Making K-12 School Sites Safer and More Secure by Design Safer Schools by Design What security requirements does the Arizona Department of Education currently have? вЂў The State Legislature requires compliance with ARS 15341(A) 34, "Arizona School Emergency Response Plan, Minimum Requirements". вЂў Neither the minimum requirements of the Response Plan or recommended resources on ADOE's web site currently recommend physical security systems, unless a site specific security evaluation determines that such measures are advisable. Safer Schools by Design SFB staff conducted a literature search on school security. Five of the most comprehensive sources are cited below: вЂў "Safe Schools Facilities Planner - Health and Life Safety, School Climate and Order", North Carolina Board of Education вЂў "Safety by Design", Fayette County Public School System, Kentucky вЂў "Designing Safe Schools", Randall Atlas PhD, Atlas Safety and Security Design, Inc. вЂў "Florida Safe School Design Guidelines", Florida Department of Education вЂў "Safe Schools Guide-Selected Strategies and resources", Oklahoma State Department of Education Safer Schools by Design Two key findings with regard to physical security systems: Finding number one: None of the reviewed literature recommended particular security devices. In fact, several studies suggested that a "cottage industry" has developed around recommending and selling such devices to school administrators, regardless of whether there is any demonstrated need. Safer Schools by Design Finding number two: There was general agreement that securing a school involves considering the school location, community variables, grades served, campus layout, and policies and procedures that are in place. School safety relates to вЂњschool climateвЂќ. The climate of a school involves how students relate to each other and to teachers and school staff. Safer Schools by Design Security System Review: 1. Entry-control approaches: (limited entry/exit) a. Security guard(s) b. Personnel operating a wand or metal detection station c. Badge/ID card reader d. PIN number on a keypad e. Biometrics Safer Schools by Design Security System Review: 2. Building Entry Alarm Systems: a. The system detects intruders after hours in controlled or hidden areas. b. It can be used to signal emergency personnel when immediate help is required. Safer Schools by Design Security System Review: 3. Duress Alarm Systems: a. Simple panic button mounted in classroom. b. Pager like device with panic button worn by school staff. Alarm signal sent to alarm console. Code identifies teacher but not the specific location of the teacher. c. Same as previous except alarm signal indicates identity and locates and tracks the device. Safer Schools by Design Security System Review: 4. Camera Systems: a. Greatest strength lies in identifying suspects after the fact. b. Catches criminal behavior as it occurs only when continuously monitored. Safer Schools by Design Site Design Best Practice Recommendations Safer Schools by Design Enclosing a campus with fencing is more to keep outsiders out than to keep insiders in. No fence can keep out someone determined to enter the campus. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўLocate site entry points in high visibility areas where they can be easily observed and monitored by school personnel. вЂўUse fencing to limit the number of entry/exit points onto school grounds. вЂўUtilize fencing that does not permit footholds: (8-foot chain link fence with small mesh (1-inch to 1-1/2 inch) is considerably less expensive than wrought iron and provides an excellent barrier. Unlike a 6-foot chain link fence, it is difficult to pull up on the fence and the small mesh doesn't allow toeholds.) Safer Schools by Design School sites with well designed, well lighted parking lots and vehicular routes are easier to manage and keep students and staff safer. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўAt a minimum, provide adequate lighting for auto parking areas, bus loading/unloading zones, pick-up and drop-off areas, bicycle parking areas, and walkways leading to building entrances. вЂўProvide exterior vandal proof lighting at building entrances and along glassed areas of the building. вЂўRestrict access to parking to a limited number of controlled entrances. вЂўLocate visitor parking adjacent to main entry and administration. вЂўClose unsupervised entrances during low-use times. Safer Schools by Design Exterior design features can be configured to enhance site safety. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўShrubs, trees and landscape features should not impede visual surveillance on the school site. вЂўDesign landscaping and tree placement to eliminate roof access. вЂўDesign covered walkways to eliminate opportunities for gaining access to roofs, windows or other upper level areas. вЂўConsider applying slippery finishes or coatings to columns. Safer Schools by Design Exterior building design elements can be arranged to provide natural surveillance and enhance security. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўDesign walls and architectural features that do not allow footholds or handholds. Columns and other supports should discourage climbing by using smooth building materials and finishes. вЂўAvoid putting unnecessary niches in exterior walls that can create hiding places. Safer Schools by Design Building Design Best Practice Recommendations Safer Schools by Design The ideal main building entry should be located at the front of the school near the administrative areas. When entering the school, students need to feel safe within a protective learning environment. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўLocate site entry points in high visibility areas where they can be easily observed and monitored by school personnel. вЂўConsider vestibules at main entry doors where visitors can be channeled into the main office area to increase security. вЂўMinimize the number of unmonitored entrances into the building(s). Secure secondary entries. вЂўAlways locate administration areas adjacent to main entries and lobby. From The Washington Post 11-08-2006 Safer Schools by Design Open sight lines allow for natural surveillance by both students and staff. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўFrom the main entrance there should be unobstructed sight lines through the library for easy observation. Low stacks placed parallel to the circulation desk aid in visual control. вЂўMain access points to commons areas should have unobstructed surveillance. вЂўIn locker rooms, locate staff offices with windows near the main entrance. вЂўTo the greatest extent possible, minimize hiding places and blind corners in any area of the school. Safer Schools by Design An important concept of classroom design is that in an emergency situation, classrooms must be able to be locked down quickly. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўDesign classroom doors with locksets that allow door to be locked from either side and always opened from inside. вЂўDesign doors with view panels or side lights to increase visibility. вЂўDesign classroom windows to allow for quick surveillance of the campus by staff and students during the course of their normal activities. Safer Schools by Design Open stairwells make it easier to keep an eye on students. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўEnclose area under interior stairways. вЂўAvoid enclosed exterior stairwells when possible. вЂўExterior stairs, balconies, ramps and upper level corridors should have open or see-through handrails and guardrails. Safer Schools by Design Certain design strategies can help mitigate safety and security problems in toilet areas. Best Practice Recommendations: вЂўEliminate double door vestibules entrances in toilet rooms. Privacy screen partitions rather than doors allows better acoustical surveillance while preserving privacy. вЂўConsider locating sinks outside of the toilet room for better visual surveillance. вЂўWaterless urinals are preferable. Safer Schools by Design Security after the Columbine High School Attack Background: Jeffco has 85,000 students at 148 school sites. Columbine HS had 1,945 students at the time of the attack. Before the attack: вЂўNo physical security requirements other than building locks. Visitors were asked to sign-in at school offices, but it generally wasn't enforced. After the attack: вЂўA card key entry system for staff. Students wear ID tags at all times. вЂўFull time monitor at the main entry and the student entry. вЂўBanned long coats because that is what shooters wore. вЂўNo metal detectors. Local law enforcement and the CO AG indicated detectors may not prevent attacks. Safer Schools by Design Seven Years Later, the district is currently installing: вЂўCard readers and video cameras at HS and MS buildings. вЂўClassroom door hardware lockable from the inside with any teacherвЂ™s key. вЂўMain entry vestibules adjacent to the main office and separated by a door. Inside vestibule doors locked when school starts. Visitors must go through reception area to check in. Under evaluation: вЂўElectronic lock at reception area with a door buzzer for entry. (District is concerned about lack of a "welcoming" feeling that it believes schools should convey.) вЂўPA systems with a microphone in all classrooms that can be monitored without a teacher having to physically activate it. Safer Schools by Design Non-Physical Measures Jeffco has implemented: вЂўA district-wide safety plan and crisis response plan. вЂўRegular emergency practice drills and training at schools. вЂўAn emergency hotline number for parents. вЂўArea on its web site for periodic updates during a crisis. вЂўIncreased visible security presence at schools. вЂўClose working relationship with law enforcement agencies. вЂўPrograms to address student bullying and violence. вЂўMediation programs and counseling for students with anger and conflict issues.