Brandon Yost, ESOL Instructor, Washington County School District Dinah Scott, ESL Specialist, Washington County School District п‚ћPair-Share: Have studied abroad? п‚ћPrizes! you п‚ћ Features of the ideal foreign language acquisition study abroad (FLA SA) setting вЂњto achieve meaningful linguistic gains through out-of-class contact and make the sojourn experience worthwhileвЂќ (p. 51) п‚ћ Students need: пЃ± Consistent and substantive interactions with NS пЃ± Proficient in speaking and writing пЃ± Supportive interlocutors п‚ћ Reality пЃ± Usually not reported in the literature пЃ± Challenge belief that SA is best setting п‚ћ No guarantees: FLA SA studies report inconsistent results пЃ±More than just SA setting пЃ±Variables interconnected пЃ±Complex and unstable пЃ±Difficult to isolate and control п‚ћ Recommendation: Second Language Socialization (SLS) perspective пЃ±Connection among SA, learner identity, and SLS пЃ±Close examination of learners in SA environment The Effects of Intensive Study Abroad and At Home Language Programs on Second Language Acquisition of Spanish (DвЂ™Amico, 2010) п‚ћ Literature Review пЃ± FLA SA becoming more common пЃ± Impact of SA on L2 remains вЂњintricate and hard to defineвЂќ (p. 28) пЃ± Mixed results: Benefits of both SA and AH programs depending on nature of study пЃ± In general, SA has positive impact on linguistic and extra-linguistic features пЃ± вЂњThe simple belief that the SA context will produce вЂ�perfectвЂ™ or вЂ�native-likeвЂ™ L2 speakers is unrealisticвЂќ (p. 29). п‚ћ Study пЃ± 10 U.S. university students in six-week SA in Spain; control group in AH program пЃ± Fluency focus п‚ћ Results пЃ± SA students showed L2 fluency gains and increased willingness to communicate, but results вЂњnot drastically different from the AH learnersвЂќ (p. 168). пЃ± вЂњ(L)earners were able to make some gains in fluency in . . . a short time frameвЂќ (p. 153). п‚ћ Recommendations пЃ± No вЂњfast trackвЂќ to native-like L2 use; Set realistic and practical program goals. Social Interaction and Linguistic Gain During Study Abroad (Magnan & Back, 2007) п‚ћ Institute of International Education report: 93.5% SA programs are shortterm (p. 44) п‚ћ Study пЃ± 24 US university students; one semester SA in France пЃ± Questionnaires, Can-Do self-assessment, OPI, and Language Contact Profile (p. 47) п‚ћ Results пЃ± SA programs contribute to FLA; вЂњno recipe to ensure language improvementвЂќ (p. 56) пЃ± Contact with TL is key; no one form of contact guarantees FLA п‚ћ Recommendations пЃ± Advanced TL coursework before SA experience пЃ± When in France, вЂњdo not speak French with other AmericansвЂќ (p. 57). пЃ± Use more instruments more often ESL Teacher Education Abroad and at Home: A Cautionary Tale (Pray & Marx, 2012) п‚ћ Study пЃ± Comparison: Pre-service teachers in Mexico and in U.S. пЃ± Perceptions of culturally-appropriate language teaching п‚ћ Mixed Results пЃ± Developed a вЂњmore empathetic understanding of language and cultural issuesвЂќ (p. 216) пЃ± Overgeneralized own SA experience with ELLsвЂ™ experience in U.S. пЃ± Understood benefits of using L1 in language learning п‚ћ Recommendations пЃ± Teach SA courses and on-campus counterparts differently пЃ± Teach differences between studentsвЂ™ short-term SA experience & long- term immigrantsвЂ™ experience пЃ± Address misunderstandings related to language and culture пЃ± SA: A complement to on-campus programsвЂ”not a replacement п‚ћ The Impact of an International Field Experience on Preservice Teachers (Pence & Macgillivray, 2008) Study пЃ± Gauge impact of short-term SA experience пЃ± Data sources: journals, focus groups, observations, reflection paper, course evaluations, questionnaire one year later п‚ћ Professional and Personal Results пЃ± Increased confidence пЃ± Greater appreciation and respect for cultural diversity пЃ± Increased awareness of role of feedback and reflection п‚ћ Program Planning Recommendations пЃ± вЂњImportance of self-reflection cannot be overstatedвЂќ (p. 24). пЃ± Carefully selected supervisors provide support and feedback пЃ± Two-fold focus: cultural diversity and personal/professional growth пЃ± Goal: produce lifelong learners who advocate for students and families п‚ћ 44 South Korean Student Teachers came to USA to full student-teaching internship for two months in Jan & Feb 2012 п‚ћ Student Teachers were placed in both elementary and secondary classrooms with a cooperating teacher, based upon each student teachersвЂ™ content area of emphasis п‚ћ Student-teachers were also placed in English Speaking host family homes for the duration of their stay in USA п‚ћ Emphasis of their internship was to develop pedagogical knowledge to make them a better teacher in South Korea, being able to contrast the experience of South Korean Education system with the U.S. Education system п‚ћ Each Student-Teacher had to be in either their Junior or Senior year of their education program п‚ћ All content coursework must have been completed п‚ћ Every student-teacher doing the Study Abroad internship had to meet TOEFL score requirements expected of incoming international students at most colleges п‚ћ Does English language proficiency improve during short-term studentteaching internships? п‚ћ Student-Teachers were given a pre-test (upon arrival at beginning of January), a mid-test (end of January), and post-test (end of February) п‚ћ Each testing session utilized different forms of the test so that participants did not see the same questions again п‚ћ Six areas were tested using two different tests вЂў Michigan Test вЂ“ Listening, Grammar, Vocabulary, and Reading вЂў Quick Informal Assessment (QIA) вЂ“ Speaking & Writing п‚ћ The Listening Test consisted of 20 multiple choice questions п‚ћ The questions were played on an audio CD п‚ћ These questions were the first part of the Michigan Test п‚ћ The Grammar Test consisted of 30 questions п‚ћ These questions were numbers 21-50 of the Michigan Test п‚ћ The Vocabulary Test consisted of 30 questions п‚ћ These questions were numbers 51-80 of the Michigan Test п‚ћ The Reading Test consisted of 20 questions п‚ћ These questions were numbers 81-100 of the Michigan Test п‚ћA writing prompt was given to the students to write an essay about п‚ћ Each essay was blindly scored by two scorers п‚ћ Scores that differed by more than one point were discussed by each reviewer until consensus was made on the score п‚ћ The Speaking Test consisted of multiple questions that progressively became more difficult п‚ћ Once the studentвЂ™s oral proficiency was determined, the test ended; thus, some students answered 16-20 questions while others answered much fewer questions than that п‚ћ Statistically Signicant! вЂў Growth in Listening during 2nd month! вЂў Growth in Grammar across the two months combined! вЂў Reading (no growth from pre-postвЂ¦ drop off at mid test could be due to stress, fatigue) п‚ћ No Statistical Significance вЂў Two months is too short a time to see gains in Speaking, Reading, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Writing п‚ћ Improving ESL Learners' Listening Skills: At the Workplace and Beyond (Van Duzer, 1997) Listening is demanding. пЃ± Listener, speaker, context, and level of visual support пЃ± Critical activity during ELsвЂ™ silent period and beyond п‚ћ Listening is complex. пЃ± Many non-sequential processes occurring both simultaneously and in rapid succession пЃ± Both bottom-up and top-down processes п‚ћ Effective listening activities пЃ± Provide relevant tasks and authentic materials пЃ± Foster complex processing пЃ± Teach strategies пЃ± Have broad application п‚ћ Listening plays a critical role in communication and in SLA. п‚ћ Future groups are going to receive English training in regards to Listening and Grammar вЂў Specifically idiomatic phrases п‚ћ Qualitative studies to be done on perceptions of culture upon arriving contrasted with perceptions when leaving п‚ћ What п‚ћ How questions do you have? does this study connect to your own study abroad experiences? References DвЂ™Amico, M. L. (2010). The effects of intensive study abroad and at home language programs on second language acquisition of Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida. (ISBN: 978-1-1245-1390-4) Magnan, S.S., & Back, M. (2007). Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annuals, 40(1), 43-61. Pence, H. M., & Macgillivray, I. K. (2008). The impact of an international field experience on preservice teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education, 24(1), 14-25. Pray, L., & Marx, S. (2010). ESL teacher education abroad and at home A cautionary tale. The Teacher Educator, 45(3), 216-229. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08878730.2010.488099 Van Duzer, C. (1997). Improving ESL learners' listening skills: At the workplace and beyond. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from the Center for Applied Linguistics website: http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/listenqa.html Wang, C. (2010). Toward a second language socialization perspective: Issues in study abroad research. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 50-63.