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Accommodations and Modifications:
Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff
Implementation in the Era of High Standards
Presented by:
Diana Browning Wright
Diagnostic Center, Southern California
But first, a word from our sponsors…
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diagnostic Centers
California Department of Education
DEL
N O RT E
S IS K IY O U
M OD O C
S H A S TA
T R IN I T Y
пЃ®
Diagnostic Center, South
пЃ® 4339 State University Drive
пЃ® Los Angeles, CA 90032
LA S S E N
H U M BO LD T
TEH AM A
PLUMAS
G LE N N
M E N D O CI N O
BU TT E
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Y O LO
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A L P IN E
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SAC R AM EN TO
C O N TR A
C O S TA
M A R IN
AM ADO R
пЃ®
C A L AV E R A S
DCN
SAN
M AT E O
S A N TA
C LA RA
ALAMEDA
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CRUZ
SAN
J OA QU IN
T U O LO M N E
S TA N I S LA U S
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B E N IT O
M A R IP O S A
пЃ®
M ON O
M ERCED
M ADERA
DCC
M ON T ER EY
FR ESN O
TU L AR E
K IN G S
IN Y O
SAN
LU I S
O B IS P O
KERN
(N or th & W es t)
KERN
(S o uth & E a st )
S A N TA
BARBARA
S A N B E R N A R D IN O
LO S A N G E LE S
VEN TU R A
DCS
R IV E R S ID E
O RANG E
SAN DIEG O
IM P E R IA L
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
(323) 222-8090
www.dcs-cde.ca.gov
Diagnostic Centers provide:
пЃ®
Continuum of assessment services
for students with special needs
пЃ® Training and consultation to LEAs:
SELPAs, Districts, and County Offices
of Education
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Who am I?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
And who are you?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
PENT? Cadre Members?
www.pent.ca.gov
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Today’s Agenda
Effective Differentiated Instruction
What we know about instruction for all
students—a 30 year summary
Review Terms & Concepts
Accommodations
Modifications
Differentiated Instruction
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Today’s Agenda (continued)
Practice
Types of Accommodations
Review a case study
Discuss Nuances of Application and
Implementation Barriers
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Self Study Materials
пЃ® The Learning Strengths Project
How to engage students in their accommodation
plans
пЃ® Input/Output Adaptations and Differentiated
Instruction
A review of what we NOW know about struggling
learners
пЃ® Write accommodation plans integrating what
we know about teaching and learning
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
To be able to “differentiate
instruction” and plan
“accommodations or modifications,”
we first must need know what
constitutes effective instruction!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Introduction: Reviewing Advances
in Research on Instruction
From a Pivotal Paper by:
Barak Rosenshine
University of Illinois at Urbana
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
The Most Important Instructional
Advancements of the Last 30 Years
I.
Research on cognitive processing
II. Research on teacher effects, that is,
studies of teachers whose classes made
the highest achievement gain compared
to other classes
III. Intervention studies in which students
were taught cognitive strategies they
could apply to their learning
From three bodies of research discussed in J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating
students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
1. Findings from Research on
Cognitive Processing:
The Importance of Well-Connected
Knowledge Structures
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Knowledge Structures
Information in our long-term memory
is stored in interconnected networks
A Well-Connected Network is important for
processing information and solving problems:
пЃ® The size of these structures
пЃ® The number of connections
between pieces of knowledge
пЃ® The strength of the connections
пЃ® The organization and richness
of the relationships
Diana
Browning
Wright, Teaching
and(Eds.)
Learning
Trainings,
J.W.
Lloyd,
E.J. Kameanui,
and D. Chard
(1997)
Issues in 2005
educating students with disabilities.
Well-Connected Network means:
Any one piece of information can serve to help
retrieve the entire pattern.
пЃ® Strong connections and a richness of
relationships
пЃ®
enables one to retrieve more pieces
of the pattern
пЃ® When information is "meaningful"
пЃ® more points in their knowledge
structures to attach new information
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What is Education?
A process of developing, enlarging,
expanding, and refining our students'
knowledge structures.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Importance of Well-Connected and
Elaborate Knowledge Structures
пЃ® Allow for easier retrieval of old
material
пЃ® Permit more information to be
carried in a single chunk
пЃ® Facilitate the understanding
and integration of new
information.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Three Important Instructional
Implications
пЃ® Need to help students develop
background knowledge
пЃ® Importance of student
processing
пЃ® Importance of organizers
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities. 11
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Enhancing Background
Knowledge
Background Knowledge helps students
develop well-connected bodies of knowledge
пЃ® Provide extensive reading, review,
practice, and discussion
пЃ® Helps students increase the
number of pieces of information in
long-term memory
пЃ® Organize those pieces
пЃ® Increase the strength and
number of interconnections.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What do you need to know?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Information Processing
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
I. Cognitive Processing Research
Findings:
All Teachers Must Support
All Students By:
пЃ® Providing for extensive
reading of a variety of
materials
пЃ® Frequent review and testing
пЃ® Discussion and application
activities.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Opportunity to Process Information
Key for Achieving High
Outcomes
пЃ® New material is stored
in the long-term
memory when one
processes it.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Opportunity to Process Information
Key for Achieving High Outcomes
 “Quality of storage” can depend on the "level of
processing." Examples:
пЃ® Highest: summarize or compare the material
in the passage rather than simply reading it.
пЃ®
Middle: read the passage and focus on its
meaning
пЃ®
Lowest: read a passage and count the
number of times the word "the" appeared
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
How We Teach Makes A Difference!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
How We Teach Makes A Difference!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Processing of New Material
Takes place through a variety of activities
пЃ® Review
пЃ® Comparing
пЃ® Contrasting
пЃ® Drawing connections
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Processing Helps Strengthen
Knowledge Structures
Processing asks students to:
пЃ® organize information,
пЃ® summarize information, or
пЃ® compare new material
with prior material
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Examples of Processing Activities
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Extensive reading of a variety of materials
Explain the new material to someone else
Write questions/answer questions
Write daily summaries
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Processing Activities (continued)
пЃ® Apply the ideas to a new
situation
пЃ® Give a new example
пЃ® Compare and contrast the new
material to other material.
пЃ® Study for an exam
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Understanding Is Especially
Strengthened When:
The student explains, elaborates,
or defend his/her position to others
“The burden of explanation is often the push
needed to make him/her evaluate, integrate,
and elaborate knowledge in new ways.”
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Help Students Organize Their
Knowledge
пЃ® Without direction, students might
develop a fragmented, incomplete, or
erroneous knowledge structure.
пЃ® Teachers must help students
organize the new material.
 “Graphic organizers," are
organizing structures for
expository material
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
I. Cognitive Processing Summary
Processing results in development of wellconnected knowledge structures
пЃ® Develop these by extensive reading and
practice, processing new information, and
organizing new knowledge
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
II. Research on Teacher Effects
20 to 30 procedures studied, including:
пЃ® Use of praise
пЃ® Use of criticism
пЃ® The number and type of
questions that were asked
пЃ® Quality of the student answers
пЃ® Responses of a teacher to a student's
answers
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Procedures by Teachers of
High Achievers:
The “most- effective teachers” in
studies:
пЃ® Begin a lesson with a short review of
previous learning.
пЃ® Begin a lesson with a short statement of
goals.
пЃ® Present new material in small steps,
providing for student practice after each step.
пЃ® Give clear and detailed instructions and
explanations.
Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997)
Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Procedures by Teachers of High
Achievers (continued)
пЃ® Provide a high level of active
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
practice for all students.
Ask a large number of questions, check for
student understanding, and obtain responses
from all students.
Guide students during initial practice.
Provide systematic feedback and corrections.
Provide explicit instruction and practice for
seatwork exercises and, where necessary,
monitor students during seatwork.
Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997)
Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
II. Three Findings on Teacher
Effectiveness
пЃ® The importance of teaching in small
steps
пЃ® The importance of guiding student
practice
пЃ® The importance of extensive practice, is
shared with the research on cognitive
processing.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Present New Material in Small Steps
пЃ® Most-effective teachers -- taught new
material in small steps; presented small parts
of new material at a single time, and after
presenting the material, guide students in
practicing the material that was taught.
пЃ® Least-effective teachers -- present an entire
lesson, and then pass out worksheets and tell
students to work the problems.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Guided Student Practice
It is not sufficient to present a lesson and
then ask students to practice on their
own.
пЃ® Least-effective teachers with lowest
student achievement
пЃ® present an entire lesson
пЃ® pass out worksheets
пЃ® tell the students to work the problems
Many students are confused and make
errors on the worksheets.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Guided Student Practice
The most-effective teachers -- teachers whose
classes made the greatest gains, -- teach
differently.
пЃ® Present only some of the material at a time, i.e.,
small steps
пЃ® Then use guided student practice as a model, e.g.
пЃ® teacher works a few problems at the board
пЃ® discusses the steps out loud
пЃ® asks students to come to the board and work
problems then discuss their procedures
пЃ® others students see the modeling of problem
solving
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teachers Guide Practice by:
пЃ® CHECKING the answers of the
entire class in order to see whether
some students need additional
instruction.
пЃ® ASKING students to work together,
in pairs or in groups, to quiz and explain the
material to each other.
Timing: May occur when a teacher
questions and helps a class with
their work before assigning
independent practice.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
“Getting the Gist”
The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive
Processing
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Gist Construction Errors
пЃ® Are attempts to be logical with weak
background knowledge
 Without a knowledgeable “guide”-- danger
of student misconceptions!
пЃ® Solution: Limit development of
misconceptions
пЃ® by guiding practice
пЃ® after teaching small amounts of new
material
пЃ® with frequent checking for student
understanding
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Gist Construction Errors
Who Make Gist Construction Errors Most
Frequently?
Billy
Dolores
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Bruce
Learning Strengths Project
“Humiliation Protection” Affects
Coping Skills
The number one step in effective
support of students with learning
differences/disorders
The student must feel entirely safe
from humiliation and its lethal effects
пѓ� excessive negative comments
пѓ� conspicuous negative
comments
пѓ� policies that openly expose or
stigmatize
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Learning Strengths Project
“Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills
Negative practices result in serious complications
пѓ� behavioral
пѓ� motivational
пѓ� affective
…AND THEY DON’T WORK!
Diana
Wright,
Teaching
and2002
Learning Trainings, 2005
DianaBrowning
Browning
Wright,
DCS
Guided Practice Instructional Strategy
Matches Cognitive Processing Findings
During cognitive processing activities, designed
by the teacher, the student organizes, reviews,
rehearses, summarizes, compares, contrasts
“Most-effective teachers”—use activities to
check the understanding of all, provide
opportunity for processing for all
“Least-effective teachers” —ask a question, call
on one student to answer, assume everyone
learned the point
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Summary:
Most-Effective Teachers
пЃ® Present smaller amounts
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
of material at any time
Guide student practice as students
worked problems
Provide for student processing of the new
material
Check the understanding of all students
Attempt to prevent students from
developing misconceptions
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Most-Effective Teachers
Provide Extensive Practice
 Cognitive processing research’s
conclusion - students need extensive
practice in order to develop wellconnected networks.
пЃ® Assure practice takes
place only after
sufficient guided practice,
students then don’t practice
errors and misconceptions
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
III. Intervention Studies on
Teaching Cognitive Strategies
Students were taught cognitive strategies to
apply to their learning
 “Cognitive strategies” defined:
пЃ® Guiding procedures to help students
complete less-structured tasks, e.g.,
reading comprehension and writing.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
“Well-Structured” Academic Tasks
Tasks can be broken down
into a fixed sequence of
subtasks with steps that
consistently lead to the same
goal.
пЃ® Steps are concrete and visible.
пЃ® A specific, predictable algorithm can
be followed.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
“Well-Structured” Academic Tasks
(continued)
пЃ®
Enables students to obtain the
same result each time they
perform the algorithmic operations.
пЃ®
Taught by teaching each step of the
algorithm to students.
пЃ®
Research on teacher effects helps us learn
how to teach students algorithms they can
use to complete “well-structured tasks.”
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Contrasting “Less-Structured”
Tasks
 Termed: “higher-level tasks”
пЃ® Examples: reading
comprehension, writing, and
study skills cannot be broken down into a
fixed sequence of subtasks and steps that
consistently and unfailingly lead to the
goal.
 No fixed sequence as in “wellstructured” tasks.
 Can’t develop algorithms students use
to complete these tasks.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Devastating Conclusion of Research
“Little evidence of instruction of any kind
was observed in the classes.”
пЃ® What was/is happening?
пЃ® Teachers spend most of their time---
assigning activities,
пЃ® Monitoring to be sure the pupils are on
task,
пЃ® Directing recitation sessions to assess
how well children are doing
пЃ® Providing corrective feed back in
response to pupil errors.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Wasn’t Observed or
Was Seldom Observed?
пЃ® Teaching in which a teacher
presents a skill, a strategy,
or a process to students,
пЃ® Shows students how to do it,
пЃ® Provides assistance as they initiate
attempts to perform the task
пЃ® Assures students they can be
successful
How will this affect “adequate yearly
progress”?
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
No Child Left Behind!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What a cognitive strategy is NOT
пЃ® A direct procedure
пЃ® An algorithm to be
precisely followed
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What a cognitive strategy IS
пЃ® A guide that serves to support or facilitate the
learner as s/he develops internal procedures
that enable them to perform the higher level
operations.
пЃ® Ex. Teaching students to generate
questions about their reading
пЃ® But, generating questions does not
directly lead, in a step-by-step
manner, to comprehension.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
How the Cognitive Strategy of
Generating Questions Works
пЃ® In the process of generating
questions, students must
пЃ® search the text
пЃ® combine information,
пЃ® These processes serve to help
students comprehend what they
read.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Comprehensive Summary of
Interventions
See Pressley et al. (1995) for:
пЃ® Intervention studies-in reading, writing,
mathematics, and science,
combined with
пЃ® description of the cognitive strategies and
instructional procedures
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Surprise!
Teaching is a Science
AND
Teaching is an Art
Scope and Sequence Counts!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Cognitive Apprenticeship
The instructional process by which teachers
provide and support students with scaffolds
as the students develop cognitive strategies.
пЃ® Students need apprenticeships of different
durations
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Cognitive Strategies Provide a
Scaffold
пЃ® A scaffold is a temporary
support used to assist a
learner during initial
learning.
пЃ® Provided by the teacher to
help students bridge the gap
between current abilities
and the goal.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Common Cognitive Strategies
Providing A Scaffold
пЃ® Simplified problems
пЃ® Modeling of the procedures
by the teacher
пЃ® Thinking aloud by the teacher
as s/he solves the problem, prompts,
provides suggestions, and guidance as
students work problems.
пЃ® A model of the completed task against
which students can compare their work
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Fast Facts On Scaffolds
пЃ® "The metaphor of a scaffold
captures the idea--an adjustable and
temporary support that can be removed
when no longer necessary"
пЃ® Assists the learner in learning a cognitive
process, gradually withdrawn or faded as
learners become more independent
пЃ® Some students may continue to rely on
scaffolds when they encounter particularly
difficult problems.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Scaffolds to Teach
Cognitive Strategies
пЃ® Can be applied to the teaching
of all skills
пЃ® Use especially for higher-level
cognitive strategies
пЃ® Thirteen major instructional elements
have been identified for teachers
to use to teach cognitive strategies.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
13 Instructional Elements in
Teaching Cognitive Strategies
1. Provide procedural prompts specific to the
strategy being taught.
When and how should the strategy be used?
2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small
steps.
3. Provide models of appropriate responses.
4. Think aloud as choices are being made
5. Anticipate potential difficulties.
6. Regulate the difficulty of the material.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
13 Instructional Elements in
Teaching Cognitive Strategies
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Provide a cue card
Guide student practice.
Provide feedback and corrections.
Provide and teach a checklist.
Provide independent practice
Increase student responsibilities.
Assess student mastery.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
1. Provide Procedural Prompts
or Facilitators
пЃ® These procedural prompts supply the
students with specific procedures or
suggestions that facilitate the completion
of the task.
пЃ® The words "who," "what" "why" "where"
"when" and "how" are procedural prompts
that help students learn the cognitive
strategy of asking questions about the
material they have read.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Question Stems
 Are scaffolds used to aid the learners’
acquisition of information
пЃ® Provide a procedural map for what to do with
lots of details
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Sentence Stems to Scaffold
Learning
пЃ® How are _____ and _____ alike?
пЃ® What is the main idea of __________?
пЃ® What do you think would happen if
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
__________?
What are the strengths and weakness of
__________ ?
In what way is _____ related to ______ ?
How does _____ affect _____?
Compare _____ and _____ with regard to
________.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Sentence Stems to Scaffold
Learning
пЃ® What do you think causes __________?
пЃ® How does _____ tie in with what we have
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
learned before?
Which one is the best _____ and why?
What are some possible solutions for the
problem of _____?
Do you agree or disagree with this statement:
__________? Support your answer.
What do I (you) still not understand about . . .?
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
2. Teach the cognitive strategy
using small steps.
пЃ® Teaching too much of
the cognitive strategy at
once would swamp the
working memory.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
3. Provide Models of the
Appropriate Responses
пЃ® We cannot specify all the steps.
пЃ® Models provide an important
scaffold for the learner in three phases:
пЃ® during initial instruction, before students
practice
пЃ® during practice
пЃ® after practice
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Models During Initial
Instruction - Before Practice
In some studies:
пЃ® Teachers began by modeling responses based
on the procedural prompts
пЃ® Students used questions based on elements of
the story grammar
пЃ® (e.g., What action does the leading
character initiate?
пЃ® What do you learn about the character from
this action?)
пЃ® Then they began by modeling
questions based on this story grammar.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Models During Initial
Instruction
In other studies:
пЃ® Students received models of questions based
on the main idea
пЃ® Then they practiced generating questions on
their own (Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher
& Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988),
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Models Given During Practice
Reciprocal Teaching
пЃ® Teacher first models asking
a question and the students
answer.
пЃ® Then, the teacher guides students as they
develop their own questions, to be answered
by one of their classmates,
пЃ® Teacher provides additional models when the
students have difficulty.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Models Given After Practice
In studies on question-generation
пЃ® Teachers provide models of questions for
the students to view after they have written
questions relevant to a paragraph or
passage
пЃ® The intent of this model is to
enable the students to compare
their efforts with that of an expert
(Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988). In J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D.
Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
пЃ® Vocalize internal thought processes one
goes through when using the cognitive
strategy.
пЃ® Example, when teaching students to
generate questions, teacher describes
the thought processes that occur as a
question word is selected and
integrated with text information to form
a question. When... “When did she get
the horse?”
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
пЃ® Think aloud while summarizing a
paragraph
пЃ® Example, illustrate the thought
processes that occur as the topic of the
passage is determined and then used
to generate a summary sentence.
Fishing in Oregon… Many factors
related to ecology and laws have
resulted in a decline in the fishing in
Oregon.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
“Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based
Instruction:
1. Carefully analyze the task(s) to be
completed.
2. Identify the strategies that will
promote success.
3. Teach the strategy through explicit, direct
instruction.
пЃ® The teacher models and "talks through" the
strategy.
пЃ® The student observes all of the processes
several times.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
“Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based
Instruction:
4. The teacher explicitly states:
пЃ® the goal of the strategy to be
employed
пЃ® the task for which the strategy
is appropriate
пЃ® the range of the applicability
пЃ® the learning gains anticipated from its
consistent use
5. Verbal rehearsal of the steps of the strategy to
100% criterion. Visual reminders (chart,
checklist, schedule) are provided.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
“Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful
Strategy-Based Instruction:
6. If the strategy fails to work,
opportunities to review the process and to
repair the breakdown are provided. Feedback
is positive and corrective.
7. PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE!
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential
Difficulties
Examples:
пЃ® Teacher anticipates common
errors and discusses these errors before the
students make them.
“Some students in my old school thought
9 – 21 = 28. What mistake is this?
(Student reveals: subtracting 1 from 9,
not regrouping to take the 9 from the 11)”
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential
Difficulties
Examples:
пЃ® Teacher anticipates the inappropriate
questions that students might generate.
Students read a paragraph followed by
discussing whether each question was
too narrow, too broad, or appropriate.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Anticipate and Discuss Potential
Difficulties (continued)
Students were taught specific rules to
discriminate:
пЃ® A question from a non-question
пЃ® A good question from a poor one:
пЃ® A good question starts with a question
word.
пЃ® A good question can be answered by the
story.
пЃ® A good question asks about an important
detail of the story.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
6. Regulate the Difficulty
of the Material
Begin with simpler material and then gradually move
to more complex materials.
пЃ® Example: Teaching students to generate
questions
пЃ® Teacher first models how to generate
questions-single sentence. Class then
practices.
пЃ® Next, teacher models and provides practice on
asking questions after reading a paragraph.
пЃ® Finally, teacher models, class practices
generating questions after reading an entire
passage.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
7. Provide a Cue Card
A cue card:
пЃ® Contains the procedural prompt.
пЃ® Reminds what to do and when
пЃ® Supports a student during initial learning
by reducing the strain upon the working
memory.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
8. Guide Student Practice
пЃ® First teach a part of a strategy,
пЃ® Then guide student practice in
identifying and then applying the strategy.
пЃ® Remember Reciprocal Teaching
пЃ® The teacher first models the
cognitive process being taught
пЃ® Then provides cognitive support and
coaching (scaffolding) for the students as
they attempt the task.
пЃ® As the students become more proficient,
the teacher fades the support and
students provide support for each other.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
8. Guide Student Practice (continued)
 Use small group meetings –
two to six, without the teacher,
пЃ® practice asking, revising, and
correcting questions and
provided support and feedback to each
other.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
9. Provide Feedback and
Corrections
Three sources of feedback and corrections
to consider: the teacher, other students,
and a computer.
пЃ® Teacher feedback and corrections
пЃ® Can
be hints, questions, suggestions
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
9. Provide Feedback and
Corrections
пЃ® Group Feedback
пЃ® after students have written their questions,
пЃ® they meet in groups, pose questions to
each other,
пЃ® compare questions within each group.
пЃ® Computer-based Feedback
пЃ® students ask the computer to provide a
model (e.g., of an appropriate question) if
error is suspected.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
10. Provide and Teach a Checklist
Example:
пЃ® How well did I identify important information?
пЃ® How well did I link information together?
пЃ® How well could I answer my questions?
пЃ® Did my "think questions" use different
language from the text?
пЃ® Did I use good signal words?
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
11. Provide Independent Practice
with New Examples
Student practices in applying the cognitive
strategy
пЃ® Use examples
пЃ® Offer diminishing help from the teacher
and other students.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
12. Increase Student Responsibilities
пЃ® Decrease scaffolds as skills
increase
as students become more
competent
пЃ® Diminish the use of models and
prompts and other scaffolds
пЃ® Diminish the support offered by
other students
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
12. Increase Student Responsibilities
пЃ® Gradually, increase the
complexity and difficulty of
the material
пЃ® In reading, begin with well-organized,
reader-friendly material
пЃ® Increase the difficulty and use less
structured materials as mastery occurs
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
13. Assess Student Mastery
 Assess students’ achievement of a
mastery level,
пЃ® Provide for additional instruction when
necessary
пЃ® Beware!
пЃ® Lack of review
пЃ® Lack of periodic monitoring of
mastery
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Summary Of What We Know
1. Present new material in small steps to that
the working memory does not become
overloaded.
2. Help students develop an organization for
the new material.
3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting
students during initial practice, and (b)
providing for extensive student
processing.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Summary Of What We Know
4. When teaching higher-level tasks, support
students by providing them with cognitive
strategies.
5. Help students learn to use the cognitive
strategies by providing them with
procedural prompts and modeling the use
of these procedural prompts.
6. Provide for extensive student practice.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What This All Means
The Most-Effective Teacher
Teaches Well-Structured Tasks
пЃ® Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When
пЃ®
There is focus on improving, monitoring,
and providing corrective feedback on
instruction
 “Build It and They Will Come”
пЃ® Achievement will follow
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does The Well-Structured
Lesson Look Like?
пЃ® Review First
пЃ® Review homework and any relevant
previous learning
пЃ® Review prerequisite skills and knowledge
for the lesson
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Beginning: The Presentation
пЃ® State lesson goals or provide outline
пЃ® Present new material in small steps
пЃ® Model procedures
пЃ® Provide examples and non-examples
пЃ® Use clear language
пЃ® Avoid digressions
пЃ® Check for student understanding
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Middle: Focus on Guided Practice
пЃ® Spend more time on guided practice
пЃ® High frequency of questions
пЃ® All students respond (to you, to each other)
and receive feedback
пЃ® High success rate
пЃ® Continue practice until students are fluent
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Middle: Corrections and Feedback
пЃ® Provide process feedback when answers are
correct but hesitant
пЃ® Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or
reteaching when answers are incorrect
пЃ® Reteach material when necessary
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
End: Independent Practice
пЃ® Students receive overview and/or help during
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
initial steps
Practice continues until students are
automatic (where relevant)
Teacher provides active supervision (where
possible)
Routines are used to provide help for slower
students
Daily, weekly and monthly reviews
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
I DO IT
Struggling learners need US
to:
пЃ› gain attention & clearly model
пЃ› cue students to notice critical aspects of
the model
 model thinking too - “mental
modeling/direct explanation”
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
WE DO IT
Struggling learners need:
Provide Thinking Time
Structure/prompt engagement:
пЃ›
choral responses if answer/response is
short and you want the same answers
пЃ›
partner responses if answer/response
is long and can be differently worded
пЃ›
correction/feedback - remodeling,
more examples, etc.
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
YOU DO IT
Struggling learners need:
пЃ›
пЃ›
individual responses; oral, written,
point/touch/demo
coaching students to apply the
strategy previously taught
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Throughout Instruction:
Monitor and Assess
“Most-Effective Teachers”
 Know Each Learner’s Need
for Differentiated Instruction
пЃ® Who
Knows the Material ?
пЃ® Who
Needs More Input ?
пЃ® Who
Needs More Background ?
пЃ® Who
Needs Elaborated Scaffolds ?
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Assessment is Not Instruction
“Least-Effective Teachers”
пЃ® Test mastery after initial instruction---
in lieu of guided practice
пЃ® Test learning outcomes--- in lieu of
independent practice
пЃ® Allow practice of errors through these
practices
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Evaluation vs. Grading
пЃ® Comparison to grade level standards (norm
referenced; criterion referenced)
 Comparison to student’s personal needs,
(often criterion referenced or standards from
other grade levels)
пЃ® Comparison to teacher expectations for this
child, rating attitude, progress, work
completion, motivation, etc.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Which Learner Characteristics
Affect Instruction?
пЃ® Attention Focus Problems
пЃ® Fear of Failure
пЃ® Background Deficits
 AND…..think of your own experiences
Activity 1: Continue the list in your group
Activity 2: Discuss how “Most-Effective”
Teaching addresses problems in all lesson
phases when instructing these students
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® When instruction is delivered by
“Most-Effective Teachers”
пЃ® How many students will still need further
“Accommodations or Differentiated
Instruction”?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
 Who is “entitled” to “Differentiated
Instruction” or “Accommodations”
пЃ® What might they look like for Dolores
and Billy?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® What is educational reform really all about?
Improving Outcomes for All Students
пЃ® If a student fails to meet a standard, is it due to
пЃ® Lack of differentiated instruction or
accommodations
пЃ® Thus, lack of instruction by a
“Most- Effective Teacher”
пЃ®
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
Or, is it student characteristics?
 “Lazy”
пЃ® AD/HD
пЃ® LD
пЃ® ED
пЃ® Low Motivation
пЃ® Cognitive Skill Deficits
пЃ® Is the problem IN the student, or IN the
instruction?
пЃ®
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Differentiated Instruction
пЃ® Differentiated Instruction is an instructional concept
that maximizes learning for ALL students—regardless
of skill level or background. It's based on the fact that
in a typical classroom, students vary in their
academic abilities, learning styles, personalities,
interests, background knowledge and experiences,
and levels of motivation for learning. When a teacher
differentiates instruction, he or she uses the best
teaching practices and strategies to create different
pathways that respond to the needs of diverse
learners. www.differentiatedinstruction.com
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Accommodations/Modifications
Review Terms & Concepts
Accommodations
Modifications
Compare to Differentiated
Instruction/Effective Instruction
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Legal Justification
Accommodate, Modify, and Support
I.D.E.A. 1997 Reauthorization specifies
(300.342(b)(3)) that the public agency shall
ensure... each teacher and provider is informed of
his or her specific responsibilities related to
implementing the child’s IEP and the specific
accommodations, modifications, and supports that
must be provided for the child in accordance with
the IEP.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Adaptations
пЃ® Accommodations
пЃ® Modifications
Do not fundamentally alter or lower
expectations or standards in instructional
level, content or performance criteria.
Changes are made in order to provide equal
access to learning and equal opportunity to
demonstrate what is known.
Do fundamentally alter
or lower expectations or
standards in instructional level,
content or performance criteria.
Changes are made to provide
student meaningful &
productive learning experiences
based on individual needs &
abilities.
Grading is same
Grading is different
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What is accommodated?
The Characteristics of the Learner
пЃ®
Goal: To remove barriers to learning the material
and to demonstrating mastery
пѓў Standards are substantially the same for all;
outcomes will vary.
1-3
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Learning Differences
пЃ® Speed of information processing
пЃ® Memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
пЃ® Automatization of rote facts
пЃ® Organization
пЃ® Listening Skills
пЃ® Attention
пЃ® Forethought and Planning
пЃ® Etc.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Emotional/Temperament
Characteristics
пЃ® Rigidity/Flexibility
пЃ® Irritability
пЃ® Placidity
пЃ® Social Awareness
пЃ® Desire for Novel vs. Familiar
пЃ® Anxiety
пЃ® Etc.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Reading/Writing/Math Skill Deficits
пЃ® Reading Decoding vs. Understanding
пЃ® Math Fact Recall vs. Math Concepts
пЃ® Writing Mechanics vs. Written Content
пЃ® Etc.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Cognitive/Conceptual Skill
Differences
пЃ® Processing speed
пЃ® Conceptualization
пЃ® Understanding of Elapsed Time
пЃ® Inferential Thinking
пЃ® Conservation, Multiple Variable reasoning
пЃ® Etc.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Sensory Input Challenges
пЃ® Vision
пЃ® Hearing
пЃ® Movement
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What is the difference?
пЃ® Differentiated Instruction
пЃ® Terminology from general education
пЃ® Accommodations
пЃ® Terminology from special education
пЃ® Are all students entitled to accommodations?
пЃ® Ponder this
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What is modified with modifications?
The Goal of the Activity
пЃ®
Goal: To allow educational progress in mastering
curriculum, physical and social access to a full
array of IEP team determined appropriate
classrooms and peers.
пЃ®
Individualized goals are developed, skills taught
and measured through either standard
assessments with modifications (mild disabilities)
or through alternate assessments (moderate to
severe disabilities).
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Implications of Modifications
пЃ® High school diploma may or may not be
earned, depending on the student’s meeting
of district graduation requirements and
passing a high school exit exam (CAHSEE)
with modifications. When do we tell families
that?
пЃ® With modifications, what is taught and
assessed is highly individualized.
Achievement is not compared to peers.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Find this page in your packet.
Pg. 1-6
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Quantity * пЃ¬
Adapt the number of items that the learner is
expected to learn or number of activities student
will complete prior to assessment for mastery.
For example:
Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner
must learn at any one time. Add more practice
activities or worksheets.
Input *
Time *
Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task
completion, or testing.
For example:
Individualize a timeline for completing a task; pace learning
differently (increase or decrease) for some learners.
Difficulty * пЃ¬
Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the
learner.
Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the
learner may approach the work.
For example:
Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more
concrete examples, provide hands-on activities,
place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key
concepts or terms before the lesson.
For example:
Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problems;
simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate
learner needs.
Participation *
Alternate Goals пЃ¬
Level of Support *
Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep
the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of
specific skills. Enhance adult-student relationship;
use physical space and environmental structure.
For example:
Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors,
or cross-age tutors. Specify how to interact with the
student or how to structure the environment.
Output *
Adapt how the student can respond to instruction.
For example:
Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a
verbal response, use a communication book for some
students, allow students to show knowledge with
hands on materials.
Substitute Curriculum пЃ¬
Sometimes called “functional curriculum”
Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively
involved in the task.
For example:
In geography, have a student hold the globe, while
others point out locations. Ask the student to lead a
group. Have the student turn the pages while sitting
on your lap (kindergarten).
Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the
same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for
students with moderate to severe disabilities.
For example:
In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able to
locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students
learn to locate each state and name the capital.
Provide different instruction and materials to meet a
learner’s individual goals. When routinely utilized,
this is only for students with moderate to severe
disabilities.
For example:
During a language lesson a student is learning toileting
skills with an aide.
* This adaptation is an accommodation if the student can demonstrate mastery of the standard on an assessment. The key concept is: Will the student ultimately master the same material but demonstrate
that mastery in alternate ways or with alternate supports? If standards are not fundamentally or substantially altered, then this adaptation is an accommodation to a learning or performance difference.
пЃ¬ This adaptation is a modification if the student will not demonstrate mastery of the standard on an assessment. If routinely utilized, these adaptations are modifications and require individualized
goals and assessment.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Quantity * •
Adapt the number of items that the learner is
expected to learn or number of activities student
will complete prior to assessment for mastery.
For example:
Reduce the number of social studies terms a
learner must learn at any one time. Add more
practice activities or worksheets prior to
assessment of skill mastery.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
Does altering amount of seatwork
completed prior to assessment of content
mastery constitute a modification or an
accommodation?
пЃ® If I reduce practice, and now
student can’t demonstrate
mastery?
пЃ® If I reduce practice and
student can still demonstrate
mastery?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Time *
Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning,
task completion, or testing.
For example:
Individualize a timeline for completing a task;
pace learning differently (increase or decrease)
for some learners.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This



Does giving more time to complete an
assignment or take a test result in a
lowering of a standard?
How should this be graded or
evaluated?
Is this practice a modification or an
accommodation?
Discuss at your table
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Level of Support *
Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep
the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of
specific skills. Enhance adult-student relationship; use
physical space and environmental structure.
For example:
Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors,
or cross-age tutors. Specify how to interact with the
student or how to structure the environment.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® Is this a common practice?
пЃ® Do students without disabilities often have
this support?
пЃ® Do we use this too frequently or
too little?
пЃ® Is this an accommodation?
If so, for what?
пЃ® Are we using one on one
paraeducators effectively?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Input *
Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the
learner.
For example:
Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more
concrete examples, provide hands-on activities,
place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach
key concepts or terms before the lesson.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® Discuss at your table
пЃ® Is Input an accommodation or
modification?
What is more effective: pre-teaching
or re-teaching?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
IN
Input Enhancement
пЃ® Use strategies and scaffolds
пЃ® To accommodate diverse learners.
пЃ® Accommodation during INPUT
пЃ® A service or support to help fully access
the subject matter and instruction.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
IN
Input Enhancement
Using graphic organizers
when teaching content…
пЃ® Organization of ideas is
self-evident to students.
пЃ® Reduces information
processing demands
needed to understand new
information.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
INPUT: Visual Displays
Portray relationships among information
presented in instruction
пЃ® Includes diagrams, concrete
models, concept maps, videos
situating learning in a meaningful context,
or digital material presented during
instruction.
пЃ® Intended to help students organize
information in long-term memory.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Visual Displays
пЃ® Activate prior knowledge during
instruction.
пЃ® Function as an accommodation when
they scaffold the creation of linkages
among information in the learner’s longterm memory.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
INPUT: Pre-teaching with
Advance Organizers
Defined: Pre-instructional materials to aid
linkage of new information with prior knowledge
stored in long-term memory.
• May be verbal, written, or be presented
in a question format. Examples:
 Questions presented prior to a
discussion or reading assignment.
 Vocabulary words presented on the
board or a handout.
 Verbal statements by the teacher
designed to activate knowledge prior to
instruction.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Peer-Mediated Instruction
Defined—students as instructional
agents, including:
пЃ® Peer and cross-age tutoring.
пЃ® Class-wide tutoring.
пЃ® Cooperative learning.
Primary purpose—increase opportunities for
distributed practice with feedback.
Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions
designed and mediated by the teacher.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nolet (2000)
Study Guides
Worksheets prior to a reading or study
assignment.
пЃ® Includes a set of statements or questions to
focus the student’s attention and cognitive
resources on key information to be learned.
Examples:
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Completed or partially completed outlines.
Questions focusing on the textual, literal, and
inferential aspects of a study assignment.
Other tasks designed to prompt the active
processing of the material to be studied.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Mnemonic DevicesFor Content Domains
Defined: Techniques to aid storage
& recall of declarative knowledge
пЃ® May be verbal or pictorial.
пЃ® May be provided by the teacher
or developed collaboratively by
teacher and the student.
 Can be key words, pictures or symbols—
e.g., Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
IN
Input Accommodations
пЃ® Are Foundational Interventions:
The key to differentiated instruction:
Use guided practice, strategies and scaffolds
They accommodates diverse learners
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Difficulty * •
Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules
on how the learner may approach the work.
For example:
Allow the use of a calculator to figure math
problems; simplify task directions; change rules
to accommodate learner needs.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® Discuss.
пЃ® Is altering the difficulty of an
assignment a good practice?
пЃ® When is it an accommodation or
a modification?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Output *
Adapt how the student can respond to
instruction.
For example:
Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a
verbal response, use a communication book for
some students, allow students to show
knowledge with hands on materials.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Output Accommodations
пЃ® Altered methods of demonstrating
mastery of the instruction.
пЃ® Measures what the student learned, not
the student’s disability or characteristics.
пЃ® Removes barriers.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Output Goal
пЃ® Accommodation during OUTPUT
пЃ® A service or support to help the learner
validly demonstrate knowledge,
removing the characteristic or
disability interfering with
demonstration of what has
been learned.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Output Accommodations
Samples:
пЃ® Multiple choice vs. essay.
пЃ® Dictating vs. writing.
пЃ® Typing vs. handwriting.
пЃ® Demonstrating vs. writing.
пЃ® Timed quizzes vs. un-timed ones.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Output-comparisons
пЃ® Standard Accommodations
vs. Non-standard Accommodations
Test publishers’ language as to whether
what is being measured has been altered
beyond the ability to compare this student’s
performance to his/her peers.
пЃ® Accommodations vs. Modifications
Educators language as to whether what is
being taught and measured is substantially
altered from what is expected: The grade
level standards.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
OUTPUT: On Standardized Tests
See: Testing Documentation Form for discussion
See updates at your state’s website for what
constitutes an accommodation or a modification
(often called a “non-standard accommodation”
http://www.cde.ca.gov/statetests/cahsee/accommodations.html
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Testing Output Changes
How do you know which output
change is which type of adaptation?
пЃ® High Stakes Testing.
The test publisher tells you about normreferencing and “substantial alterations.”
пЃ® Classroom Instruction.
Compare goal/objective of the instruction
with the curriculum standard and determine if
change substantially alters what is being
taught.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Testing Output Changes
пЃ® Standard Accommodations
vs. Non-standard Accommodations
Test publishers’ language as to whether
what is being measured has been altered
beyond the ability to compare this student’s
performance to his/her peers.
пЃ® Accommodations vs. Modifications
Educators language as to whether what is
being taught and measured is substantially
altered from what is expected: i.e., the grade
level standards during instruction.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
Do I alter the grading if I have altered the
output method?
пЃ® Is this an accommodation or a
modification?
пЃ® Do not continue to measure a known
skill deficit; measure attainment of
content.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Review: Input & Output
Accommodations
Input accommodation.
- a service or support to help
fully access the subject matter
and instruction.
Output accommodation.
- a service or support to help
validly demonstrate knowledge.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
IN
In a Nutshell:
The most critical components of “Effective
Instruction” and “Accommodation Planning”
Input Accommodation Strategy:
Circumvent
learner characteristic barriers: Alter presentation
of information to the student.
Output Accommodation Strategy:
Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter
production from the student.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
In a Nutshell: The Testing Nuance
What is clearly an “accommodation” for a learning characteristic
instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a
“modification/non-standard accommodation” on a high stakes test
Input, e.g., reading the text or chapter test in
social studies is an accommodation, reading the
high stakes test likely defined as a modification.
Output,
e.g., writing the dictated essay may
be an accommodation in social studies, but be a
modification on standardized assessment.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
In a Nutshell: Students with IEPs
Are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and
progressing in core/general curriculum
If an accommodation is on the IEP to level the
playing field/remove the barrier, even if it is
defined as a modification on a high stakes test, the
student is entitled to that modification if
necessary, regardless of the effects on
“aggregating data.”
To do otherwise would be discriminatory.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Participation *
Sometimes called “engagement”
Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively
involved in the task.
For example:
During instruction, using “every pupil response
techniques” or “choral responding.” In
geography, have a student hold the globe, while
others point out locations. Ask the student to
lead a group. Have the student turn the
pages while sitting on your lap
(kindergarten).
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Participation Enhancement to
Increase Student Engagement
1. Choral responses (answers are short/same)
- Students cue you they are attending
(“eyes on me”).
- Provide thinking time.
- Signal group response.
2. Every pupil response techniques (answers
are short/different)
- Student answers with gestures or answer
card.
3. Partner Responses (answers long/different)
- Teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s.”
- Alternate ranking for partnering.
- Specific topics/jobs; no one is passive.
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Participation/Enhancement
4. Written responses
- List first, then share.
- Touch something — “put your finger on the
______.”
5. Individual responses (AFTER practice on
the new skill)
- Randomly call on individuals to share.
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Participation AND
INPUT
IN
Differentiating during whole class
instruction options include:
Graphic organizers
- Visual thinking — vary the
support (e.g., partially filled out,
partner dialogue).
Projects — individual & small group
- Key is organization/structure
~ rubrics ~ touch points along the way.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Peer-Mediated Instruction
Defined—Students as instructional
agents, including:
пЃ® Peer and cross-age tutoring.
пЃ® Class-wide tutoring.
пЃ® Cooperative learning.
Primary purpose—increase opportunities for
distributed practice with feedback.
Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions
designed and mediated by the teacher.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nolet (2000)
Input & Participation
Enhancement
Comprehension instruction: PALS
http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy/pals/
- Stronger reader reads a paragraph.
- Weaker reader prompts.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
IN
Input & Participation
Enhancement
IN
Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to:
1. Name the Who or What.
* identification
2. Tell the most important thing(s)
about the Who or What.
* elaboration
3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less
(paraphrasing “straight jacket”)
* consolidation
* continues for 5 minutes —
then switch roles (new text)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® How common is this practice?
пЃ® Is it better to use
participation/engagement strategies
with a distractible student, or should
that student be isolated so as
not to distract others?
Is this an accommodation or
a modification?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Alternate Goals •
Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using
the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only
for students with moderate to severe disabilities.
For example:
In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able
to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other
students learn to locate each state and name the
capital.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Nine Types of Curriculum
Adaptations
Functional Curriculum •
Provide different instruction and materials to meet a
learner’s functional/life skills individual goals. When
routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate
to severe disabilities.
For example:
During a language lesson a student is learning toileting
skills with an aide.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Ponder This
пЃ® Discuss.
пЃ® For whom is this adaptation
appropriate?
пЃ® Why would we do this in
the era of high standards?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found
she needed to frequently repeat the
directions for any activity as Michelle was
often not listening carefully when they
were first given.
(____________________)
The teacher also frequently paired
Michelle with a diligent worker once
seatwork activities began second
semester.
(__________________________)
Sometimes Michelle did not finish her
seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to
take it home to complete and return the
next day. (_____________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found
she needed to frequently repeat the
directions for any activity as Michelle was
often not listening carefully when they
were first given. (input A)
The teacher also frequently paired
Michelle with a diligent worker once
seatwork activities began second
semester. (level of support A)
Sometimes Michelle did not finish her
seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to
take it home to complete and return the
next day. (time A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In first grade, Michelle began receiving
speech/language services for articulation errors. It
was also found that Michelle had minor auditory
processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to
pre-teach some concepts that would be
introduced on the following day, hoping that this
would
improve
her
listening
skills.
(____________)
Michelle was purposefully placed next to students
with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be
quite “chatty” during seatwork. (______________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In first grade, Michelle began receiving
speech/language services for articulation errors. It
was also found that Michelle had minor auditory
processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to
pre-teach some concepts that would be
introduced on the following day, hoping that this
would improve her listening skills.
(input A)
Michelle was purposefully placed next to students
with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be
quite “chatty” during seatwork.
(level of support A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to
the front of the room to hold the pointer during
large group lessons as this appeared to aid in
focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather
than distracting to extraneous details around
her. (___________________)
Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers
in finishing any written assignment, so her
teacher often sent homework to finish and
return so Michelle would not miss recess or
other
fun
activities,
trying
to
finish
assignments. (___________________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to
the front of the room to hold the pointer during
large group lessons as this appeared to aid in
focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather
than distracting to extraneous details around
her. (participation A)
Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers
in finishing any written assignment, so her
teacher often sent homework to finish and
return so Michelle would not miss recess or
other fun activities, trying to finish
assignments. (time A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not
up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked
with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra
oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who,
what, where, when). (_________________)
and (______________________)
Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher
decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would
study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle
learned were the same as her peers.
(__________________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not
up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked
with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra
oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who,
what, where, when). (level of support A )
and (input A )
Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher
decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would
study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle
learned were the same as her peers.
(input A or B, refer to the standard addressed)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts
readily, so her teacher had her complete fewer
worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate
mastery of the concept. (____________________)
This bought some extra time, her teacher explained,
for Michelle to practice her handwriting with
additional worksheets, as she still took an
extraordinarily long time producing letter formations.
(_____________________)
The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for
new concepts, and was believed to be helping
Michelle. (_______________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts
readily, so her teacher had her complete less
worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate
mastery of the concept. (Quantity A)
This bought some extra time, her teacher explained,
for Michelle to practice her handwriting with
additional worksheets, as she still took an
extraordinarily long time producing letter formations.
(Quantity A)
The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for
new concepts, and was believed to be helping
Michelle. (Input A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
By the end of third grade, Michelle was evaluated for
special education services as a student with a learning
disability and found to be eligible in written language.
Her math skills were found to be well above her peers,
while her reading skills were found to be at 2.1 grade
level. All previous accommodations were found to be
helpful and were incorporated into her IEP. Additionally,
Michelle was now to be taught keyboarding, and
allowed to produce most written work at the keyboard
due to her poor graphomotor skills. This often required
her to take work home to produce on a home
computer. Her teacher also decided that…
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
…Michelle’s work group (3 students) would produce a play to
illustrate concepts learned in a social studies lesson, rather
than a written product. (Other groups wrote reports,
constructed a diorama, and produced a video skit). Although
this was an acceptable alternative, her teacher decided to list
this accommodation on Michelle’s IEP so future teachers
would be aware of this need.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Name which of the 9 categories are represented:
Remember what worked!
Reading seatwork time: sat next to high achievers
Math seatwork time: small # practice problems
Large group work, where new concepts are
introduced: preteach key concepts before lesson
Written language tasks: used keyboarding
Social Studies Report: produced a play
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Her accommodations were listed as:
Reading seatwork time: level of support
Math seatwork time: quantity
Large group work, where new concepts are
introduced: input
Written language tasks: output
Social Studies report: output
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an
after-school homework club where adult volunteers
helped her to plan task approach for long
assignments, and helped her to complete most work
with one on one assistance.
(____________)(_______________)(__________)
Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful
for Michelle, and speech language services were no
longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic
organizers were extensively used by this teacher,
and found to be quite helpful for Michelle.
(_________________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school
homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task
approach for long assignments, and helped her to complete
most work with one on one assistance.
(level of support A) (input A) (difficult A or B
depending on whether Michelle was completing
the tasks fundamentally herself or whether the
adult was essentially doing the work)
Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for
Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found
necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were
extensively used by this teacher, and found to be quite helpful
for Michelle. (input A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well
beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for
reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-ontape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the
concepts better this way than reading the text alone.
(____________________)
She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil
response techniques (_______________________) allowed
Michelle, and her classmates, to focus better during whole
group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for
social studies and science text reading, and found higher
achievement
and
time
on
task
outcomes.
(_____________________) (_____________________)
and (_____________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well
beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for
reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-ontape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the
concepts better this way than reading the text alone.
(input A)
She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil
response techniques (participation A) allowed Michelle,
and her classmates, to focus better during whole group
instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social
studies and science text reading, and found higher
achievement and time on task outcomes. (input A)
(level of support A) and (participation A)
(output A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to
complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she
knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even
with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to
demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her
teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom,
although this often meant her testing could not occur until
later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their
astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement
skyrocketed!
(__________________) and (_____________________)
and (______________________)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to
complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she
knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even
with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to
demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her
teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom,
although this often meant her testing could not occur until
later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their
astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement
skyrocketed!
(level of support A) and (input A)
and (output A) and (time A)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
By September of tenth grade, unfortunately
Michelle had now begun to associate with
known gang members, and her counselor
became concerned. Although she still
maintained some earlier friendships, she
did not “seem to be the same child any
more,” her parents stated. Parent
conferences occurred, and it was agreed
that counseling would be a good idea for
Michelle. A referral to a local clinic was
made at parent request. During those
sessions, her counselor became aware of
low self-esteem issues related to her
incomplete understanding of her learning
profile.
(Although
depression
was
suspected,
after
several
sessions,
Michelle’s counselor decided this did not
apply.)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Activity:
Michelle’s Accommodation History
Demystification sessions about her learning profile were
conducted, and Michelle and her counselor decided to
approach the school staff to discuss the feasibility of a
school-wide program, such as the Learning Strengths
Seminars (see www.pent.ca.gov; accommodations pages
and www.allkindsofminds.org; educational care giving).
Family therapy sessions were conducted, and Michelle
has discontinued her association with gang-involved
youth. Michelle is interested in getting a job, she stated.
Her family and other IEP team members will be meeting to
develop a transition plan soon.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teaching Students About
Accommodations-Self Advocacy
The Learning Strengths Project
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Learning Strengths Project
A form of educational caregiving
(Mel Levine M.D.
http://www.allkindsofminds.org/ )
Acknowledges and
Understands
пѓ� strengths
пѓ� weaknesses
пѓ� affinities
Does not seek to “cure”
Does not seek to radically
alter the students’
characteristics
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Learning Strengths Project
Learning Strengths Project Components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Seminars
Teach About Learning
Group Demystification
Classroom Follow-up
Portfolio Development
Connecting seminar and individual
learning strengths
Conferences
Ownership Demonstration:
Asking For & Analyzing My
Accommodations/ Modifications
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component One: Seminars
PART ONE: Teach about learning
All Learners
Developmental
Functions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Variability +/Dysfunction
Disability
Handicap
Attention
Simultaneous/Sequential Processing
Memory
Language
Higher-Order Cognition
Motor
Social Skills
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Synchronized
interplay of these
functions lead to
successful learning.
Component One: Seminars
PART TWO: Group Demystification
Demystify through group acknowledgement
Use small groups (when possible)
Include students without known learning
problems (when possible).
пѓ� They often reveal their own struggles
which is very helpful for students with
difficulties.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component One: Seminars
PART TWO: Group Demystification
Hold multiple sessions, can be small doses.
пѓ� Formats
• Students complete questionnaires (such as
after a test, Attention Cockpit, Anser System).
Students often discuss responses individually
with teacher, or in groups if the classroom
climate is conductive.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component Two: Seminars
PART THREE: Classroom Follow-up
• Students read from a text about learning
or learning disorders. Then discuss
individual chapters and their personal
relevance.
• Students read and discuss case studies,
making suggestions
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component Two:
Portfolio Development
Connecting Seminar and Individual
Learning Strengths
• Students write and discuss their own
autobiographical “case studies”
(e.g., “My Career in School)
• Students analyze their own work using
formats provided by the teacher that relate
success/failure to strengths/weaknesses and
strategies selected
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component Three: Conferences
One-to-one Meetings With Staff
Conduct with the student by an
assessor
Explain the students’ strengths
and demystifies the weaknesses
Use actual test results
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
M eet w ith th e stu d en t o n e -to -o n e fo llo w in g th e step s listed b elo w :
COM PONENTS
CONTENT
D estig m a tiza tio n
P ro vid e assu ran ce th at all in d ivid u als h ave stren gth s an d
w eakn esses; th e so o n er o n e learn s ab o u t o n eself th e b etter;
p o ssib ly cite ex am p les o f o n e’s o w n d ysfu n ctio n s; p o in t o u t th at
even h o n o r stu d en ts are im p erfect. C ite ex am p les!
S tren g th D elin ea tio n
P ro vid e a d escrip tio n o f stu d en t’s stren gth s: th is m u st b e
co n crete, h o n est, o ffered w ith evid en ce, an d if p o ssib le,
co m p ared to p eers
W ea k n ess E n u m era tio n
C ite th e n u m b er o f d ysfu n ctio n s (e.g., “th ere are 3 areas th at are
a p ro b lem fo r yo u ”) an d th eir o b servab le effects: u se grap h ics
an d an alo gies, elicit ex am p les fro m th e stu d en t if p o ssib le
Full page Comp 3
In d u ctio n o f O p tim ism
P ro vid e a p ro file p ro jectio n o f th e fu tu re to sh o w h o w th ese
stren gth s can w o rk w ell in ad u lth o o d ; resto ratio n o f self -esteem
an d h o p e fo r th e fu tu re
A llia n ce F o rm a tio n
F o cu s o n co m m u n icatio n o f in terest an d a w illin gn ess to b e
h elp fu l an d su p p o rtive in th e fu tu re – “w e’re in th is to geth er.”
п‚·пЂ In d ivid u alized d em ystificatio n u su ally req u ires p erio d ic fo llo w -u p “b o o ster” d o ses.
п‚·пЂ It can b e very h elp fu l fo r p aren ts to b e p resen t d u rin g th e d em ystificatio n sessio n , so th at th ey
can m ake u se o f th e sam e term in o lo gy an d fram es o f referen c e at h o m e. A ltern atively, a
cassette reco rd in g co u ld b e m ad e availab le to th e stu d en t to sh are w ith h is/h er fam ily.
п‚·пЂ It is essen tial th at th e o verall to n e b e su p p o rtive, n o n -accu sato ry, an d n o t “p reach y.”
п‚·пЂ S tu d en ts sh o u ld b e h elp ed to u n d erstan d th at sh e o r h e is acco u n tab le fo r w o rk o u tp u t, etc.;
i.e., o n e can n o t u se th e id en tified w eakn ess as an ex cu se fo r p o o r p erfo rm an ce.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
* A d a p ted w ith p erm issio n fro m th e w o rk o f D r. M el L evin e, M .D .
3-3
Conference Content
COMPONENTS
CONTENT
Destigmatization
Provide assurance that all individuals
have strengths and weaknesses; the sooner one learns about oneself
the better; possibly cite examples of one’s own dysfunctions; point
out that even honor students are imperfect. Cite examples!
Strength Delineation
Provide a description of student’s
strengths: this must be concrete, honest, offered with evidence, and
if possible, compared to peers
Weakness Enumeration Cite the number of dysfunctions (e.g.,
“there are 3 areas that are a problem for you”) and their observable
effects: use graphics and analogies, elicit examples from the
student if possible
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Conference Content (continued)
COMPONENTS
CONTENT
Induction of Optimism
Provide a profile projection of the
future to show how these strengths can work well in adulthood;
restoration of self-esteem and hope for the future
Alliance Formation
Focus on communication of
interest and a willingness to be helpful and supportive in the
future – “we’re in this together.”
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Conference Hints
Individualized demystification usually requires periodic
follow-up “booster” doses.
It can be very helpful for parents to be present during the
demystification session, so that they can make use of the same
terminology and frames of reference at home.
Alternatively, a cassette recording could be made available to
the student to share with his/her family.
It is essential that the overall tone be supportive, nonaccusatory, and not “preachy.”
Students should be helped to understand that she or he is
accountable for work output, etc.; i.e., one cannot use the
identified weakness as an excuse for poor performance.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
C O G N ITIV E /A C A D E M IC A N D B E H A V IO R A L /S O C IA L P H E N O M E N A
TA SK
PH A SE
C O G N IT IV E /A C A D E M IC E L E M E N T S
F U N C T IO N
D Y S F U N C T IO N
B E H A V IO R A L /S O C IA L E L E M E N T S
F U N C T IO N
D Y S F U N C T IO N
P L A N N IN G
S trateging
R eflecting on task
requirem ent
пЃѓпЂ C ognitive Im pulsivity
пЃѓпЂ N o aw areness of
sequence of behaviors
P rediction of
C onsequence
пЃѓпЂ L ack of behavioral
judgm ent
пЃѓпЂ U nintended actions
пЃѓпЂ R isk taking behaviors
w ith no forethought
S E L E C T IO N
V igilance and aw areness
of saliency
пЃѓпЂ P oor saliency
determ ination;
incidental learning
пЃѓпЂ F requent focus on
m inor features of a task
A ction choice
пЃѓпЂ M isguided, random
behavioral selection
often unrelated to w hat
is required for success
IN H IB IT IO N
R esistance to distraction
пЃѓпЂ D istractibility (easily
forgetting w hat task
one is perform ing)
B ehavioral/m otor
inhibition
пЃѓпЂ D isinhibited behaviors
and
пЃѓпЂ H yperactivity
C O N T IN U IT Y
S ustained m ental effort
пЃѓпЂ Im persistance;
пЃѓпЂ M ental fatigue
пЃѓпЂ P erform ance
inconsistency
B ehavior/affective
stabilization
пЃѓпЂ B ehavioral
unpredictability
пЃѓпЂ A ffective lability
M O N IT O R IN G
O ngoing error detection
and correction
пЃѓпЂ A bsent or dam aged
quality control
B ehavioral self
aw areness
пЃѓпЂ Insensitivity to
feedback;
пЃѓпЂ D im inished
reinforceability
пЃѓпЂ L ack of aw areness of
w hat actions lead to
positive or negative
feedback
M elvin L evine, M .D . 1990; w ith expansion D . W right, M .S ., 1992
D iana B row ning W right, B eh avior/D isciplin e T rain in gs, 2002
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
2-4
H H p3.9
Attention Cockpit Interview
Small Group
or
Individual Interview
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component Four: Ownership
Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to
Ask for Accommodations
Input Accommodation/Modification Strategy:
Alter presentation of information to the student
Output Accommodation/Modification
Strategy: Circumvent deficits, alter production
from the student
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Component Four: Ownership
True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students
to Ask for Accommodations
The need for the bypass strategies should be well
understood by the student.
Bypass strategies should be utilized in such a way
that they are not embarrassing and do not imply any
disrespect or “writing off” of the student.
One can “charge a price” for a bypass (e.g.,
suggesting a student read an extra book in exchange
for reduction in length for a written report).
Diana
Browning
Wright,
DCS
2002
Diana Browning
Wright,
Teaching
and
Learning Trainings, 2005
Mel Levine, M.D.
Component Four: Ownership
True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students
to Ask for Accommodations
The entire class should know that bypass options
are available to everyone who really needs them.
Never tolerate the teasing of a student who is
receiving accommodations.
Everyone is entitled to a special program
for an area in need of improvement, to help
improve a skill.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Accommodation/Modification Forms
Notification of Teacher…………………………... 1-14
Accommodation Plan……………………………. 1-16
Accommodations/Modifications Plan:
linked to Nine Types…………………………… 1-17
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Brendan
Brendan
пЃ® 11th grader, legally blind, learning
problems-IEP
пЃ® Achievement on par on many
parameters
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Accommodations/Modifications
for Tests
Documentation Form 1-7
See updates at:
http://www.cde.ca.gov/statetests/cahsee/accommodations.html
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
пЃ®
All range from least restrictive to most
restrictive
пЃ®
Only modifications require IEPs
See 1-8
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
least restrictive to most restrictive
Accommodations/Modifications
People react in different ways
when they find out a student
in their class needs
accommodations...
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Overcoming Barriers
 They don’t want to do it!
пЃ® Why?
пЃ® What Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills are
Barriers?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teacher
Student
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Strategies for Overcoming
Resistance
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Swamp or Alligators?
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Decreasing Resistance
1. Roadblock:
2. Roadblock:
3. Roadblock:
Lack of Visible District-Wide
Commitment
Lack of Legal Knowledge
Lack of Two-way
Communication On
Content of a Student's IEP/504
Plan, Rationale for Elements In
the Plan, How to Change IEP
Plan Content.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Decreasing Resistance
4. Roadblock:
5. Roadblock:
Lack of Clarity in Writing,
Assigning Implementers,
Establishing Accountability and
Explaining Plans Immediately
Lack of Addressing The Five Key
Reasons Educators Typically Are
Reluctant To Accommodate
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Decreasing Resistance
5. Roadblock:
Lack of Addressing The Five
Key Reasons Educators
Typically Are Reluctant To
Accommodate
Grading
 Responding to “Unfair!”
пЃ® Change of Incompatible Educational
Philosophy
пЃ® Addressing Instructional Methods/Contexts
пЃ® It Takes Too Much Time
пЃ®
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
You may be coming face to face with the
possibility that brains may be self-cleaning.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Case Study Practice
Directions:
пЃ® Read the case
пЃ® DO NOT read the sample plan developed by
other teams until you complete your plan
пЃ® Develop an accommodation plan
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
John
пЃ® 10th Grader, 16 yr old-
IEP
пЃ® Learning Disability in
written language
пЃ® Achievement deficits
Fictitious picture
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Dolores
пЃ® 8th Grader-No disability
пЃ® Newly immigrated to the
United States
пЃ® Achievement delayed
Fictitious picture
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Philip
пЃ® 5th Grader, AD/HD-504
пЃ® Difficulty completing
tasks
пЃ® Achievement on par
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Fictitious picture
Nathan
пЃ® 4th grader with
Asperger’s
Syndrome/High
Functioning Autism-IEP
пЃ® Achievement on par with
peers
Nathan
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Mae Lee
пЃ® 3rd grader with Reading
Disability-IEP
пЃ® Cannot decode text
пЃ® Thinking on par,
reading/writing severe
delays
Fictitious picture
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Joseph
пЃ® Included 1st Grader-IEP
пЃ® Autism
пЃ® Achievement uncertain
Fictitious picture
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Bruce
пЃ® 1st Grader, Moderate
Mental Retardation-IEP
пЃ® Included 80% of his day,
general education
пЃ® Unable to master grade
level standards
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Fictitious picture
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Additional Training Materials
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Additional Training Materials
Input/Output Adaptations and
Differentiated Instruction
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teach About Learning
Real-World Knowledge
(Content)
Strategy Knowledge
(Knowing how to learn)
Metacognitive Knowledge
(Awareness and regulation of cognitive
processes)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teach About Basic Cognitive
Processes
Attending to incoming information
Getting information into short-term
memory
Getting information into long-term
memory
Retrieving information from longterm memory
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Teach About Metacognitive
Processes
Knowing your learning processes
Selecting appropriate learning
strategies
Monitoring how learning strategy is
working
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Struggling Learners:
Strategy-Based Instruction
Metacognition: The “Boss”
Cognition: the “Worker”
Strategies: the “Tools”
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Especially for Struggling Learners
Curriculum must:
• Be designed to incorporate the
prerequisites of learning
• Information must be accessible
• Support for the development of skills
must be available
• Learner must perceive the learning to
be important
Research Connections In Special Education, Fall 1999 #5 CEC
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Universal Design
The design of the instructional materials and
activities that makes the learning goal achievable
by individuals with a wide difference in their
abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write,
understand English, attend, organize, engage, and
remember.
Built in, not added on!
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Universal Design
Six Principles for Effective Curriculum
Design
Big Ideas: Concepts, principles, or heuristics that
facilitate the most efficient and broad acquisition of
knowledge.
Conspicuous Strategies: Useful steps for
accomplishing a goal or task.
Mediated Scaffolding: Instructional guidance
provided by teachers, peers, materials, or tasks.
Research Connections In Special Education, Fall 1999 #5 CEC
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Universal Design
Six Principles for Effective Curriculum
Design
Strategies Integration: Integrating knowledge as a
means of promoting higher-level cognition.
Judicious Review: Structured opportunities to recall or
apply previously taught information.
Primed Background Knowledge: Preexisting
information that affects new learning.
Research Connections In Special Education, Fall 1999 #5 CEC
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Effective Reading Instruction
for Struggling Kids
What We Thought:
пЃ® Student with reading difficulties require
qualitatively different reading instruction
(e.g. reading styles, perceptual training,
colored lens, etc.)
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What works with struggling
students?
More Time: preview, review, elaborate, another
way, etc.
More Intensity: smaller group allows more focus,
more student responding/engagement
More Feedback: teacher is able to target
instruction, “dial in” specific needs, prompt
elaboration, provide alternate examples,
etc.
** this can only be done 1-1 or in small
homogenous groups**
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Effective Reading Instruction
for Struggling Kids
What We Now Know:
Struggling readers are far more successful when
carefully taught the same fundamental reading skills
all readers must learn BUT with:
пЃ› more instructional time
пЃ› more precisely sequenced instruction
пЃ› more coaching & practice
пЃ› more explicit/direct instruction
пЃ› more careful progress monitoring/program
adjustment
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Grouping: Issues & Options
Homogeneous Grouping:
Skills-Based Lessons - usually best to
group by need
e.g. - Word study/Spelling by level
- Decoding/guided reading instruction &
practice
** Groups need to be flexible/change in
a day – fluid as student needs change
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Grouping: Issues & Options
We need BOTH homogeneous AND
heterogeneous options
- depends on:
- the purpose
- the subject
- the range of prior knowledge
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Grouping: Issues & Options
Heterogeneous Grouping:
Conceptual/Content-based lessons
usually best taught in heterogeneous
groups: diverse experience/views etc. enrich
the activity
e.g. - Science, Social Studies, Core
Literature
WITH plenty of scaffolded instruction
(e.g. Graphics, partners)
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
I DO IT
Struggling learners need:
пЃ› gain attention & clearly model
пЃ› cue students to notice critical aspects of
the model
 model thinking too - “mental
modeling/direct explanation”
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
WE DO IT
Struggling learners need:
Provide Thinking Time
Structure/prompt engagement:
пЃ›
choral responses
пЃ›
partner responses
пЃ›
correction/feedback - remodeling,
more examples, etc.
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What Does Explicit Engaging
Instruction Look Like?
YOU DO IT
Struggling learners need:
пЃ›
individual responses; oral, written,
point/touch/demo
пЃ›
coaching students to apply the
strategy previously taught
Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
What is “fair”?
One-shot teaching that leaves behind
students?
or
Everyone is entitled to a special
program for an area in need of
improvement, to help improve a
skill.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
You may be coming face-to-face with the
possibility that brains may be self-cleaning.
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
You can always email or phone me for
clarification or assistance.
dwright@dcs-cde.ca.gov
(323) 222-8090-ext. 353
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
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