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Design Considerations
CS2312
Conceptual Design includes Operational
Use
Mini World
Requirements collection & analysis
Processing Requirements
Database requirements
Conceptual design
DBMS
Independent
Conceptual
(inschema
a high level data model)
Transaction Design
DBMS independent
Data model design
DBMS
specific
Conceptual schema
(in the data model of a specific DBMS
Physical design
Internal schema
(for the same DBMS)
Data Definition Language Statements
Transaction Implementation
Database Application Life Cycle
S y s te m D e fin itio n
D e s ig n
Im p le m e n ta tio n
L o a d in g /D a ta C o n ve rs io n
A p p lic a tio n C o nv e rs io n
Te s tin g & Va lid a tio n
O p e ra tio n
M o n ito rin g & M a in te n a n c e
Conceptual design & Data model requirements
Conceptual design
Data model requirements
п‚®
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Complete
understanding of
database structure,
semantics, constraints,
relationships etc
п‚® DBMS independent
п‚® Stable description
п‚® Database users and
application users views;
aids their understanding
п‚® Communication with
users
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Expressive
Simple
Minimal
п‚® small number of basic
concepts that are distinct
and non-overlapping in
meaning
Diagrammatic
Formal
п‚® accurate & unambiguous
CONFLICTING
REQUIREMENTS
Transaction Design
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Known transactions (applications) that will run on the
database
Database schema must include all information
required by transactions
Relative importance of transactions and expected
rates of invocation important for performance tuning
Identify input/output & functional behaviour: 3
categories
1. Retrieval
display/reports
2. Update
insert new data/modify old
3. Mixed
Transactions can be used to encapsulate integrity
constraints
Transaction Design
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High level process specification technique
data flow diagrams, process modelling etc
Detailed design using programming techniques for
loops, if statements etc
Detailed design using set database operations
Eight basic operations for updates on EER schema
п‚® insert entity, modify, delete entity
п‚® add, modify, remove relationship
п‚® add and remove from class
п‚® add and remove class
Transaction environment
п‚®
Pre-defined canned transactions
п‚® A free-for-all using SQL directly
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п‚®
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Chiefly On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP)
Chiefly Management Information System (MIS)
Multi-user or single-user
 number of concurrent users—peaks, worst case,
and average
 potential conflicts—locking, timestamps
п‚® distributed transactions
Integrity Checks
п‚® as updates made in transactions
п‚® batch run transaction
On-Line Transactions
O N -L IN E
D E C IS IO N S U P P O R T
T R A N S A C T IO N P R O C E S S IN G
• Inquiry & A nalysis
• R eal tim e Transactions
• R etrieval Intensive
• U pdate Intensive
• A d H oc Q ueries
• P re-D efined Transactions
• U npredictable Q uery • Transaction Throughput
C om plexity
• D ata Integrity
• H igh A vailability
Who is Using the Database?
п‚®
Users & Ease of Use
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Who is the target enduser for queries and/or
update transactions
User Interfaces
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graphical
forms-based
SQL
reports generated
menu-based
Task analysis
Work flows
Views
Interfaces
п‚®
people
п‚® software
п‚® other databases
п‚® hardware
п‚® organisational
processes
Housekeeping
п‚®
Backup & Archiving
п‚® on-line
or off-line backups
п‚® size of backups
п‚® incremental vs dump
п‚® archiving strategy
п‚®
Security
п‚® passwords
п‚® permissions
п‚® views
Operational Considerations
Scope
 complete flexibility with �bells and whistles’
п‚® kernel activities
Model choice
п‚® hierarchical / network / relational / object-oriented
/object-relational
Software/Hardware
п‚® Which database management system ?
п‚® Configuration: e.g Unix server and PC front-ends?
Choice of DBMS
Costs
1. Software acquisition
cost
2. Maintenance cost
3. Hardware acquisition
cost
4. Database creation &
conversion cost
5. Personnel cost
6. Training cost
7. Operating costs
п‚®
Data model depends
on:
п‚® The structure and
use of the data
п‚® Familiarity of the
system
п‚® Available vendor
services
п‚® communication
software
п‚® data entry
software
п‚® design and
monitoring tools
etc
Storage: Size and Volatility of data
п‚®
п‚®
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number of records
(tuples)
record (tuple) size
growth potential
volatility
(growth/shrinkage)
temporary space
requirements
create table year
(yearno number(1) primary key,
yeartutorid number(4),
yeartut_uk unique
exceptions into bad_tutors
using index
not null
constraint tut_fk
foreign key (yeartutorid) references
staff(staffid))
tablespace cags_course
storage (initial 6144
next 6144
minextents 1
maxextents 5
pctincrease 5
pctfree 20);
Performance
п‚®
п‚®
Query Profile
п‚® frequency of certain
queries
п‚® hit rate on relations
п‚® certain relations used
together
п‚® selection attributes
Update Profile
п‚® dynamic or static
п‚® hit rate of certain updates
 predictable—pre-fetch
strategies
APPLICATION SPECIFIC
must know about queries,
transactions & applications
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
analysing DB queries and
transactions
analysing expected
frequency of invocation of
queries and transactions
analysing time constraints of
queries and transactions
analysing expected
frequency of update
operations
Performance Measures
п‚®
Response time: how long will a query/update take ?
п‚® on average
п‚® at peak times: worst case
п‚®
Transaction throughput: how many transactions can
be processed per second/millisecond
п‚® on average
п‚® at peak times: worst case
п‚®
How long will a report on the whole database take?
Data take-on
Analytical & experimental approaches
п‚®
п‚®
Benchmarks
1. Industry standard
п‚® external view of product;
п‚® samples performance on specific (simple)
application;
п‚® meant for comparison across vendors
2. Vendor
п‚® identifying performance improvements
п‚® evolve with product
п‚® guide to development efforts & sales support
3. Customer-application
п‚® for important performance critical applications
п‚® vendors provided with benchmark by customer
п‚® high cost for customer
п‚® often rely on industry-standard measure
Industry Standard Benchmarks
“significant disk input/output,
moderate system and
application execution time,
and transaction integrity”
The Transaction Processing
Performance Council (TPC)
TPC-D:
“a wide range of functions,
provided over small to
large databases”
п‚®
п‚®
Debit/Credit Banking Application
Performance Metrics:
п‚®
Throughput transactions per second
(tps)
п‚® Response time of transaction
(transaction elapse time)
п‚® Cost metric
$/tps
п‚® OLTP multiple on-line terminal
sessions—transaction arrival
distribution. Wait time between
requests is �think time’
п‚®
Not update-intensive
п‚® Ad hoc queries
п‚®
Flexibility of query specification
Wisconsin
Designed to produce
predictable results
Performance Metrics:
п‚®
Response time of query (query
elapse time)
п‚® CPU & I/O utilisation
п‚® Set Query
п‚® average query throughput per
minute & cost metric
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