close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

The Writing Process

код для вставкиСкачать
The Writing Process
Brenham Writing Room
Created by D. Herring
Stages of the Writing Process
пЃ®
There are several stages to the
Writing Process. Each stage is
essential.
Prewriting
пЃ¬ Writing (Drafting)
пЃ¬ Revising
пЃ¬ Editing
пЃ¬
I. Prewriting
пЃ®
пЃ®
Choose/narrow your topic
Determine your
Audience
пЃ® Purpose
пЃ® Tone
пЃ® Point-of-view
пЃ® Tense
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Explore your topic
Make a plan
Choose/Narrow Your Topic
пЃ®
Your topic should pass the 3question test:
1.
Does it interest me?
2.
Do I have something to say
about it?
3.
Is it specific?
Determine Your Audience
пЃ®
пЃ®
Your Audience is composed of
those who will read your writing.
Ask yourself:
Who are my readers?
пЃ¬ What do my readers know about
my topic?
пЃ¬ What do my readers need to know
about my topic?
пЃ¬ How do my readers feel about my
topic?
пЃ¬
Audience continued. . .
пЃ¬
What do my readers expect?
Standard Written English
пЃ® Correct grammar and spelling
пЃ® Accurate information
пЃ® Logical presentation of ideas
пЃ® Followed directions of the
assignment!!!
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
What are my length requirements?
What is my time limit?
What does the assignment consist of?
Is research required?
What format should be used?
Determine Your Purpose
пЃ®
пЃ®
Purpose is the reason you are
writing.
Whenever you write, you always
have a purpose. Most writing fits
into one of 3 categories:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ®
Expressive Writing
Informative Writing
Persuasive Writing
More than one of these may be
used, but one will be primary.
Determine Tone
пЃ®
Tone is the mood or attitude you
adopt as you write.
пЃ¬
Serious or frivolous/humorous?
пЃ¬
Intimate or detached?
Determine Point-of-View
пЃ®
пЃ®
Point-of-view is the perspective
from which you write an essay.
There are 3 points-of-view:
First person—”I, we”
 Second person—”you”
 Third person—”he, she, they”
пЃ¬
пЃ®
One of the most common errors
in writing occurs when the writer
shifts point-of-view
unnecessarily!
Determine Tense
пЃ®
Tense is the voice you use to
designate the time of the action
or state of being.
Present tense
пЃ¬ Past tense
пЃ¬ Future tense
пЃ¬
Explore Your Topic
пЃ®
Pre-writing Techniques:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Brainstorming/Listing
Freewriting
Clustering/Mapping
Questioning
Discussing
Outlining
Make a Plan
пЃ®
Before you begin drafting your
essay, you should make a plan
(a roadmap).
пЃ¬
Review, evaluate, and organize
ideas written in your pre-writing;
then make a plan for your essay’s
Thesis statement
пЃ® Support
пЃ® Order
пЃ® Structure
пЃ®
Thesis Statement
пЃ®
The thesis statement expresses
the MAIN IDEA of your essay,
the central point that your essay
develops/supports.
Thesis continued. . .
пЃ®
Your thesis SHOULD:
Accurately predict your essay’s
direction, emphasis, and scope
пЃ¬ Make no promises that the essay
will not fulfill
пЃ¬ Be direct and straightforward
пЃ¬ NOT be an announcement,
statement of opinion, or statement
of fact.
пЃ¬
Support
пЃ®
Be sure to evaluate the
information in your prewriting
carefully in order to choose the
best support for your topic.
Primary Support—major ideas or
examples that back up your main
points
 Secondary Support—details which
further explain your primary
support
пЃ¬
Support continued. . .
пЃ®
Basics of good support
Relates to main point
пЃ¬ Considers readers, i.e. provides
enough information
пЃ¬ Is detailed and specific
пЃ¬
Order
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Order is the sequence in
which you present your ideas.
There are 3 types of order:
Time (chronological) order
пЃ¬ Space order
пЃ¬ Emphatic order (order of
importance: least-to-most, mostto-least)
пЃ¬
Structure/Organization
пЃ®
пЃ®
Consider how your essay will
be organized; then create an
Outline.
Sample Outline of standard
5-paragraph essay:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Introduction
Body Paragraph 1
Body Paragraph 2
Body Paragraph 3
Conclusion
II. Writing
пЃ®
During the Writing Stage, you
should
Create your essay’s Title
пЃ¬ Compose a draft
пЃ¬
A Draft is the first whole version of all
your ideas put together; it’s a “dress
rehearsal.”
пЃ® You should plan to revise your Draft
several times throughout the writing
process.
пЃ®
Creating Your Title
пЃ®
Your essay’s title should:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ®
Be original
Be a reasonable length
Reflect your topic
Be lively and attention-getting
Your title should NOT:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Be generic/repeat the assignment
Be in ALL CAPS
Be in boldface, “quotation marks,”
underlined, or italicized
Be followed by a period
Titles, continued
пЃ®
Capitalization Rules for Titles:
Always capitalize the first letter of
the first word and the last word.
пЃ¬ Capitalize the first letter of each
“important” word in between the
first and last words.
пЃ¬
Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the)
пЃ® Do not capitalize coordinating
conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
пЃ® Do not capitalize prepositions (on, at,
in, off, etc.)
пЃ®
Effective vs. Ineffective Titles
пЃ®
пЃ®
Topic: Cheating in College
Effective Titles:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ®
Cheaters Never Win!
Cheating in Higher Education
Why Do Students Cheat?
Ineffective Titles:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Don’t Do It!
Cheating
Students Cheat for Many Different
Reasons.
Writing a Draft
пЃ®
Basics of a good draft:
Has a fully developed introduction
and conclusion
пЃ¬ Has fully developed body
paragraphs, each containing a
topic sentence, at least two
examples, and detailed support
пЃ¬ Follows standard structure and
uses complete sentences
пЃ¬
Write Your Introduction
пЃ®
Your introductory paragraph
should do the following:
Be a minimum of 4-6 sentences
пЃ¬ Tell the audience what to expect
from your discussion (thesis)
пЃ¬ Move from general to specific, with
the thesis as the last sentence in
the intro
 Get the reader’s attention
пЃ¬ Set the tone for the rest of the
essay
пЃ¬
Introduction, continued
пЃ®
Strategies for developing an
Introduction include
Providing background information
пЃ¬ Telling a personal anecdote
пЃ¬ Beginning with a quotation
пЃ¬ Using an opposite
пЃ¬ Asking a question
пЃ¬
Write Your Body Paragraphs
пЃ®
пЃ®
Each body paragraph should
develop one of the specific points
mentioned in the thesis.
Each BP should contain:
Topic Sentence—main idea of BP
 Primary Support—examples
 Secondary Support—details
пЃ¬
Body Paragraphs: Topic Sentence
пЃ®
пЃ®
A Topic Sentence expresses the
main idea of the body paragraph.
Begin each body paragraph with a
Topic Sentence that
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Narrows the focus of the paragraph
Accurately predicts the direction of the
paragraph
Refers back to the Thesis statement
Body Paragraphs continued
пЃ®
Body paragraphs must have
Unity—everything refers back to
main point
 Support—examples and details
 Coherence—all points connect to
form a whole; one point leads to
another
пЃ¬
Body Paragraphs: Unity
пЃ®
Unity is achieved when
everything refers back to the
main point
ALL SENTENCES SHOULD
RELATE BACK TO TOPIC
SENTENCE & THESIS.
пЃ¬ Do not include any ideas that are
irrelevant or off-topic.
пЃ¬
Body Paragraphs: Support
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Support is achieved through
adequate examples and details.
Each body paragraph should include
at least two examples to support the
main idea of the paragraph.
Each example should include at
least one specific detail that further
illustrates the point.
Body Paragraphs: Coherence
пЃ®
пЃ®
Coherence is achieved when all
points connect to form a whole;
one point leads to another.
Coherence is mainly achieved
through the use of transitions.
пЃ¬
Transitions—words & phrases
which connect your sentences so
that your writing flows smoothly.
Write Your Conclusion
пЃ®
The concluding paragraph
should
Contain a minimum of 4
sentences
пЃ¬ Refer back to the main point, but
not simply repeat the thesis
пЃ¬ Make an observation on what is
written
пЃ¬ NOT introduce any new ideas
пЃ¬ Create a sense of closure
пЃ¬
III. Revising
пЃ®
пЃ®
Revising is finding & correcting
problems with content; changing the
ideas in your writing to make them
clearer, stronger, and more
convincing.
Revising looks at the “Big Picture”—
the Idea level.
Revision Strategies
пЃ®
Look for
пЃ¬
Unity
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ¬
Detail and support
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ¬
Does everything refer back to main point?
Does each topic sentence refer to the thesis?
Does each sentence in each BP refer back to the
topic sentence?
Does each BP contain at least two examples?
Is each example followed by at least one
supporting detail?
Coherence
пЃ®
пЃ®
Are all points connect to form a whole?
Are transitions used to move from one idea to the
next?
Revision Tips
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Take a break from your draft
before attempting to revise.
Read your draft out loud and
listen to your words.
Imagine yourself as your reader.
Look for consistent problem
areas.
Get feedback from peers.
Get help from a tutor!
IV. Editing
пЃ®
пЃ®
Editing is finding and correcting
problems with grammar, style,
word choice & usage, and
punctuation.
Editing focuses on the “Little
Picture”—Word level.
Editing Strategies
пЃ®
пЃ®
Keep an Error Log to help you
identify your problem areas and
improve your writing.
When editing, review your paper
for one type of error at a time;
don’t try to read through looking
for everything at once.
Editing Tips
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Work with a clean printed copy,
double-spaced to allow room to
mark corrections.
Read your essay backwards.
Be cautious of spell-check and
grammar-check.
Read your essay out loud.
Get feedback from peers.
Work with a tutor!
Self-Review
пЃ®
пЃ®
You should never move to peer
review without first completing a selfreview (revising & editing); you want
your peer to look for mistakes that
you were unable to catch yourself!
After you have reviewed your own
work, make the necessary
corrections and print a clean, revised
copy before moving on to peer
review.
Peer-Review
пЃ®
пЃ®
It is important to make the peer
review process useful.
Basics of useful feedback:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
It is given in a positive way
It is specific
It offers suggestions
It is given both verbally and in writing
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
13
Размер файла
472 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа