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The Instructional Design Process

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The Instructional Design Process
November 9, 2000
Learning & Instruction
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Define learning
Development of new KSA
пЃ† Permanent change in behavior
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Define instruction
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Arrangement of the environment (mediapresented information) to facilitate learning
Instructional Need
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How do you know if you have one?
Performance need is gap between existing
and desired behavior
пЃ† Instructional need is a performance need
that can be solved by instruction (rather
than changes in resources, personnel, etc.)
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Instructional design is...
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The systematic process of translating
principles of learning and instruction into
specifications for instructional materials
and activities
-Smith & Ragan
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Producing a solution to an instructional
problem
-Lockee
What does a designer do?
The primary role of the designer is to:
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Decide what is important for students to
learn.
Effectively arrange the learning
environment (media) to maximize the
probability of individual student learning
(permanent changes in behavior).
Instructional Design is based on..
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General Systems Theory
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Educational Psychology Theory
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From Behaviorism to Constructivism
Communication Theory
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A set of interrelated and acting parts that
work together toward a common goal
Sender, receiver, feedback
Instructional Theory
What are the advantages of ID?
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Focus on what learner will be able to do
as a result of the instruction
Linkage between components
Empirical and replicable process
Produces consistent instruction
Facilitates effective assessment
methods
Applicable across settings
ID Process: Step by Step
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Needs analysis
Determine instructional goal
Analyze the instructional goal
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Necessary entry behaviors
Step-by-step goal performance
Analyze learners and contexts
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Prior knowledge
Learning environment
Application of skills and knowledge
Components of Systems
Approach
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Write performance objectives
Very specific and measureable
пЃ† Some include conditions
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Develop assessment instruments
Emphasis on accurately measuring
behaviors
пЃ† Now rather than later...
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Components of Systems
Approach
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Develop instructional strategies
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Presentation of information
Practice and feedback
Testing
Follow-up activities
Develop instruction
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Creation of materials
Deliverables which exemplify previous steps
Components of Systems
Approach
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Conduct formative evaluation of
instruction
One-to-one prototype testing
пЃ† Small group evaluation
пЃ† Field testing
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Revise instruction
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Data from formative evaluation used to
assess whole process
Conduct summative evaluation
Or simply put...
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Design
Develop
Evaluate
Sometimes called “Instructional
Development”
Basic ID Model
Dick & Carey, 1966
ID Resources
Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of
instruction (4th ed.). New York: HarperCollins College
Publishers.
Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Gagne, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of
instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt
Brace College Publishers.
Shambaugh, R., & Magliaro, S. (1997). Mastering the
possibilities: A process approach to instructional
design. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.
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