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Product Design Constraints and Requirements

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Design Constraints
Written Report Format
Product Design Constraints and
пЃ± Design
Engineers must consider a multitude of technical,
economic, social, environmental, and political constraints
when they design products and processes.
пЃ± There
must be clear evidence in your design project that
you have addressed the constraints that are relevant to your
Effect of Constraints
Better Designs
Design Changes
Functional Constraints
• Overall Geometry – size, width, space, arrangement
• Motion of parts – type, direction, velocities, acceleration,
• Forces involved – load direction, magnitude, load, impact
• Energy needed – heating, cooling, conversion, pressure
• Materials to be used – flow, transport, properties
• Control system – electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, pneumatic
• Information flow – inputs, outputs, form, display
Safety Constraints
• Operational – direct, indirect, hazard elimination
• Human – warnings, training
• Environmental – land, sea, air, noise, light, radiation,
reaction, transport
Quality Constraints
• Quality assurance – regulations, standards, codes
• Quality control – inspection, testing, labeling
• Reliability – design life, failures, statistics
Manufacturing Constraints
• Production of components – factory limitations, means of
production, wastes
• Purchase of components – supplier quality, reliability,
quality control, inspection
• Assembly – installation, foundations, bolting, welding
• Transport – material handling, clearance, packaging
Timing Constraints
• Design schedule – project planning, project control
• Development schedule – design detailing, compliance tests
• Production schedule – manufacture, assembly, packing,
• Delivery schedule – delivery date, distribution network,
supply chains
Economic Constraints
Marketing analysis – size of market, distribution, market segments
Design costs – design team computing, information retrieval
Development costs – design detailing, supplier costs, testing costs
Manufacturing cost - tooling, labor, overhead, assembly, inspection
Distribution costs - packing, transport, service centers, spare parts,
• Resources – time, budget, labor, capital, machines, material
Ergonomic Constraints
• User needs – type of operation, instructions, warnings
• Ergonomic design – man-machine relationships,
operation, height, layout, comfort, lighting
• Cybernetic design – controls, layout, clarity, interactions
Ecological Constraints
• General environmental impact – impact on natural
resources, social resources
• Sustainability – political and commercial consequences,
implications for following generations
• Material selection –solid, liquid, gas, stability, protection,
• Working fluid selection – fluid, gas, flammability, toxicity
Aesthetic Constraints
• Customer appeal – shape, color, texture, form, feel, smell,
surprise and delight features
• Fashion – culture, history, trends
• Future expectations – rate of change in technology, trends,
product families
Life-Cycle Constraints
• Distribution – means of transport, nature and conditions of
dispatch, rules, regulations
• Operation – quietness, wear, special uses, working
• Maintenance – servicing intervals, inspection, exchange and
repair, cleaning, diagnostics
• Disposal – recycle, scrap
Legal/Ethical Constraints
• Regulations – OSHA, FAA, FDA
• Ethics – public safety, health, welfare and integrity
• Intellectual Property – patents, trademarks, copyrights
Project Reports
• MidTerm report
• Oral report
• Final Report
MidTerm Report
• Should describe MidSemester progress
• Think of it as a start on your final report
• Introductory and background material and
project description material will remain the
Technical Communication Format
(MAE 451)
• “Double Five”
• Include technical discussion
• Include business topics as appropriate
Report Format
• Summary
• The Problem
• Scope and Goals
• Solution
• Results
• Conclusions
• References
Summarize the project and your work
Don’t summarize the report
Briefly introduce the problem
Summarize the solution and conclusions
Typically half a page in length
The Problem (Introduction)
• Introduce the design problem here
• Background information on the company or
research/laboratory area
• What is the project?
The Problem (Introduction)
• Introduce the design problem here
• Background information on the company or
research/laboratory area
• What is the project?
• Why is it of interest?
• What are constraints or requirements that
the solution must satisfy
• Briefly highlight the contents of the report
Scope and Goals
• Very specific description of your design
project and expectations
• What specifically was to be accomplished?
• Are you part of a team?
• Are you continuing a project?
• What is needed to finish the project?
• Select Titles and Subtitles for your project
• This is the place to describe the details of your
work process and issues encountered
• Discuss constraints and your management of
them - a special subsection would be best
• Include figures, graphs and photos
• Large amounts of information should be in an
appendix at the end of the report
• Describe the results of your work including
your resulting design
• Include figures, drawings etc. as
• Comment on the quality of your technical
results and design
Have you achieved the goals of your design?
Is the problem completely solved?
Is there continuation after the semester ends?
Will the project have to be continued by
another group?
• If more work is needed, describe it carefully
and suggest a completion schedule.
• References make your work credible
• Back up all of your facts with references
• Indicate references for any previous work on
your design project
• Indicate references for similar projects by
• Use references for any technical approaches
used in your solution
• State your references completely
Report Format
• Summary
• The Problem
• Scope and Goals
• Solution
• Results
• Conclusions
• References
Comments on Figures
• Figures are best inserted directly in the text
• Insert figures right after they are discussed
• Clearly number each figure and be sure to
discuss the figure by number
• As an alternate - place all the figures
together at the end of the report
Just to Summarize
• Think about CONSTRAINTS and report on
their effect on your design
• Make your report professional
• Think of the MidTerm report as a start on
your final report
• Make use of the suggested report format
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