The Instructional Design Process November 9, 2000 Learning & Instruction пЃ® Define learning Development of new KSA пЃ† Permanent change in behavior пЃ† пЃ® Define instruction пЃ† Arrangement of the environment (mediapresented information) to facilitate learning Instructional Need пЃ® How do you know if you have one? Performance need is gap between existing and desired behavior пЃ† Instructional need is a performance need that can be solved by instruction (rather than changes in resources, personnel, etc.) пЃ† Instructional design is... пЃ® The systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into specifications for instructional materials and activities -Smith & Ragan пЃ® Producing a solution to an instructional problem -Lockee What does a designer do? The primary role of the designer is to: пЃ® пЃ® Decide what is important for students to learn. Effectively arrange the learning environment (media) to maximize the probability of individual student learning (permanent changes in behavior). Instructional Design is based on.. пЃ® General Systems Theory пЃ† пЃ® Educational Psychology Theory пЃ† пЃ® From Behaviorism to Constructivism Communication Theory пЃ† пЃ® A set of interrelated and acting parts that work together toward a common goal Sender, receiver, feedback Instructional Theory What are the advantages of ID? пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Focus on what learner will be able to do as a result of the instruction Linkage between components Empirical and replicable process Produces consistent instruction Facilitates effective assessment methods Applicable across settings ID Process: Step by Step пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Needs analysis Determine instructional goal Analyze the instructional goal пЃ† пЃ† пЃ® Necessary entry behaviors Step-by-step goal performance Analyze learners and contexts пЃ† пЃ† пЃ† Prior knowledge Learning environment Application of skills and knowledge Components of Systems Approach пЃ® Write performance objectives Very specific and measureable пЃ† Some include conditions пЃ† пЃ® Develop assessment instruments Emphasis on accurately measuring behaviors пЃ† Now rather than later... пЃ† Components of Systems Approach пЃ® Develop instructional strategies пЃ† пЃ† пЃ† пЃ† пЃ® Presentation of information Practice and feedback Testing Follow-up activities Develop instruction пЃ† пЃ† Creation of materials Deliverables which exemplify previous steps Components of Systems Approach пЃ® Conduct formative evaluation of instruction One-to-one prototype testing пЃ† Small group evaluation пЃ† Field testing пЃ† пЃ® Revise instruction пЃ† пЃ® Data from formative evaluation used to assess whole process Conduct summative evaluation Or simply put... пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Design Develop Evaluate Sometimes called вЂњInstructional DevelopmentвЂќ Basic ID Model Dick & Carey, 1966 ID Resources Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction (4th ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Gagne, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Shambaugh, R., & Magliaro, S. (1997). Mastering the possibilities: A process approach to instructional design. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.