Statement
“We give schools strategies &
systems for developing positive,
effective, achieving, & caring
school & classroom environments,
but implementation is not accurate,
consistent, or durable. Schools
need more than training.”
SWPBS Logic
Successful individual student
behavior support is linked to host
environments that are redesigned
& supported to be effective,
efficient, durable, & relevant for
all students
(Zins & Ponte, 1990)
Worry
“Teaching” by Getting Tough
Runyon: “I hate this f____ing
school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”
Teacher: “That is disrespectful
language. I’m sending you to the
office so you’ll learn never to say
those words again….starting
now!”
Immediate & seductive
solution….”Get Tough!”
• Clamp down & increase monitoring
• Re-re-re-review rules
• Extend continuum & consistency of
consequences
• Establish “bottom line”
...Predictable individual response
Reactive responses are
predictable….
When we experience aversive
situation, we select interventions
that produce immediate relief
– Remove student
– Remove ourselves
– Modify physical environment
– Assign responsibility for change to
student &/or others
When behavior doesn’t
improve, we “Get Tougher!”
• Zero tolerance policies
• Increased surveillance
• Increased suspension & expulsion
• In-service training by expert
• Alternative programming
…..Predictable systems response!
Erroneous assumption that
student…
• Is inherently “bad”
• Will learn more appropriate
behavior through increased use
of “aversives”
• Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of
safety/security!
• Fosters environments of control
• Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior
• Shifts accountability away from school
• Devalues child-adult relationship
• Weakens relationship between academic
& social behavior programming
Science of behavior has
taught us that students….
• Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
• Do NOT learn when presented
contingent aversive consequences
……..Do learn better ways of
behaving by being taught
directly & receiving positive
feedback
SWPBS is about….
Improving
classroom &
school climate
Integrating
academic &
behavior
initiatives
Improving
support for
students w/
EBD
Decreasing
reactive
management
Maximizing
academic
achievement
2001 Surgeon General’s Report on
Youth Violence: Recommendations
• Change social context to break up
antisocial networks
• Improve parent effectiveness
• Increase academic success
• Create positive school climates
• Teach & encourage individual
social skills & competence
School-based Prevention & Youth
Development Programming
Coordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning
Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist
• Teach children social skills directly in real context
• “Foster respectful, supportive relations among
students, school staff, & parents”
• Support & reinforce positive academic & social
behavior through comprehensive systems
• Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs
• Combine classroom & school- & community-wide
efforts
• Precorrect & continue prevention efforts
Characteristics of Safe School
Center for Study & Prevention of Youth Violence
• High academic expectations & performance
• High levels of parental & community involvement
• Effective leadership by administrators & teachers
• A few clearly understood & uniformly enforced,
rules
• Social skills instruction, character education &
good citizenship.
• After school – extended day programs
Lessons Learned: White House
Conference on School Safety
• Students, staff, & community must have means of
communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable
• Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting studentteacher-family relationships are important
• High rates of academic & social success are
important
• Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school
environment/climate is important for all students
• Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security
guards are insufficient deterrents
It’s not just about behavior!
STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT
Good Teaching
Behavior Management
Increasing District & State Competency and Capacity
Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and Systems
Basics: 4
PBS
Elements
Supporting Social Competence &
Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting
Decision
Making
Supporting
Staff Behavior
PRACTICES
Supporting
Student Behavior
CONTINUUM OF
SCHOOL-WIDE
INSTRUCTIONAL &
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
~5%
~15%
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
~80% of Students
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
SWPBS
Subsystems
Classroom
Non-classroom
Student
Family
School-wide
1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors
3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior
4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging
expected behavior
5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging
inappropriate behavior
6. Procedures for on-going monitoring &
evaluation
Non-classroom
• Positive expectations & routines
taught & encouraged
• Active supervision by all staff
– Scan, move, interact
• Precorrections & reminders
• Positive reinforcement
Classroom
• Classroom-wide positive expectations taught
& encouraged
• Teaching classroom routines & cues taught &
encouraged
• Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adultstudent interaction
• Active supervision
• Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior
errors
• Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
• Effective academic instruction & curriculum
Individual Student
• Behavioral competence at school & district
levels
• Function-based behavior support planning
• Team- & data-based decision making
• Comprehensive person-centered planning &
wraparound processes
• Targeted social skills & self-management
instruction
• Individualized instructional & curricular
accommodations
Family
• Continuum of positive behavior
support for all families
• Frequent, regular positive contacts,
communications, &
acknowledgements
• Formal & active participation &
involvement as equal partner
• Access to system of integrated
school & community resources
Sample Teaming Matrix
Initiative,
Committee
Purpose
Outcome
Target
Group
Staff
Involved
SIP/SID
Attendance
Committee
Increase
attendance
Increase % of
students attending
daily
All students
Eric, Ellen,
Marlee
Goal #2
Character
Education
Improve
character
Improve character
All students
Marlee, J.S.,
Ellen
Goal #3
Safety
Committee
Improve safety
Predictable response
to threat/crisis
Dangerous
students
Has not met
Goal #3
School Spirit
Committee
Enhance school
spirit
Improve morale
All students
Has not met
Discipline
Committee
Improve behavior
Decrease office
referrals
Bullies,
antisocial
students,
repeat
offenders
Ellen, Eric,
Marlee, Otis
DARE
Committee
Prevent drug use
High/at-risk
drug users
Don
EBS Work Group
Implement 3-tier
model
All students
Eric, Ellen,
Marlee, Otis,
Emma
Decrease office
referrals, increase
attendance, enhance
academic
engagement, improve
grades
Goal #3
Goal #2
Goal #3
CONTINUUM of SWPBS
Tertiary Prevention
• Function-based support
•
Audit
•
~5%•
1. Identify existing efforts
•
by tier
~15%
2.Prevention
Specify outcome for each effort
Secondary
• Check in/out
3. Evaluate implementation accuracy
•
•
& outcome effectiveness
•
•
4. Eliminate/integrate based on
Primary Prevention
outcomes
• Teach SW Expectations
•
5. Establish
•
•
•
~80% of Students
decision rules (RtI)
GENERAL
IMPLEMENTATION
PROCESS:
“Getting Started”
Team
Agreements
Data-based
Action Plan
Evaluation
Implementation
Team-led Process
Behavioral
Capacity
Priority &
Status
Representation
Team
Data-based
Decision
Making
Administrator
Communications
Top 3 SchoolWide
Initiatives
Coaching &
Facilitation
3-4 Year
Commitment
Agreements &
Supports
Dedicated
Resources
& Time
3-Tiered
Prevention
Logic
Administrative
Participation
Self-Assessment
Efficient
Systems of Data
Management
Team-based
Decision
Making
Data-based
Action Plan
EvidenceBased
Practices
Existing
Discipline
Data
Multiple
Systems
Team Managed
Staff
Acknowledgements
Effective
Practices
Implementation
Continuous
Monitoring
Administrator
Participation
Staff Training
& Support
Team-based
Decision Making &
Planning
Relevant &
Measurable
Indicators
Efficient
Input, Storage, &
Retrieval
Evaluation
Continuous
Monitoring
Effective
Visual Displays
Regular
Review
Few positive SW expectations defined,
taught, & encouraged
Expectations
TEACHING
MATRIX
SETTING
All
Settings
Hallways
Playgrounds
Cafeteria
Library/
Computer
Lab
Study,
read,
compute.
Sit in one
spot.
Watch for
your stop.
Assembly
Bus
Respect
Ourselves
Be on task.
Give your
best effort.
Be
prepared.
Walk.
Have a plan.
Eat all your
food.
Select
healthy
foods.
Respect
Others
Be kind.
Hands/feet
to self.
Help/share
with
others.
Use normal
voice
volume.
Walk to
right.
Play safe.
Include
others.
Share
equipment.
Practice
good table
manners
Whisper.
Return
books.
Listen/watch.
Use
appropriate
applause.
Use a quiet
voice.
Stay in your
seat.
Recycle.
Clean up
after self.
Pick up
litter.
Maintain
physical
space.
Use
equipment
properly.
Put litter in
garbage can.
Replace
trays &
utensils.
Clean up
eating
area.
Push in
chairs.
Treat
books
carefully.
Pick up.
Treat chairs
appropriately.
Wipe your
feet.
Sit
appropriately.
Respect
Property
RAH – at Adams City High School
(Respect – Achievement – Honor)
RAH
Classroom
Hallway/
Cafeteria
Bathrooms
Commons
Respect
Be on time; attend
regularly; follow
class rules
Keep location neat,
keep to the right, use
appropriate lang.,
monitor noise level,
allow others to pass
Put trash in cans,
push in your chair,
be courteous to all
staff and students
Keep area clean, put
trash in cans, be
mindful of others’
personal space, flush
toilet
Achievement
Do your best on all
assignments and
assessments, take
notes, ask questions
Keep track of your
belongings, monitor
time to get to class
Check space before
you leave, keep track
of personal
belongings
Be a good example
to other students,
leave the room
better than you
found it
Honor
Do your own work;
tell the truth
Be considerate of
yours and others’
personal space
Keep your own
place in line,
maintain personal
boundaries
Report any graffiti
or vandalism
RAH – Athletics
RAH
Practice
Competitions
Eligibility
Lettering
Team Travel
Respect
Listen to coaches
directions; push
yourself and
encourage
teammates to excel.
Show positive
sportsmanship;
Solve problems in
mature manner;
Positive interactions with refs,
umps, etc.
Show up on time
for every practice
and competition.
Show up on time
for every practice
and competition;
Compete x%.
Take care of your
own possessions
and litter; be where
you are directed to
be.
Achievement
Set example in the
classroom and in
the playing field as
a true achiever.
Set and reach for
both individual and
team goals;
encourage your
teammates.
Earn passing
grades; Attend
school regularly;
only excused
absences
Demonstrate
academic
excellence.
Complete your
assignments missed
for team travel.
Honor
Demonstrate good
sportsmanship and
team spirit.
Suit up in clean
uniforms; Win with
honor and integrity;
Represent your
school with good
conduct.
Show team pride in
and out of the
school. Stay out of
trouble – set a good
example for others.
Suit up for any
competitions you
are not playing.
Show team honor.
Remember you are
acting on behalf of
the school at all
times and
demonstrate team
honor/pride.
Cheer for
teammates.
E’ Ola Pono- to live the proper way
School
Behavioral
Standards
Kuleana
Be
Responsible
Ho’ihi
Be
Respectful
Laulima
Be
Cooperative
Malama
Be Safe
All Settings
Walkways
Playground
Recess
P.E.
Cafeteria
Restrooms
Arrival/
Dismissal
Assembly
Field Trips
п‚·Be on time
п‚·Be prepared w/
necessary supplies
п‚·Be accountable for
choices
п‚·Respond to/complete
tasks
п‚·Keep area clean &
litter free
п‚·Plan ahead
п‚·Walk directly to
destination
п‚·Take care of
equipment/facilities
п‚·Plan appropriate
times for drinks/
restroom visits
п‚·Have lunch
card ready
п‚·Be orderly in all
lines
п‚·Flush
п‚·Turn off water
п‚·Use restroom at
designated times
п‚·Use facilities for
intended purposes
п‚·Have
money/pass
ready
п‚·Be on time
п‚·Listen
attentively
п‚·Keep hands
and feet to
yourself
п‚·Turn in
paperwork/$ on
time
п‚·Wear appropriate
footwear/clothing
п‚·Bring home lunch
п‚·Use appropriate
voice
п‚·Listen to/follow
directions of staff
п‚·Respect self, others
property
п‚·Be polite/use
manners
п‚·Express appreciation
п‚·Accept/respect
differences in people
п‚·Use quiet voices
when classes are
in session
п‚·Be a good sport
п‚·Include others in
your play
п‚·Use proper
table manners
п‚·Eat your own
food
п‚·Observe privacy of
others
п‚·Use polite words
and actions
Listen to JPO’s
supervisors and
bus driver
п‚·Use quiet voice
and polite words
on bus
п‚·Focus on
program
п‚·Sit quietly
п‚·Clap at
appropriate
times
п‚·Care for the field
trip site
п‚·Listen to speakers
п‚·Be helpful
п‚·Participate with a
positive attitude
п‚·Be patient; share/
wait your turn
п‚·Acknowledge others
п‚·Play in designated
areas only
п‚·Keep movement
flowing
п‚·Share equipment
and play space
п‚·Follow rules/
procedures
п‚·Wait patiently/
quietly
п‚·Wait patiently/
quietly
п‚·Enter/exit
vehicles in an
orderly fashion
п‚·Share bus
seats
п‚·Sit properly in
designated area
п‚·Enter/exit in an
orderly fashion
п‚·Remain seated
unless asked to
do otherwise
п‚·Stay with your
chaperone/group
п‚·Immediately report
dangerous situations
п‚·Remain in
designated areas
п‚·Practice healthy
behaviors/universal
precautions
п‚·Use appropriate
footwear
п‚·Follow safety rules in
all areas
п‚·Walk at all times
п‚·Avoid rough,
dangerous play
п‚·Use equipment
properly
п‚·Walk at all
times
п‚·Wash hands
п‚·Chew food
well; don’t rush
п‚·Use designated
restroom
п‚·Walk
п‚·Wait in
designated area
п‚·Remain seated
when riding the
bus
п‚·Watch out for
traffic
п‚·Use crosswalk
only
п‚·Be careful when
approaching or
leaving the stage
area
п‚·Use the buddy
system
п‚·Follow school/bus
rules
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Walkways
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Plan ahead
Walk directly to destination
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Walk quietly when classes are in session
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Keep movement flowing
Share equipment and play space
Malama: Be Safe
Walk at all times
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Playground / Recess / P.E.
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Take care of equipment/facilities
Plan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visits
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Be a good sport
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Follow rules/ procedures
Malama: Be Safe
Avoid rough, dangerous play
Use equipment properly
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Have lunch card ready
Be orderly in all lines
Cafeteria
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Use proper table manners
Eat your own food
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Wait patiently/ quietly
Malama: Be Safe
Walk at all times
Wash hands
Chew food well; don’t rush
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Kuleana: Be Responsible
Turn in paperwork/$ on time
Wear appropriate footwear/clothing
Bring home lunch
Ho’ihi: Be Respectful
Care for the field trip site
Listen to speakers
Laulima: Be Cooperative
Stay with your chaperone/group
Malama: Be Safe
Use the buddy system
Follow school/bus rules
King Kaumualii on Kauai
Field Trips
Character Education
• Easy to change moral knowledge.....
...difficult to change moral conduct
• To change moral conduct...
– Adults must model moral behavior
– Students must experience academic success
– Students must be taught social skills for
success
Acknowledge & Recognize
Acknowledging SW
Expectations: Rationale
• To learn, humans require regular &
frequent feedback on their actions
• Humans experience frequent feedback
from others, self, & environment
– Planned/unplanned
– Desirable/undesirable
• W/o formal feedback to encourage
desired behavior, other forms of
feedback shape undesired behaviors
“Good morning, class!”
Teachers report that when
students are greeted by an
adult in morning, it takes less
time to complete morning
routines & get first lesson
started.
Reinforcement Wisdom!
• “Knowing” or saying “know” does
NOT mean “will do”
• Students “do more” when “doing
works”…appropriate & inappropriate!
• Natural consequences are varied,
unpredictable, undependable,…not
always preventive
Basics Guidelines
1. Know basics & be conceptually grounded
2. Work as team
3. Use data to be strategic
4. Self-assess for relevant/priority outcomes
5. Formalize communications & acknowledgements
6. Model
7. Invest in local capacity
8. Engage in smallest effort to maintain effect
9. Integrate rather than add on
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