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Relapse Prevention Presentation Slides

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Relapse Prevention
G. Alan Marlatt, Ph.D.
University of Washington
Addictive Behaviors Research Center
abrc@u.washington.edu
http://depts.washington.edu/abrc
Contemporary Approaches to
Substance Abuse Treatment
п‚Ў 12-Steps Fellowships - AA, Al-Anon, ACOA, NA, CoDA, SLAA
п‚Ў Traditional Minnesota Model Inpatient Treatment - Detox,
medical supervision, disease model, AA, group, drug education
п‚Ў Intensive Outpatient Minnesota Model Treatment - Medical
supervision, individual sessions, disease model, AA, groups
п‚Ў Therapeutic Communities for Substance Abuse - 24-hour
residential setting, norms, responsibility, encounter groups
 Pharmacological Therapy – Antabuse, methadone, LAMM,
buprenorphine, naltrexone, etc
 Psychological Therapies – Group, couple, and individual therapy
 Behavior Therapy – Aversion therapy, cue exposure, skills training,
contingency management, community reinforcerment
 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy – Relapse Prevention, coping skills
training, cognitive therapy, lifestyle modification
Brickman’s Model of Helping & Coping
Applied to Addictive Behaviors
Is the person responsible for
changing the addictive behavior?
YES
NO
MORAL MODEL
(War on Drugs)
SPIRITUAL MODEL
(AA & 12-Steps)
Relapse = Mistake, Error, or
Temporary Setback
Relapse = Reactivation of
the Progressive Disease
Is the person YES
Relapse = Crime or Lack of
Relapse = Sin or Loss of
responsible
Willpower
Contact with Higher Power
for the
development
of the
COMPENSATORY MODEL
DISEASE MODEL
addictive
(Cognitive-Behavioral) (Heredity & Physiology)
behavior? NO
Biopsychosocial Factors in Development
and Maintenance of Addictive Behaviors
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
Biological vulnerability and genetic predisposition in
interaction with certain facilitating environments create
problems and eventually disease.
Pharmacological impact of excessive use of alcohol and
other drugs on body chemistry, physiology , and the
organ systems of the body.
Tolerance – Increased frequency of use and higher doses
over time.
Withdrawal – Negative effects of cessation of addictive
behaviors.
Higher risk of developing specific physical disorders
(diseases) associated with the chronic and excessive use
of particular substances.
Biopsychosocial Factors in Development
and Maintenance of Addictive Behaviors
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Motivation – Stages of habit initiation and stages of habit
change.
Expectancies – Positive outcomes of drug use and self-efficacy.
Attributions – Effects of substance use and reasons for relapse.
Sensation-Seeking – Excessive need for stimulation
Impulsivity – Inability to effectively control or restrain
behavior.
Negative Affect – Dysphoric moods such as anxiety &
depression.
Poor Coping – Deficits in cognitive and behavioral skills or
inhibitions in the ability to perform behaviors due to the effects
of anxiety.
Biopsychosocial Factors in Development
and Maintenance of Addictive Behaviors
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS
Family History – Dysfunctional family settings especially
parental alcohol and drug problems and parental abuse or
neglect of children.
Peer Influences – Social pressure to engage in risk-taking
behaviors including substance use especially when related to
gang membership.
Culture and Ethnic Background – Norms and religious
beliefs that govern the use of alcohol and drugs and ethnic
variations the body’s rate and efficiency of metabolizing
drugs and alcohol.
Media/Advertising – Societal emphasis on immediate
gratification and glorification of the effects of alcohol and
drug use.
Analysis of High-Risk Situations for Relapse
Alcoholics, Smokers, and Heroin Addicts
Alcoholics
(N=70)
Smokers
(N=35)
Heroin
Addicts
(N=32)
TOTAL
Sample
(N=137)
38%
43%
28%
37%
Negative Physical States
3%
-
9%
4%
Positive Emotional States
-
8%
16%
6%
Testing Personal Control
9%
-
-
4%
Urges and Temptations
11%
6%
-
8%
TOTAL
61%
57%
53%
59%
Interpersonal Conflict
18%
12%
13%
15%
Social Pressure
18%
25%
34%
24%
3%
6%
-
3%
39%
43%
47%
42%
RELAPSE SITUATION
(Risk Factor)
INTRAPERSONAL DETERMINANTS
Negative Emotional States
INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS
Positive Emotional States
TOTAL
“Let’s just go in and see what
happens.”
Analysis of High-Risk Situations for Relapse
Alcoholics, Smokers, Heroin Addicts, Compulsive Gamblers, and Overeaters
Alcoholics
(N=70)
Smokers
(N=64)
Heroin
Addicts
(N=129)
Gamblers
(N=29)
Overeaters
(N=29)
TOTAL
Sample
(N=311)
Negative Emotional States
38%
37%
19%
47%
33%
35%
Negative Physical States
3%
2%
9%
-
-
3%
Positive Emotional States
-
6%
10%
-
5%
4%
Testing Personal Control
9%
-
2%
16%
-
5%
Urges and Temptations
11%
5%
5%
16%
10%
9%
TOTAL
61%
50%
45%
79%
48%
56%
Interpersonal Conflict
18%
15%
14%
16%
14%
16%
Social Pressure
18%
32%
36%
5%
10%
20%
Positive Emotional States
3%
3%
5%
-
28%
8%
TOTAL
39%
50%
55%
21%
52%
44%
RELAPSE SITUATION
(Risk Factor)
INTRAPERSONAL DETERMINANTS
INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS
A Cognitive Behavioral Model of
the Relapse Process
E ffe ctive cop in g
re sp on se
In cre a se d
se lf-e ffica c y
D e cre a se d
p rob a bility o f
re la p se
H ig h-R isk
S itu atio n
In e ffe ctive
cop in g re sp on se
D e cre a se d
S e lf-e ffica c y
В¤
P ositi ve ou t co m e
E xpe ct a n cie s
(fo r i niti al e ffe ct s o f
the s ub st an ce )
La p se
(in itia l u se o f th e
su bsta n c e )
In cre a se d
p rob a bility o f
re la p se
A b stin en ce
Viola tion E ffe ct
В¤
P e rce ive d e ffe cts
of th e su b stan ce
Relapse Prevention: Specific Intervention Strategies
S e lf-M o nitorin g
В¤
Inv e ntor y o f
D ru g -Ta k ing S itu a tion s
В¤
D ru g Ta k ing
C o n fide n c e
Q u e stion na ir e
H ig h-R is k
S itu a tio n
D escription of
P ast R elap ses
В¤
R elapse F an tasies
M ediation ,
R elax ation Train in g,
S tress M anagem en t
В¤
E ffica cy-E n h an cin g
Im ager y
In effectiv e
C op in g
R esp o ns e
D ecr ea sed
S elf-E ffica c y
В¤
P ositive
O u tcom e
E x p ectan cies
S itu ation al
C om p eten cy Test
В¤
C op in g-S k ill
Trainin g
В¤
C on tract to lim it
ex ten t of u se
В¤
R em in der C ard
(w h at to d o if
you h ave slip )
L a p se
E d u cation ab ou t
im m ediate vs.
d elayed effects
В¤
D ecision M atrix
A b stin en c e
Vio la tion E ffect
C o gn itive
R estru cturin g
(a lap se is a m istak e:
cop in g vs.
Skill-Training with Alcoholics:
One- Year Follow-Up Results
Days of Continuous Drinking
60
SD = 62.2
p < .05
40
20
0
SD = 6.9
Skill training
(Mean = 5.1)
Combined Controls
(Mean = 44.0)
Skill-Training with Alcoholics:
One- Year Follow-Up Results
Number of Drinks Consumed
2000
1500
1000
SD = 2218.4
p < .05
SD = 507.8
500
0
Skill training
Combined Controls
(Mean = 399.8)
(Mean = 1592.8)
Skill-Training with Alcoholics:
One- Year Follow-Up Results
Days Drunk
80
SD = 17.8
60
p < .05
40
SD = 17.8
20
0
Skill training
(Mean = 11.1)
Combined Controls
(Mean = 64.0)
Skill-Training with Alcoholics:
One- Year Follow-Up Results
Controlled Drinking
6
SD = 17.8
P = N.S.
4
SD = 2.6
2
0
Skill training
Combined Controls
(Mean = 4.9)
(Mean = 1.2)
Empirical Support:
Review of 24 RCTs
Kathleen M. Carroll (1996)
Relapse Prevention:
• Does not usually prevent a lapse better than other active
treatments, but is more effective at “Relapse Management,” i.e.
delaying first lapse and reducing duration and intensity of lapses
• Particularly effective at maintaining treatment effects over long
term follow-up measurements of 1-2 years or more
• “Delayed emergence effects” in which greater improvement in
coping occurs over time
• May be most effective for “more impaired substance abusers
including those with more severe levels of substance abuse,
greater levels of negative affect, and greater perceived deficits in
coping skills.” (Carroll, 1996, p.52)
Empirical Support: Meta-Analytic Review
Irvin, Bowers, Dunn & Wang (1999)
• Reviewed 17 controlled studies to evaluate overall
effectiveness of the RP model as a substance abuse
treatment
• Statistically identified moderator variables that may
reliably impact the outcome of RP treatment
• “Results indicate that RP is highly effective for both
alcohol-use and substance-use disorders”
Empirical Support: Meta-Analytic Review
Irvin, Bowers, Dunn & Wang (1999)
Moderator Variables with Significant Impact on RP Effectiveness:

Group format more effective than individual therapy format

More effective as “stand alone” than as aftercare

Inpatient settings yielded better outcomes than outpatient

Stronger treatment effects on self-reported use than on
physiological measures

While effective across all categories of substance use disorders,
stronger treatment effects found for substance abuse than alcohol
abuse
Relapse Prevention Recognition
The “Black and White” Model of Relapse
A bstinence
R elapse
T hin Line
The Abstinence Violation Effect
п‚Ў Emotional- guilt, blame, failure, etc.
п‚Ў Cognitive- Internal, stable,global, uncontrollable
п‚Ў Self-awareness increase
п‚Ў Comparison to Internalized Standardsgreater difference, more guilt
п‚Ў Behavioral Reaction- dominant habitual
response
п‚Ў Cognitive Reaction- resolve discrepancy
Relapse Prevention
Specific Intervention Strategies
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
What to do if a lapse occurs
Stop, Look, and Listen
Keep Calm
Renew Your Commitment
Implement your Relapse Prevention
plan
Ask For Help
Review the situation leading-up to the
lapse
RELAPSE PREVENTION
Specific Intervention Strategies
Coping with Lapses
(Initial Use of a Substance)
п‚Ў Relapse Plan with Emergency Procedures
п‚Ў Relapse Contract to limit extent of use
п‚Ў Relapse Reminder Card
“What do I do in case of a lapse?”
Decision Matrix
A L C O H O L A B S T IN E N C E
P O S IT IV E
N E G AT IV E
Im m ed iate C o n seq u ences
Im pr oved
s elf- effic ac y,
c onfid enc e
an d es teem ;
fam ily ap pr ov al;
b etter h ealth ;
fin anc ial g ains ;
c ontinu ed s uc c es s
F rus tr ation ;
d enial of
pleas ur e;
an g er at
on es elf f or
n ot d oing
w h at on e w ants
D ela yed C o n seq u ences
E nh anc ed ab ility
to c ontr ol
on e’s lif e;
m or e m on ey;
m or e r es p ec t;
gr eater
p opu lar ity
D en ial of
im m ediate
an d s eem in gly
eas y
gr atific ation
A LC O HO L USE
P O S IT IV E
N E G AT IV E
Im m ed iate C o n seq u ences
Im m ediate
r ed uc tion of
an xiety; r ev en g e
ag ains t on e’s
s p ous e; b etter
feeling ab ou t w or k;
im m ediate
gr atific ation
F eeling th at
on e h as
los t c ontr ol;
an g er at fam ily
an d em ploy er;
fin anc ial los s ;
w eak n es s
D ela yed C o n seq u ences
F eeling as th oug h
on e is
c aug ht in a
fog , s o on e
d oes n’t h a ve
to d eal w ith
r eality
C ontin u ed
d eterior ation ;
los s of on e’s
fam ily; los s of
on e’s em p loym en t;
p oor h ealth;
los s of frien ds ;
gr eater s elf-h atr ed
Stages of Change in Substance Abuse &
Dependence: Intervention Strategies
M a in ten an ce
S ta g e
P r econ tem p la tion
S ta g e
C on tem plation
S ta g e
P r ep ara tion
S ta g e
A ction
S ta g e
R ela p se
S ta g e
M otiva tion al
E n h an cem en t
S tra teg ies
A sses sm en t
& Tr eatm en t
M a tch in g
R ela p se
P r even tion
& R ela p se
M an a g em en t
Thank You.
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