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Review of Changes in ANSI Z136.1-2007

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ANSI Z136.1-2007
Johnny Jones
Laser Classifications
Laser Safety Program
Measurement Conditions
Aspects of Hazard Evaluation
Changes to Control Measures
Education and Training
Medical Surveillance
Non-Beam Hazards
Section 1. General
New classes 1M & 2M
Class 3a
3R (expanded beams are 1M or 2M)
Class 3b
Appendix H compares classes with
IEC 60825
Section 1. General
1.3. Laser Safety Programs
Replaces old 1.3 Laser Safety Officer
New normative Appendix A includes
LSO responsibilities
Laser Safety Committee
Responsibilities of employees and
supervisors (formerly informative)
Recommendation to contact LSO for individuals
purchasing lasers and fabricating, altering, or
installing class 3B or 4 lasers
Section 2. Definitions
alpha max., alpha min., aperture, blink reflex, coherent, divergence,
embedded laser, infrared, laser pointer, limiting angular subtense, limiting
aperture diameter, limiting cone angle, MPE, NHZ, optically aided viewing,
small source, pulse duration, service, visible radiation.
Condition 1, Condition 2, epithelium, eye-safe laser, laser classification, laser
personnel, magnified viewing, measurement aperture, monochromatic light,
normative appendix, photochemical effect, telescopic viewing, thermal effect.
Aphakic, calorimeter, cryogenic, denaturation, depigmentation, dermatology,
diopter, endoscope, fundus, radiant intensity, Rayleigh scattering, stromal
haze, synergism.
Section 3. Hazard Evaluation
Access to beam path (considering enclosures, baffle, beam,
etc.) added to environmental considerations.
Classification and labeling in accordance with IEC 60825-1
Ed. 1.2 under CDRH Laser Notice 50 is acceptable.
Optical transmission excluded from classification for optically
aided viewing (but still included for hazard evaluation).
LSO may declare the laser use area as the NHZ in lieu of
calculating all possible NHZ distances.
Visitors added to pesonnel groups.
Research settings added to scenario where “the principal
hazard control rests with the operator”.
Measurement Conditions
and Distances
ANSI Z136.1
IEC 60825
Condition 1
(200 cm)
Condition 1
(2000 mm)
Eye Loupe/
Condition 2
(10 cm)
Condition 2
(70 mm)
Condition 2
(10 cm)
Condition 3
(100 mm)
Section 4. Control Measures
Relaxation of unattended laser operation of class 1M, 2, 2M, and
3R (only “shall be provided with a clearly visible label”)
Changes/Additions to Engineering Controls
User-created enclosures are “barriers” unless interlocked.
Momentary action key control with removable key added.
Key switch downgraded to “should” for class 4.
(Incorrect in Table 10)
Alignment procedures added (formerly informative).
Outdoor controls and navigable airspace requirements
expanded to cover all classes.
Windows & barriers labeled if sold “other than as an integral part
of a product.” Threshold limit value not required for barriers.
OD required on warning sign if eyewear required.
Section 5. Education and Training
Refresher training changed from informative
to normative.
Users to include “any persons potentially
exposed” to levels in excess of Class 1.
Training to include warnings against the
misuse of lasers.
Training on “electrical safety” extended to
“safety procedures for non-beam hazards”.
Section 6. Medical Examinations
Title changed from “Medical Surveillance”.
In case of injury, medical examination to be
performed “as soon as practical”, usually
within 48 hours.
Medical surveillance downgraded to
“should” for Class 3B and 4 lasers.
Medical surveillance “not recommended” for
Class 1, 1M, 2, 2M, and 3R lasers.
Section 7. Non-Beam Hazards
Written SOP “shall” address non-beam
hazards as well as beam hazards.
Non-beam hazards grouped as physical,
chemical, and biological agents.
Control measures added to each group.
Resistive heating and spark ignition added.
Sensors and alarms in gas cabinets.
New guidance on laser disposal.
Section 8. Criteria for Exposure
of Eye and Skin
“Small source” changed to “point source”.
For non-circular extended sources geometric
mean changed to arithmetic mean.
Paragraph on repeated exposures in the
infrared was modified for clarity (but nothing
really changed).
Section 9. Measurement
Classification based on the point of greatest
hazard but no closer than distances in Table 9.
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