Which Came FirstвЂ¦The Chicken or the Egg??? Created by Susan Pool Nebo Elementary School History of the Chicken вЂў There are over 350 different kinds of chickens. вЂў Chickens have been known to be tame as early as 2000 BC вЂў Four types of chicken were found in the jungle. Do All Eggs Hatch Into Chicks? вЂў You may wonder why eggs in the grocery store donвЂ™t grow into chickens. If you tried to grow these eggs into chicks it would not happen. You have to have a rooster present for an egg to grow into a chick. The Egg вЂў Looking at the egg from the outside we see the shell, which is a hard, protective covering made of calcium carbonate. The shell has more than 7,000 tiny pores to let gases into and out of the shell. Carbon dioxide and moisture are given off through the pores and are replaced by atmospheric gases, including oxygen. Membranes вЂў Immediately beneath the shell are two membranes, the outer and inner shell membranes. These membranes protect the contents of the egg from bacteria and prevent moisture from leaving the egg too quickly.. вЂў The body temperature of a hen is approximately 106В° F, Eggs are very warm at the time they are laid. The temperature of the air is usually much lower than 106В° F, and the egg cools to the temperature of its surroundings. As cooling takes place, the contents of the egg contract more than does the shell of the egg. This creates a vacuum and air is drawn through the pores of the egg. AIR CELL вЂў As a result, an air cell forms at the large end of the egg. While the embryo is growing, the shell membranes surround and contain the white or albumen of the egg. The albumen provides the liquid where the embryo develops, and it also contains a large amount of the protein necessary for proper development. Parts of the Egg вЂў In a fresh egg, we can see white cords attached to the yolk sac. These two cords, called chalazae, are made of twisted strands of mucin fibers that are a special form of protein. The chalazae hold the yolk in the center of the egg. The Germinal Disc вЂў The yolk is the source of food for the embryo and contains all the fat in the egg. The small white spot on the yolk is the germinal disc. This is where the female's genetic material is found. How the Hen Hatches an Egg вЂў In nature, the female bird selects the nest site and lays a clutch of eggs (usually 8 to 13 eggs), one egg per day. Once she has a clutch of eggs, she begins sitting on the eggs full time, leaving only for food and water. вЂў The hen's body temperature is 105В° F to 106В° F. When the hen sits on the eggs, she heats the eggs to 100В° F to 101В° F. The hen turns the eggs on a regular basis by using her beak to scoop under the egg and roll it toward her. The humidity comes from the environment, the hen's body, and any moisture she transfers back to the nest on her feathers. Brooding hens often leave their nests to feed at dawn or dusk when the dew is on the grass. Eggs That WonвЂ™t Hatch вЂў A cracked egg will not hatch. The crack will let bacteria in and will let moisture out. A Shell ThatвЂ™s Too Thin вЂў The shell of a bodycheck egg is too thin and porous. вЂў It probably wonвЂ™t hatch. Double Yolked Egg вЂў An egg with two yolks with most likely not hatch. вЂў Fertile eggs must be cared for before they are incubated. The eggs should be collected within 4 hours from when they were laid. The eggs are not washed unless absolutely necessary. Water warmer than the egg is used,so the egg sweats and releases the dirt. If you use cold water, the egg will contract and pull the dirt and bacteria deeper into its pores. Important Factors вЂў Four factors are of major importance in incubating eggs artificially: temperature, humidity, ventilation, and turning. Temperature вЂў Incubator temperature should be maintained between 99В° F and 101В° F. Humidity вЂў Too much moisture in the incubator prevents normal evaporation and results in a decreased hatch, but excessive moisture is seldom a problem in small incubators. Too little moisture may cause the chick to stick to the shell and be crippled at hatching time. Ventilation вЂў The best hatching results are obtained with normal air, which usually contains 21 percent oxygen. It is difficult to provide too much oxygen, but a deficiency is possible. It is possible to suffocate the eggs and chicks in an airtight container. Development of the Chick Nine Day Old Embryo вЂў 1. The clear fluid surrounding the chick is the amnion. вЂў 2. The yellow area covered with a blood system is the yolk sac. вЂў 3. The dense blood system in the piece of egg shell is the allantois. вЂў 4. The milky, clear material to the right of the shell is remaining white or albumen. WhatвЂ™s Happening to the Chick????? Major events: вЂў18 hours: The alimentary tract appears. вЂў19 hours: The brain crease begins to form. вЂў20 hours: Somites appear. вЂў21 hours: The brain and nervous system begin to form. вЂў22 hours: The head fold begins to form. вЂў23 hours: Blood islands appear. вЂў24 hours: The eyes begin to form. After one day in the incubator 6th Day Major Events: вЂўThe beak becomes visible. вЂўThe wing bends at the elbow. вЂўThe allantois begins to fuse with the chorion. вЂўThe ribs begin to appear. вЂўThe gizzard begins to form. вЂўThe intestines begin to loop. LetвЂ™s look at what happens to a chick while itвЂ™s still in the egg. http://chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/explore/embryology/ Development of the Chick вЂў Several changes take place during the 18th and 21st days. The abdominal wall surrounds the residual yolk sac on the 19th and 20th days of incubation. The chick draws what remains of the yolk into its body and "takes its lunch with it" when it hatches. The chick really doesn't need to be fed for the first day or two after it hatches. The Hatching Process вЂў The hatching process can last for 4 to 12 hours before the chick completely emerges from the shell. As the chick's head rotates from under the wing, the egg tooth pips the shell and continues to break the shell in a nearly perfect circle from the inside until it is able to push the top off the egg. вЂў Fluid decreases in the amnion. The chick's head is under its right wing with the tip of the beak pointed at the air shell. The neck muscle contracts and forces the egg tooth through the air cell, and the chick takes it first breath. This is referred to as internal pipping. At this time, you may hear the chick peeping inside the shell. The Chick Hatches!! вЂў On the 21st day, the chick finishes its escape from the shell. The egg tooth makes the initial break in the shell, a sharp, horny structure located near the top of the beak. This is referred to as external pipping. A Successful Hatch! вЂў Shortly after the chick hatches its down well dry and fluff up The Chick can be removed from the incubator when they are still wet if they are placed in a brooding area at 92 95 degrees F. The Egg Tooth вЂў The egg tooth is only present to help the chick break from the egg. Within 12 to 24 hours after the chick hatches the egg tooth will dry and fall off. Care of Babies вЂў After the chicks hatch you will have to keep them warm. If they peep too much, they are cold! вЂў They are babies..they will sleep a lot! Care of Chicks вЂў Chicks need water and feed after they are born. вЂў They will need a dry place to stay in вЂў Enjoy your chicks!! BOY OR GIRL CHICKEN? вЂў The boy chickens have shorter feathers than the girl chickens.