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CSE 477. VLSI Systems Design

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ECE 484
VLSI Digital Circuits
Fall 2014
Lecture 02: Design Metrics
Dr. George L. Engel
Adapted from slides provided by Mary Jane Irwin (PSU)
[Adapted from Rabaey’s Digital Integrated Circuits, ©2002, J. Rabaey et al.]
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.1
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Major Design Challenges
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Microscopic issues
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пЃ¬
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ultra-high speeds
power dissipation and
supply rail drop
growing importance of
interconnect
noise, crosstalk
reliability,
manufacturability
clock distribution
Year
Tech.
Complexity
1997
1998
1999
2002
0.35
0.25
0.18
0.13
13 M Tr.
20 M Tr.
32 M Tr.
130 M Tr.
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.2
Macroscopic issues
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time-to-market
design complexity
(millions of gates)
high levels of
abstractions
design for test
reuse and IP, portability
systems on a chip (SoC)
tool interoperability
Frequency 3 Yr. Design
Staff Size
400 MHz
210
500 MHz
270
600 MHz
360
800 MHz
800
Staff Costs
$90 M
$120 M
$160 M
$360 M
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Overview of Last Lecture
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Digital integrated circuits experience exponential
growth in complexity (Moore’s law) and performance
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Design in the deep submicron (DSM) era creates new
challenges
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Devices become somewhat different
Global clocking becomes more challenging
Interconnect effects play a more significant role
Power dissipation may be the limiting factor
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Our goal in this class will be to understand and design
digital integrated circuits in the deep submicron era
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Today we look at some basic design metrics
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.3
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Fundamental Design Metrics
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Functionality
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Cost
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Reliability, robustness
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Noise margins
Noise immunity
Performance
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NRE (fixed) costs - design effort
RE (variable) costs - cost of parts, assembly, test
Speed (delay)
Power consumption; energy
Time-to-market
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.4
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Cost of Integrated Circuits
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NRE (non-recurring engineering) costs
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Fixed cost to produce the design
- design effort
- design verification effort
- mask generation
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пЃ¬
пЃ±
Influenced by the design complexity and designer productivity
More pronounced for small volume products
Recurring costs – proportional to product volume
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silicon processing
- also proportional to chip area
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assembly (packaging)
test
fixed cost
cost per IC = variable cost per IC + ----------------volume
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.5
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
NRE Cost is Increasing
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.6
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Silicon Wafer
Single die
Wafer
From http://www.amd.com
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.7
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Recurring Costs
cost of die + cost of die test + cost of packaging
variable cost = ---------------------------------------------------------------final test yield
cost of die
cost of wafer
= ----------------------------------dies per wafer Г— die yield
пЃ° Г— (wafer diameter/2)2
пЃ° Г— wafer diameter
dies per wafer = ---------------------------------- пЂ­ --------------------------die area
пѓ– 2 Г— die area
die yield
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.8
= (1 + (defects per unit area Г— die area)/пЃЎ)-пЃЎ
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Yield Example
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Example
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пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
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wafer size of 12 inches, die size of 2.5 cm2, 1 defects/cm2,
пЃЎ = 3 (measure of manufacturing process complexity)
252 dies/wafer (remember, wafers round & dies square)
die yield of 16%
252 x 16% = only 40 dies/wafer die yield !
Die cost is strong function of die area
пЃ¬
proportional to the third or fourth power of the die area
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.9
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Examples of Cost Metrics (1994)
Chip
Metal Line Wafer Defects Area Dies/ Yield Die
layers width cost
/cm2
(mm2) wafer
cost
386DX
2
0.90
$900
1.0
43
360 71%
$4
486DX2
3
0.80 $1200
1.0
81
181 54% $12
PowerPC
4
0.80 $1700
1.3
121
115 28% $53
601
HP PA
3
0.80 $1300
1.0
196
66
27% $73
7100
DEC
3
0.70 $1500
1.2
234
53
19% $149
Alpha
Super
3
0.70 $1700
1.6
256
48
13% $272
SPARC
Pentium
3
0.80 $1500
1.5
296
40
9% $417
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.10
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Reliability
Noise in Digital Integrated Circuits
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Noise – unwanted variations of voltages and currents at
the logic nodes
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from two wires placed side by side
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capacitive coupling
v(t)
- voltage change on one wire can
influence signal on the neighboring wire
- cross talk
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inductive coupling
i(t)
- current change on one wire can
influence signal on the neighboring wire
VDD
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from noise on the power and ground supply rails
пЃ¬
can influence signal levels in the gate
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.11
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Example of Capacitive Coupling
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Signal wire glitches as large as 80% of the supply
voltage will be common due to crosstalk between
neighboring wires as feature sizes continue to scale
Crosstalk vs. Technology
Pulsed Signal
0.12m CMOS
0.16m CMOS
Black line quiet
Red lines pulsed
0.25m CMOS
Glitches strength vs technology
0.35m CMOS
From Dunlop, Lucent, 2000
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.12
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Static Gate Behavior
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Steady-state parameters of a gate – static behavior – tell
how robust a circuit is with respect to both variations in
the manufacturing process and to noise disturbances.
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Digital circuits perform operations on Boolean variables
x пѓЋ{0,1}
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A logical variable is associated with a nominal voltage
level for each logic state
1 пѓ› VOH and 0 пѓ› VOL
V(x)
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V(y)
VOH = ! (VOL)
VOL = ! (VOH)
Difference between VOH and VOL is the logic or signal
swing Vsw
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.13
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
DC Operation
Voltage Transfer Characteristics (VTC)
пЃ±
Plot of output voltage as a function of the input voltage
V(x)
V(y)
V(y)
f
VOH = f (VIL)
V(y)=V(x)
VM
Switching Threshold
VOL = f (VIH)
VIL
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.14
VIH
V(x)
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Mapping Logic Levels to the Voltage Domain
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The regions of acceptable high and low voltages are
delimited by VIH and VIL that represent the points on the
VTC curve where the gain = -1
V(y)
"1"
VOH
VIH
VOH
Slope = -1
Undefined
Region
VIL
"0"
VOL
Slope = -1
VOL
VIL VIH
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.15
V(x)
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Noise Margins
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For robust circuits, want the “0” and “1” intervals to be a s
large as possible
VDD
VDD
VOH
"1"
NMH = VOH - VIH
Noise Margin High
Noise Margin Low
VOL
VIH
Undefined
Region
VIL
NML = VIL - VOL
"0"
Gnd
Gate Output
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Gnd
Gate Input
Large noise margins are desirable, but not sufficient …
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.16
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
The Regenerative Property
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A gate with regenerative property ensure that a disturbed
signal converges back to a nominal voltage level
v0
v1
v2
v3
v5
6
8
v6
v2
5
V (volts)
v4
v0
3
v1
1
-1
0
2
4
10
t (nsec)
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.17
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Conditions for Regeneration
v0
v1
v2
v3
v4
v5
v6
v1 = f(v0) пѓћ v1 = finv(v2)
v3
f(v)
finv(v)
v1
v1
v3
finv(v)
v2
v0
Regenerative Gate
пЃ±
f(v)
v0
v2
Nonregenerative Gate
To be regenerative, the VTC must have a transient
region with a gain greater than 1 (in absolute value)
bordered by two valid zones where the gain is smaller
than 1. Such a gate has two stable operating points.
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.18
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Noise Immunity
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Noise margin expresses the ability of a circuit to
overpower a noise source
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noise sources: supply noise, cross talk, interference, offset
Absolute noise margin values are deceptive
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a floating node is more easily disturbed than a node driven by a
low impedance (in terms of voltage)
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Noise immunity expresses the ability of the system to
process and transmit information correctly in the
presence of noise
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For good noise immunity, the signal swing (i.e., the
difference between VOH and VOL) and the noise margin
have to be large enough to overpower the impact of fixed
sources of noise
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.19
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Directivity
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A gate must be undirectional: changes in an output level
should not appear at any unchanging input of the same
circuit
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In real circuits full directivity is an illusion (e.g., due to capacitive
coupling between inputs and outputs)
Key metrics: output impedance of the driver and input
impedance of the receiver
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ideally, the output impedance of the driver should be zero
input impedance of the receiver should be infinity
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.20
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Fan-In and Fan-Out
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Fan-out – number of load gates
connected to the output of the
driving gate
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gates with large fan-out are slower
N
пЃ±
Fan-in – the number of inputs to
the gate
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M
gates with large fan-in are bigger
and slower
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.21
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
The Ideal Inverter
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The ideal gate should have
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пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
infinite gain in the transition region
a gate threshold located in the middle of the logic swing
high and low noise margins equal to half the swing
input and output impedances of infinity and zero, resp.
Vout
Ri = п‚Ґ
Ro = 0
g=-п‚Ґ
Fanout = п‚Ґ
NMH = NML = VDD/2
Vin
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.23
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Delay Definitions
Vin
Vout
Vin
Propagation delay
input
waveform
50%
tp = (tpHL + tpLH)/2
tpHL
t
tpLH
Vout
90%
output
waveform
signal slopes
50%
10%
tf
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.25
tr
t
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Modeling Propagation Delay
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Model circuit as first-order RC network
vout (t) = (1 – e–t/)V
R
vout
where пЃґ = RC
C
vin
Time to reach 50% point is
t = ln(2) пЃґ = 0.69 пЃґ
Time to reach 90% point is
t = ln(9) пЃґ = 2.2 пЃґ
пЃ±
Matches the delay of an inverter gate
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.26
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Power and Energy Dissipation
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Power consumption: how much energy is consumed
per operation and how much heat the circuit dissipates
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пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ±
supply line sizing (determined by peak power)
Ppeak = Vddipeak
battery lifetime (determined by average power dissipation)
p(t) = v(t)i(t) = Vddi(t)
Pavg= 1/T пѓІ p(t) dt = Vdd/T пѓІ idd(t) dt
packaging and cooling requirements
Two important components: static and dynamic
E (joules) = CL Vdd2 P0п‚®1 + tsc Vdd Ipeak P0п‚®1 + Vdd Ileakage
f0п‚®1 = P0п‚®1 * fclock
P (watts) = CL Vdd2 f0п‚®1 + tscVdd Ipeak f0п‚®1 + Vdd Ileakage
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.27
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Power and Energy Dissipation
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Propagation delay and the power consumption of a gate
are related
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Propagation delay is (mostly) determined by the speed at
which a given amount of energy can be stored on the
gate capacitors
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пЃ±
For a given technology and gate topology, the product of
the power consumption and the propagation delay is a
constant
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the faster the energy transfer (higher power dissipation) the
faster the gate
Power-delay product (PDP) – energy consumed by the gate per
switching event
An ideal gate is one that is fast and consumes little
energy, so the ultimate quality metric is
пЃ¬
Energy-delay product (EDP) = power-delay 2
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.28
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Summary
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Digital integrated circuits have come a long way and
still have quite some potential left for the coming
decades
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Some interesting challenges ahead
пЃ¬
пЃ±
Getting a clear perspective on the challenges and potential
solutions is the purpose of this course
Understanding the design metrics that govern digital
design is crucial
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Cost, reliability, speed, power and energy dissipation
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.29
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Design Abstraction Levels
SYSTEM
MODULE
+
GATE
CIRCUIT
Vin
Vout
DEVICE
G
S
n+
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.30
D
n+
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Device: The MOS Transistor
Gate oxide
Polysilicon
Gate
Source
n+
Drain
n+
p substrate
Field-Oxide
(SiO2)
p+ stopper
Bulk contact
CROSS-SECTION of NMOS Transistor
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.31
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
Circuit: The CMOS Inverter
VDD
Vin
Vout
CL
CSE477 L02 Design Metrics.32
Irwin&Vijay, PSU, 2002
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