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National Institutes of Health (NIH) NAEPP 2007 Asthma

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National Institutes of Health (NIH)
NAEPP 2007 Asthma Guideline
Expert Panel Report (EPR) -3
Susan K. Ross RN, AE-C
MDH Asthma Program
651-201-5629
Susan.Ross@state.mn.us
1
National Institutes of Health
National Asthma Education Prevention Program (NAEPP)
2007
Guidelines for the Diagnosis and
Management of Asthma (EPR-3)
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/index.htm
National Asthma Education
and Prevention Program
2
What is Asthma?
“Asthma is a common chronic disorder of the
airways that involves a complex interaction of
airflow obstruction, bronchial
hyperresponsiveness and an underlying
inflammation. This interaction can be highly
variable among patients and within patients
over time”.
3
EPR 3- Section 2, p 12.
Characteristics of Asthma
• Airway Inflammation
• Airway Obstruction (reversible)
• Hyperresponsiveness (irritability of airways)
4
Normal & Asthmatic Bronchiole
5
Why Do We Need Asthma Guidelines?
6
Asthma:
–
–
In 2008, it was estimated that 23.3 million Americans currently
have asthma
Is one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood,
affecting an approx. 7.1 million children under 18 years (9.6%)
In 2007, 3,447 deaths were attributed to asthma, 152 deaths
were children under the age of 15
Is the third leading cause of hospitalization among children
under the age of 15
Is one of the leading causes of school absenteeism In 2008
asthma accounted for approx. 14.4 million lost school days
The annual health care costs of asthma is approx. $20.7 billion
dollars
1
–
2
–
6
–
3
4
–
5
From ALA website 11/2010 www.Lungusa.org
1 CDC: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey Raw Data, 2009
2 CDC. National Center for Health Statistics. Final Vital Statistics Report. Deaths: Final Data for 2007. April 17, 2009. Vol 58 No 19.
3 CDC. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy Youth! Health Topics: Asthma. August 14, 2009
4 CDC: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey Raw Data, 2008.
5 NHLBI Chartbook, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health, 2009
6 CDC: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2006.
7
2007 - Guidelines for the Diagnosis &
Management of Asthma
Expert Review Panel (EPR-3)
8
Asthma Guidelines:
History & Context
пѓ�
пѓ�
Initial guidelines released in 1991 and updated in 1997
Updated again in 2002 (EPR-2) with a focus on several
key questions about medications, monitoring and
prevention
–
–
–
–
Long-term management of asthma in children
Combination therapy
Antibiotic use
Written asthma action plans (AAP) and peak flow meters
(PFM)
– Effects of early treatment on the progression of asthma
9
Old & New Asthma Guidelines:
What has not changed
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Initial asthma therapy is determined by assessment of asthma
severity
– Ideally, before the patient is on a long-term controller
Stepping therapy up or down is based on how well asthma is
controlled or not controlled
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred first-line therapy for
asthma
Systemic steroids can still be used to treat asthma exacerbations
Peak flows and written asthma action plans are recommended for
asthma self management
– Especially in moderate and severe persistent asthma, or for those
with a history of severe exacerbations or poorly controlled asthma
10
Asthma Therapy Goals
“The goal of asthma therapy is to control
asthma so patients can live active, full lives
while minimizing their risk of asthma
exacerbations and other problems”
Dr. William Busse, MD., chairman of the NAEPP EPR -3
11
2007 - Guidelines for the Diagnosis &
Management of Asthma (EPR-3)
– (Almost) no new medications
– Restructuring into “severity” and “control”
– Domains of “impairment” and “risk”
– Six treatment steps (step-up/step-down)
– More careful thought into ongoing management issues
– Summarizes extensively-validated scientific evidence that
the guidelines, when followed, lead to a significant
reduction in the frequency and severity of asthma
symptoms and improve quality of life
12
New Strategies of the EPR-3
13
Key Points: Definition, Pathophysiology &
Pathogenesis
–
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the
airways
–
The immunohistopathologic features of asthma include
inflammatory cell infiltration
–
Airway inflammation contributes to airway
hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory
symptoms, and disease chronicity
–
In some patients, persistent changes in airway structure
occur, including sub-basement fibrosis, mucus
hypersecretion, injury to epithelial cells, smooth muscle
hypertrophy, and angiogenesis (remodeling)
14
Key Points: cont..
– Gene-by-environment interactions are important to the
expression of asthma
– Atopy, the genetic predisposition for the development of an
immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated response to common
aeroallergens, is the strongest identifiable predisposing
factor for developing asthma
– Viral respiratory infections are one of the most important
causes of asthma exacerbation and may also contribute to
the development of asthma
EPR 3, Section 2: Page 11
15
Causes – We Don’t Know…Yet!
– Asthma has dramatically risen worldwide over the past
decades, particularly in developed countries, and experts
are puzzled over the cause of this increase
– Not all people with allergies have asthma, and not all cases
of asthma can be explained by allergic response
– Asthma is most likely caused by a convergence of factors
that can include genes (probably several) and various
environmental and biologic triggers
– e.g., infections, dietary patterns, hormonal changes in women, and
allergens
16
4 Components of Asthma Management
Component 1: Measures of Asthma Assessment &
Monitoring
Component 2: Education for a Partnership in
Asthma Care
Component 3: Control of Environmental Factors &
Comorbid Conditions that Affect
Asthma
Component 4: Medications
17
Component 1
Measures of Asthma Assessment &
Monitoring
18
Key Points Overview: Measures of Asthma Assessment &
Monitoring
Assessment and monitoring are closely linked to the concepts of
severity, control, and responsiveness to treatment:
– Severity - intensity of the disease process. Severity is
measured most easily and directly in a patient not receiving
long-term-control therapy.
– Control - degree to which asthma (symptoms, functional
impairments, and risks of untoward events) are minimized and the
goals of therapy are met.
– Responsiveness - the ease with which asthma control is
achieved by therapy.
19
EPR -3 , Pg. 36,
Key Points – cont.
Domains
Assess Severity and Control based on:
пѓ�
Impairment (Present):
– Frequency and intensity of symptoms
– Functional limitations (quality of life)
пѓ�
Risk (Future):
– Likelihood of asthma exacerbations or
– Progressive loss of lung function (reduced lung growth)
– Risk of adverse effects from medication
EPR -3, Pg. 38-80, 277-345
20
Key Points - cont.
Severity & Control
Are used as follows for managing asthma:
пѓ�
пѓ�
If the patient is not currently on a long-term controller at the
first visit:
– Assess asthma severity to determine the appropriate
medication & treatment plan
Once therapy is initiated, the emphasis is changed to the
assessment of asthma control
– The level of asthma control will guide decisions either to
maintain or adjust therapy
21
Assessing Impairment
(Present) Domain
пѓ� Assess by taking a careful, directed history and lung
function measurement
пѓ� Assess Quality of Life using standardized questionnaires
– Asthma Control Test (ACT)
– Childhood Asthma Control Test
– Asthma Control Questionnaire
– Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ)
control index
пѓ� Some patients may perceive the severity of airflow
obstruction poorly
22
Assessing Risk (Future)
Domain
– Of adverse events in the future, especially of
exacerbations and of progressive, irreversible loss of
pulmonary function—is more problematic (airway
remodeling)
– The test most used for assessing the risk of future
adverse events is spirometry
23
Measures of Assessment & Monitoring
Diagnosis
24
Key Points – Diagnosis of Asthma
To establish a diagnosis of asthma the clinician should
determine that:
– Episodic symptoms of airflow obstruction or airway
hyperresponsiveness are present
– Airflow obstruction is at least partially reversible
– Alternative diagnoses are excluded
25
Key Points – Methods to Establish Diagnosis
Recommended methods to establish the diagnosis are:
– Detailed medical history
– Physical exam focusing on the upper respiratory tract,
chest, and skin
– Spirometry to demonstrate obstruction and assess
reversibility, including in children 5 years of age or
older
– Additional studies to exclude alternate diagnoses
26
Key Indicators: Diagnosis of Asthma
Has/does the patient:
had an attack or recurrent attacks of wheezing?
– have a troublesome cough at night?
– wheeze or cough after exercise?
– experience wheezing, chest tightness, or cough after
exposure to airborne allergens or pollutants?
– colds �go to the chest’ or take more than 10 days to clear
up?
– symptoms improved by appropriate asthma treatment?
–
27
Adapted from the GINA guidelines 2008
Characterization & Classification of
Asthma
Severity
28
Key Points - Initial Assessment:
Severity
пѓ�
пѓ�
Once a diagnosis is established:
– Identify precipitating factors (triggers)
– Identify comorbidities that aggravate asthma
– Assess the patient’s knowledge and skills for selfmanagement
– Classify severity using impairment and risk domains
Pulmonary function testing (spirometry) to assess
severity
EPR -3, Sec. 3, pg. 47
29
Assessment of Asthma Severity
Previous Guidelines
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Frequency of daytime
symptoms
Frequency of nighttime
symptoms
Lung function
2007 Guidelines
пЃ®
Impairment
– Frequency of daytime /nighttime
symptoms
– Quality of life assessments
– Frequency of SABA use
– Interference with normal activity
– Lung function (FEV1/FVC)
пЃ®
Risk
– Exacerbations (frequency and
severity)
30
NOT Currently Taking Controllers
C la s s ific a tio n o f A s th m a S e v e rity
( 0 пЂ­ 4 y e a rs o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n ts o f
S e v e rity
I m p a ir m e n t
R is k
P e r s is t e n t
I n t e r m it t e n t
M ild
M o d e ra te
Severe
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
b u t n o t d a ily
D a ily
T h ro u g h o u t
th e d a y
N ig h ttim e
a w a k e n in g s
0
1 пЂ­ 2 x /m o n th
3 пЂ­ 4 x /m o n th
> 1 x /w e e k
S h o rt-a c tin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e
fo r s y m p to m
c o n tro l (n o t
p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
b u t n o t d a ily
D a ily
S e v e ra l tim e s
per day
In te rfe re n c e w ith
n o rm a l a c tiv ity
None
M in o r lim ita tio n
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
E x a c e rb a tio n s
re q u irin g o ra l
s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
п‚і 2 e x a c e rb a tio n s in 6 m o n th s re q u irin g o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s , o r п‚і 4 w h e e z in g e p is o d e s /1 y e a r la s tin g
> 1 d a y A N D ris k fa c to rs fo r p e rs is te n t a s th m a
C o n s id e r s e v e rity a n d in te rv a l s in c e la s t e x a c e rb a tio n .
F re q u e n c y a n d s e v e rity m a y flu c tu a te o v e r tim e .
E x a c e rb a tio n s o f a n y s e v e rity m a y o c c u r in p a tie n ts in a n y s e v e r ity c a te g o ry .
R e c o m m e n d e d S t e p fo r
I n it ia t in g T h e r a p y
( S e e fig u r e 4 пЂ­ 1 a fo r
tr e a tm e n t s te p s .)
S te p 1
S te p 2
S te p 3 a n d c o n s id e r s h o rt c o u rs e o f
o ra l s y s te m ic c o rtic o ste ro id s
In 2 пЂ­ 6 w e e k s , d e p e n d in g o n s e v e rity , e v a lu a te le v e l o f a s th m a c o n tro l th a t is
a c h ie v e d . If n o c le a r b e n e fit is o b s e rv e d in 4 пЂ­ 6 w e e k s , c o n s id e r a d ju s tin g
th e ra p y o r a lte rn a tiv e d ia g n o s e s .
Level of severity is determined by both impairment and risk. Assess impairment by caregivers recall of previous 2-4 weeks.
NOT Currently Taking Controllers
C la s s ific a tio n o f A s th m a S e v e rity
( 5 пЂ­ 1 1 y e a rs o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n ts o f
S e v e rity
P e rs is t e n t
I n te rm itte n t
M ild
M o d e ra te
Severe
п‚Ј 2 d a y s/w e ek
> 2 d a y s/w e e k b u t
n o t d a ily
D a ily
T h ro u g h o u t
th e d a y
N ig h ttim e
a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 2 x /m o n th
3 пЂ­ 4 x /m o n th
> 1 x /w e e k b u t
n o t n ig h tly
O fte n 7 x /w e e k
S h o rt-a c tin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e fo r
s y m p to m c o n tro l (n o t
p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s/w e ek
> 2 d a y s/w e ek
b u t n o t d a ily
D a ily
S e v e ra l tim e s
per day
In te rfe re n c e w ith
n o rm a l a c tiv ity
None
M in o r lim itatio n
S o m e lim itatio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S y m p to m s
I m p a irm e n t
• N o rm a l F E V 1
b e tw e e n
e x a ce rb a tio n s
L u n g fu n c tio n
R is k
E x a c e rb a tio n s
re q u irin g o ra l
s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s
R e c o m m e n d e d S te p fo r
I n itia tin g T h e ra p y
( S e e fig u re 4 пЂ­ 1 b fo r
tre a tm e n t s te p s .)
• FEV1 > 80%
p re d icte d
• FEV1 = > 80%
p re d icte d
• FEV1 = 6080%
p re d icte d
• FEV1 < 60%
p re d icte d
• F E V 1 /F V C > 8 5 %
• F E V 1 /F V C > 8 0 %
• F E V 1 /F V C = 7 5  8 0 %
• F E V 1 /F V C < 7 5 %
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r (se e n o te )
п‚і 2 /y e a r (se e n o te )
C o n sid e r se v e rity a n d in te rv a l sin ce la st e x a ce rb a tio n .
F re q u e n cy a n d se v e rity m a y flu ctu a te o v e r tim e fo r p a tie n ts in a n y se v e rity ca te g o ry .
R e la tiv e a n n u a l risk o f e x a ce rb a tio n s m a y b e re la te d to F E V 1 .
S te p 1
S te p 2
S te p 3 , m e d iu m d o se IC S o p tio n
S te p 3 , m e d iu m -d o se
IC S o p tio n , o r ste p 4
a n d co n sid e r sh o rt co u rs e o f
o ra l sy ste m ic co rtico ste ro id s
In 2 пЂ­ 6 w e e k s, e v a lu a te le v e l o f a sth m a co n tro l th a t is a ch ie v e d , a n d a d ju st th e ra p y
a cco rd in g ly .
NOT Currently Taking Controllers
C la s s ific a tio n o f A s th m a S e v e rity
п‚і 1 2 y e a rs o f a g e
C o m p o n e n ts o f S e v e rity
I n te r m itte n t
M ild
M o d e r a te
п‚Ј 2 d a y s/w e ek
> 2 d a y s/w e e k b u t
n o t d a ily
D a ily
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e
a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 2 x /m o n th
3 пЂ­ 4 x /m o n th
> 1 x /w e e k b u t
n o t n ig h tly
O fte n 7 x /w e e k
S h o rt-a ctin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n ist u se fo r
sy m p to m co n tro l (n o t
p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s/w e ek
D a ily
S e v e ra l tim e s
per day
In te rfe re n ce w ith
n o rm a l a ctiv ity
None
S y m p to m s
I m p a ir m e n t
N o rm a l F E V 1 / F V C :
8пЂ­19 yr
85%
20 пЂ­39 yr
80%
40 пЂ­59 yr
75%
60 пЂ­80 yr
70%
> 2 d a y s/w e ek
b u t n o t d a ily , a n d
n o t m o re th a n
1x on any day
M in o r lim itatio n
S o m e lim itatio n
Severe
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
• N o rm a l F E V 1
b e tw e e n
e x a ce rb a tio n s
L u n g fu n ctio n
R is k
P e r s is t e n t
E x a ce rb a tio n s
re q u irin g o ra l
sy ste m ic
co rtico ste ro id s
• FEV1 > 80%
p re d icte d
• FEV1 > 80%
p re d icte d
• FEV1 > 60% but
< 8 0 % p re d icte d
• FEV1 < 60%
p re d icte d
• F E V 1 /F V C n o rm a l
• F E V 1 /F V C n o rm a l
• F E V 1 /F V C re d u ce d
5%
• F E V 1 /F V C
re d u ce d > 5 %
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r (se e
n o te )
п‚і 2 /y e a r (se e n o te )
C o n sid e r se v e rity a n d in te rv a l sin ce la st e x a ce rb a tio n .
F re q u e n cy a n d se v e rity m a y flu ctu a te o v e r tim e fo r p a tie n ts in a n y se v e rity ca te g o ry .
R e la tiv e a n n u a l risk o f e x a ce rb a tio n s m a y b e re la te d to F E V 1 .
R e c o m m e n d e d S te p
fo r I n itia tin g T r e a tm e n t
(S e e fig u re 4 пЂ­ 5 fo r tre a tm e n t s te p s .)
S te p 3
S te p 1
S te p 2
S te p 4 o r 5
a n d co n sid e r sh o rt co u rs e o f
o ra l sy ste m ic co rtico ste ro id s
In 2 пЂ­ 6 w e e k s, e v a lu a te le v e l o f a sth m a co n tro l th a t is a ch ie v e d a n d a d ju st th e ra p y
a cco rd in g ly .
Classifying Severity AFTER Control
is Achieved – All Ages
Classification of Asthma Severity
Lowest level
of treatment
required to
maintain
control
Intermittent
Step 1
Persistent
Mild
Moderate
Severe
Step 2
Step 3
or 4
Step 5
or 6
(already on controller)
Periodic Assessment & Monitoring
Asthma Control
35
Key Points –
Asthma Control (Goals of Therapy)
Reducing impairment
– Prevent chronic & troublesome symptoms
– Prevent frequent use (< 2 days /wk) of inhaled SABA for
symptoms
– Maintain (near) “normal” pulmonary function
– Maintain normal activity levels (including exercise and
other physical activity and attendance at work or school)
– Meet patients’ and families’ expectations of and
satisfaction with asthma care
36
EPR- 3, p. 50
Key Points – cont.
Reducing Risk
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
– Prevent recurrent exacerbations of asthma and minimize
the need for ER visits and hospitalizations
– Prevent progressive loss of lung function - for children,
prevent reduced lung growth
– Provide optimal pharmacotherapy with minimal or no
adverse effects
Periodic assessments at 1-6 month intervals
Patient self-assessment (w/clinician)
Spirometry testing
EP-3 , sec. 3, p. 53
37
Key Points cont. - Written AAP’s & PFM
пѓ�
пѓ�
Provide to all patients a written AAP based on signs and
symptoms and/or PEF
– Written AAPs are particularly recommended for patients
who have moderate or severe persistent asthma, a history
of severe exacerbations or poorly controlled asthma.
Whether PF monitoring, symptom monitoring (available data
show similar benefits for each), or a combo of approaches is
used, self- monitoring is important to the effective selfmanagement of asthma.
EPR -3 Sec. 3, P.53
38
Peak Flow Monitoring
Long-term daily PF monitoring can be helpful to:
– Detect early changes in asthma control that require
adjustments in treatment:
– Evaluate responses to changes in treatment
– Provide a quantitative measure of impairment
EPR-3 , Sec. 3, P.54
39
Asthma Control = Asthma Goals
пѓ�
пѓ�
Definition of asthma control is the same as asthma
goals reducing impairment and risk
Monitoring quality of life, any:
– work or school missed because of asthma?
– reduction in usual activities?
– disturbances in sleep due to asthma?
– Change in caregivers activities due to a child's
asthma?
40
Responsiveness Questions for Assessing Asthma Control
Ask the patient:
Has your asthma awakened you at night or early morning?
– Have you needed more quick-relief medication (SABA) than
usual?
– Have you needed any urgent medical care for your asthma,
such as unscheduled visits to your provider, an UC clinic, or
the ER?
– Are you participating in your usual and desired activities?
– If you are measuring your peak flow, has it been below
your personal best?
–
41
Adapted from Global Initiative for Asthma: Pocket Guide for Asthma Management & Prevention.” 1995
Responsiveness - Actions
Actions to consider:
–
–
–
–
Assess whether the medications are being taken as
prescribed
Assess whether the medications are being inhaled with
correct technique
Assess lung function with spirometry and compare to
previous measurement
Adjust medications, as needed; either step up if control is
inadequate or step down if control is maximized, to achieve
the best control with the lowest dose of medication
42
Adapted from Global Initiative for Asthma: Pocket Guide for Asthma Management & Prevention.” 1995
Assessing Asthma Control in Children 0 - 4 Years of Age
C o m p o n e n ts o f C o n tr o l
I m p a ir m e n t
C la s s ific a tio n o f A s th m a C o n tr o l
( C h ild r e n 0 пЂ­ 4 y e a r s o f a g e )
W e ll
C o n tr o lle d
N o t W e ll
C o n tr o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly
C o n tr o lle d
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e a w a k e n in g s
1 x /m o n th
> 1 x /m o n th
> 1 x /w e e k
In te rfe re n ce w ith
n o rm a l a c tiv ity
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S h o rt-a c tin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n ist u s e
fo r s y m p to m co n tro l
(n o t p re v e n tio n
o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
E x a c e rb a tio n s
re q u irin g o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o ste ro id s
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
2 пЂ­ 3 /y e a r
> 3 /y e a r
R is k
T re a tm e n t-re la te d
a d v e rs e e ffe c ts
M e d ic a tio n s id e e ffe c ts c a n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry
tro u b le s o m e a n d w o rris o m e . T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t
c o rre la te to s p e c ific le v e ls o f c o n tro l b u t s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d
in th e o v e ra ll a s s e ss m e n t o f ris k .
Assessing Asthma Control in Children 5 - 11 Years of Age
C la s s ific a tio n o f A s th m a C o n tr o l
( C h ild r e n 5 пЂ­ 1 1 y e a r s o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n ts o f C o n tr o l
I m p a ir m e n t
W e ll C o n t r o lle d
N o t W e ll
C o n t r o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly
C o n t r o lle d
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k b u t
n o t m o re th a n
once on each day
> 2 d a y s /w e e k o r
m u ltip le tim e s o n
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e
a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 1 x /m o n th
п‚і 2 x /m o n th
п‚і 2 x /w e e k
In te rfe re n c e w ith
n o rm a l a c tiv ity
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S h o rt-a c tin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e
fo r s y m p to m c o n tro l
(n o t p re v e n tio n o f E I B )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
L u n g fu n c tio n

F E V 1 o r p e a k flo w
> 8 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rso n a l b e s t
6 0 пЂ­ 8 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rso n a l b e s t
< 6 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rso n a l b e s t

F E V 1 /F V C
> 80%
75пЂ­80%
< 75%
E x a c e rb a tio n s re q u irin g
o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s
R is k
R e d u c tio n in lu n g g ro w th
T re a tm e n t-re la te d
a d v e rs e e ffe c ts
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
п‚і 2 / y e a r (s e e n o te )
C o n s id e r s e v e rity a n d in te rv a l s in c e la s t e x a c e rb a tio n
E v a lu a tio n re q u ire s lo n g -te rm fo llo w u p .
M e d ic a tio n s id e e ffe c ts c a n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry
tro u b le s o m e a n d w o rris o m e . T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t c o rre la te
to s p e c ific le v e ls o f c o n tro l b u t s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d in th e o v e ra ll
a s s e s s m e n t o f ris k .
Assessing Asthma Control in Youths п‚і12 Years of Age & Adults
C la s s ific a t io n o f A s t h m a C o n tr o l
( Y o u th s п‚і 1 2 y e a r s o f a g e a n d a d u lt s )
C o m p o n e n t s o f C o n tr o l
S y m p to m s
N ig h ttim e a w a k e n in g
In te rfe re n c e w ith n o rm a l
a c tiv ity
I m p a ir m e n t
S h o rt-a c tin g b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e
fo r s y m p to m c o n tro l (n o t
p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
F E V 1 o r p e a k flo w
W e ll- C o n t r o lle d
Not
W e ll- C o n t r o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly
C o n t r o lle d
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
п‚Ј 2 x /m o n th
1 пЂ­ 3 x /w e e k
п‚і 4 x /w e e k
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
> 8 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
6 0 пЂ­ 8 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
< 6 0 % p re d ic te d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
1–2
п‚і 1 .5
16пЂ­19
3–4
N /A
п‚Ј15
V a lid a te d Q u e s tio n n a ire s
ATAQ
ACQ
ACT
0
п‚Ј 0 .7 5 *
п‚і20
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
п‚і 2 /y e a r (s e e n o te )
E x a c e rb a tio n s
C o n s id e r s e v e rity a n d in te rv a l s in c e la s t e x a c e rb a tio n
R is k
P ro g re s s iv e lo s s o f lu n g
fu n c tio n
E v a lu a tio n re q u ire s lo n g -te rm fo llo w u p c a re
T re a tm e n t-re la te d a d v e rs e
e ffe c ts
M e d ic a tio n s id e e ffe c ts c a n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry
tro u b le s o m e a n d w o rris o m e . T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t c o rre la te to
s p e c ific le v e ls o f c o n tro l b u t s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d in th e o v e ra ll
a s s e s s m e n t o f ris k .
Component 2
Education for a Partnership in
Asthma Care
46
Key Points - Education
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Self management education is essential and should be
integrated into all aspects of care; requires repetition and
reinforcement
Provide all patients with a written asthma action plan that
includes 2 aspects:
– Daily management
– How to recognize & handle worsening asthma symptoms
Regular review of the status of patients asthma control
– Teach and reinforce at every opportunity
Develop an active partnership with the patient and family
EPR – 3, Section 3, Pg. 93
47
Key Points – Education cont.
пѓ�
Encourage adherence by:
пѓ�
Choosing a tx regimen that achieves outcomes and
addresses preferences important to the patient
– Review the success of tx plan and make changes as
needed
Tailor the plan to needs of each patient
–
пѓ�
пѓ�
Encourage community based interventions
Asthma education provided by trained health
professionals should be reimbursed and considered an
integral part of effective asthma care ! (AE-C)
48
Key Educational Messages
Significance of diagnosis
Inflammation as the underlying cause
Controllers vs. quick-relievers
– How to use medication delivery devices
– Triggers, including 2nd hand smoke
– Home monitoring/ self-management
– How/when to contact the provider
– Need for continuous, on-going interaction w/the clinician
to step up/down therapy
– Annual influenza vaccine
–
–
–
49
Other Educational Points of Care
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
ER Department and hospital based
Medication therapy management (Pharmacist)
Community based
Home based for caregivers including home based
allergen/ environmental assessment
Computer based technology
Case management for high-risk patients
50
Maintaining the Partnership
Promote open communication w/patient and family by
addressing at each visit:
Ask what concerns they have and what they want addressed
during the visit
– Review short – term goals agreed to at the initial visit
– Review written AAP and steps to take – adjust as needed
– Encourage parents to take a copy of AAP to the school or
childcare setting or send a copy to the school nurse
– Teach and reinforce key educational messages
– Provide simple, brief, written materials that reinforce the
actions and skills taught
–
51
Component 3
Control of Environmental Factors &
Comorbid Conditions that Affect Asthma
52
Key Points – Environmental Factors
All patients with asthma should:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Reduce, if possible, exposure to allergens & irritants they are
sensitive too
Understand effective allergen avoidance is multifaceted and
individual steps alone are ineffective
Avoid exertion outdoors when levels of air pollution are high
Avoid use of nonselective beta-blockers
Avoid sulfite-containing and other foods they are sensitive to
Avoid use of humidifiers (generally)
53
Key Points – Environmental Cont.
Clinicians should:
–
–
–
–
Evaluate a patient for other chronic co-morbid conditions
when asthma cannot be well controlled
Encourage their asthma patients to receive a yearly
influenza vaccination (inactivated)
Consider allergen immunotherapy when appropriate
Ask about possible occupational exposures, particularly
those who have new-onset disease (work related asthma)
54
Component 4
Medications
55
Key Points - Medications
пѓ�
пѓ�
2 general classes:
– Long-term control medications
– Quick-Relief medications
Controller medications:
– Corticosteroids
– Long Acting Beta Agonists (LABA’s)
– Leukotriene modifiers (LTRA)
– Cromolyn & Nedocromil
– Methylxanthines: (Sustained-release theophylline)
56
Key Points – Medications cont.
пѓ�
Quick- relief medications
– Short acting bronchodilators (SABA’s)
– Systemic corticosteroids
– Anticholinergics
57
Key Points: Safety of ICS’s
–
ICS’s are the most effective long-term therapy available, are
well tolerated & safe at recommended doses
–
The potential but small risk of adverse events from the use
of ICS treatment is well balanced by their efficacy
–
The dose-response curve for ICS treatment begins to flatten
at low to medium doses
–
Most benefit is achieved with relatively low doses, whereas
the risk of adverse effects increases with dose
58
Key Points:
Reducing Potential Adverse Effects
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Spacers or valved holding chambers (VHCs) used with non-breathactivated MDIs reduce local side effects
– There is little or no data on use of spacers with hydrofluoroalkane
(HFA) MDIs
Patients should rinse their mouths (rinse and spit) after (ICS)
inhalation
Use the lowest dose of ICS that maintains asthma control:
– Evaluate patient adherence and inhaler technique as well as
environmental factors before increasing the dose of ICS
To achieve or maintain control of asthma, add a LABA to a low or
medium dose of ICS rather than using a higher dose of ICS
Monitor linear growth in children
59
Key Points:
Safety of Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists (LABA’s)
–
Adding a LABA to the tx of patients whose asthma is not well
controlled on low- or medium-dose ICS improves lung function,
decreases symptoms, and reduces exacerbations and use of SABA for
quick relief in most patients
–
The FDA determined that a Black Box warning was warranted on all
preparations containing a LABA
–
For patients who have asthma not sufficiently controlled with ICS
alone, the option to increase the ICS dose should be given equal
weight to the option of the addition of a LABA to ICS
–
It is not currently recommended that LABA be used for treatment of
acute symptoms or exacerbations
–
LABAs are not to be used as monotherapy for long-term control
60
FDA Recommendations for LABA’s
February 2010
–
–
–
Are contraindicated without the use of an asthma controller
medication such as an ICS
Single-ingredient LABAs should only be used in combination
with an asthma controller medication; they should not be
used alone
Should only be used long-term in patients whose asthma
cannot be adequately controlled on asthma controller
medications
61
FDA Recommendations for LABA’s Cont.
–
–
–
Should be used for the shortest duration of time required to
achieve control of asthma symptoms and discontinued, if
possible, once asthma control is achieved
Patients should then be maintained on an asthma controller
medication
Pediatric and adolescent patients who require the addition
of a LABA to an ICS should use a combination product
containing both an ICS and a LABA, to ensure compliance
with both medications
62
Key Points:
Safety of Short -Acting Beta2-Agonists (SABA’s)
SABAs are the most effective medication for relieving
acute bronchospasm
– Increasing use of SABA treatment or using SABA >2 days
a week for symptom relief (not prevention of EIB)
indicates inadequate control of asthma
– Regularly scheduled, daily, chronic use of SABA is not
recommended
–
63
Section 4
Managing Asthma Long Term
“The Stepwise Approach”
64
Key Points: Managing Asthma Long Term
The goal of therapy is to control asthma by:
–
пѓ�
пѓ�
Reducing impairment
– Reducing risk
A stepwise approach to medication therapy is
recommended to gain and maintain asthma control
Monitoring and follow-up is essential
65
Treatment:
Principles of “Stepwise” Therapy
“The goal of asthma therapy is to maintain longterm control of asthma with the least amount of
medication and hence minimal risk for adverse
effects”.
EPR -3, Section 4, P. 284
66
Principles of Step Therapy to Maintain
Control
Step up medication dose if symptoms are not controlled
пѓ� If very poorly controlled, consider an increase by 2 steps,
add oral corticosteroids, or both
пѓ� Before increasing medication therapy, evaluate:
– Exposure to environmental triggers
– Adherence to therapy
– For proper device technique
– Co-morbidities
пѓ�
67
Follow-up Appointments
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Visits every 2-6 weeks until asthma control is achieved
When control is achieved, follow-up every 3-6 months
Step-down in therapy:
– When asthma is well-controlled for at least 3 months
Patients may relapse with total discontinuation or
reduction of inhaled corticosteroids
68
Assessing Control & Adjusting Therapy
Children 0-4 Years of Age
C la s s ific a t io n o f A s t h m a C o n tr o l ( 0 пЂ­ 4 y e a r s o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n t s o f C o n tr o l
I m p a ir m e n t
R is k
W e ll
C o n t r o lle d
N o t W e ll
C o n t r o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly C o n t r o lle d
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 1 x /m o n th
> 1 x /m o n th
> 1 x /w e e k
In te rfe re n c e w ith
n o rm a l a c tiv ity
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S h o rt-a c tin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e
fo r s y m p to m c o n tro l
(n o t p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
E x a c e rb a tio n s re q u irin g
o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
2 пЂ­ 3 /y e a r
> 3 /y e a r
T re a tm e n t-re la te d
a d v e rs e e ffe c ts
R e c o m m e n d e d A c t io n
fo r T r e a t m e n t
( S e e fig u r e 4 пЂ­ 1 a fo r
t r e a t m e n t s t e p s .)
M e d ic a tio n s id e e ffe c ts c a n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry tro u b le s o m e a n d
w o rris o m e . T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t c o rre la te to s p e c ific le v e ls o f c o n tro l
b u t s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d in th e o v e ra ll a s s e s s m e n t o f ris k .
•
M a in ta in c u rre n t
tre a tm e n t.
•
R e g u la r fo llo w u p
e v e ry 1 пЂ­ 6
m o n th s .
•
C o n s id e r s te p
d o w n if w e ll
c o n tro lle d fo r a t
le a s t 3 m o n th s .
•
S te p u p (1 s te p ) a n d
•
R e e v a lu a te in
2пЂ­6 w eeks.
•
If n o c le a r b e n e fit in
4 пЂ­ 6 w e e k s , c o n s id e r
a lte rn a tiv e d ia g n o s e s
o r a d ju s tin g th e ra p y .
•
F o r s id e e ffe c ts ,
c o n s id e r a lte rn a tiv e
tre a tm e n t o p tio n s .
•
C o n s id e r s h o rt c o u rs e o f
o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s ,
•
S te p u p (1 пЂ­ 2 s te p s ), a n d
•
R e e v a lu a te in 2 w e e k s .
•
If n o c le a r b e n e fit in 4 пЂ­ 6
w e e k s , c o n s id e r a lte rn a tiv e
d ia g n o s e s o r a d ju s tin g
th e ra p y .
•
F o r s id e e ffe c ts , c o n s id e r
a lte rn a tiv e tre a tm e n t
o p tio n s .
Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Children 0-4 Years of Age
Intermittent
Asthma
Persistent Asthma: Daily Medication
Consult asthma specialist if step 3 care or higher is required.
Consider consultation at step 2
Step 6
Step up if
needed
Preferred
(first check
adherence,
environment
al control)
Step 5
Step 4
Step 2
Preferred
Step 1
Preferred
SABA
PRN
Low dose
ICS
Alternative
Montelukast
or Cromolyn
Step 3
Preferred
Preferred
Medium
Dose ICS
Medium
Dose ICS
AND
Preferred
High
Dose ICS
AND
Either:
Montelukast
Either:
High
Dose ICS
AND
Either:
Montelukast
or LABA
or LABA
Montelukast
or LABA
AND
Oral
corticosteroid
Patient Education and Environmental Control at Each Step
Quick-relief medication for ALL patients -SABA as needed for symptoms.
With VURI: SABA every 4-6 hours up to 24 hours.
Consider short course of corticosteroids with (or hx of) severe exacerbation
Assess
control
Step
down if
possible
(and asthma
is well
controlled at
least 3
months)
Assessing Control & Adjusting Therapy
Children 5-11 Years of Age
C la s s ific a t io n o f A s t h m a C o n tr o l ( 5 пЂ­ 1 1 y e a r s o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n t s o f C o n tr o l
W e ll
C o n t r o lle d
N o t W e ll
C o n t r o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly C o n t r o lle d
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k b u t n o t
m o re th a n o n ce o n e a ch
day
> 2 d a y s /w e e k o r
m u ltip le tim e s o n
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e
a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 1 x /m o n th
п‚і 2 x /m o n th
п‚і 2 x /w e e k
In te rfe re n ce w ith n o rm a l
a ctiv ity
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S h o rt-a ctin g
b e ta 2 -a g o n ist u s e
fo r s y m p to m co n tro l
(n o t p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
I m p a ir m e n t
L u n g fu n ctio n
•
F E V 1 o r p e a k flo w
> 8 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
6 0 пЂ­ 8 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
< 6 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
•
F E V 1 /F V C
> 80%
75пЂ­80%
< 75%
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
E x a ce rb a tio n s re q u irin g
o ra l s y s te m ic
co rtico s te ro id s
R is k
R e d u ctio n in
lu n g g ro w th
T re a tm e n t-re la te d
a d v e rs e e ffe cts
R e c o m m e n d e d A c t io n
fo r T r e a t m e n t
C o n s id e r s e v e rity a n d in te rv a l s in ce la s t e x a ce rb a tio n
E v a lu a tio n re q u ire s lo n g -te rm fo llo w u p .
M e d ica tio n s id e e ffe cts ca n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry tro u b le s o m e a n d w o rris o m e .
T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t co rre la te to s p e cific le v e ls o f co n tro l b u t s h o u ld b e
co n s id e re d in th e o v e ra ll a s s e ss m e n t o f ris k .
•
•
•
(S e e fig u re 4 пЂ­ 1 b fo r
t re a t m e n t s t e p s .)
п‚і 2 /y e a r (s e e n o te )
M a in ta in cu rre n t ste p .
R e g u la r fo llo w u p
e v e ry 1 пЂ­ 6 m o n th s .
C o n s id e r s te p d o w n if
w e ll co n tro lle d fo r a t
le a st 3 m o n th s .
•
•
•
S te p u p a t le a st
1 s te p a n d
R e e v a lu a te in
2пЂ­ 6 w eeks.
F o r s id e e ffe cts :
co n s id e r a lte rn a tiv e
tre a tm e n t o p tio n s .
•
•
•
•
C o n s id e r s h o rt co u rs e o f o ra l
s y ste m ic co rtico s te ro id s ,
S te p u p 1 пЂ­ 2 s te p s , a n d
R e e v a lu a te in 2 w e e k s .
F o r s id e e ffe cts , co n s id e r
a lte rn a tiv e tre a tm e n t o p tio n s .
Stepwise Approach for managing asthma in children 5-11 years of age
Intermittent
Asthma
Persistent Asthma: Daily Medication
Consult asthma specialist if step 4 care or higher is required.
Consider consultation at step 3
Step 5
Step 2
Preferred
Step 1
Low dose
ICS
Preferred
Alternative
SABA
PRN
LTRA,
Cromolyn
Nedocromil or
Theophylline
Step 4
Preferred
Step 3
Preferred
Preferred
Medium
Dose ICS +
LABA
High Dose
ICS + LABA
Either
Low Dose
ICS + LABA,
LTRA, or
Theophylline
OR
Medium
Dose ICS
Alternative
Medium dose
ICS + either
LTRA, or
Theophylline
Step 6
Preferred
High Dose ICS
+ LABA
+ oral
corticosteroid
Alternative
Alternative
High dose ICS
+ either LTRA,
or
Theophylline
High dose ICS +
either LTRA, or
Theophylline
+ oral
corticosteroid
Patient Education and Environmental Control at Each Step
Quick-relief medication for ALL patients
SABA as needed for symptoms.
Short course of oral corticosteroids maybe needed.
Step up if
needed
(first check
adherence,
environmen
tal control,
and
comorbid
conditions)
Assess
control
Step down
if possible
(and asthma
is well
controlled at
least 3
months)
Assessing Control & Adjusting Therapy
in Youths > 12 Years of Age & Adults
C la s s ific a t io n o f A s t h m a C o n tr o l
(п‚і 1 2 y e a rs o f a g e )
C o m p o n e n t s o f C o n tr o l
W e ll C o n t r o lle d
I m p a ir m e n t
Not
W e ll C o n t r o lle d
V e r y P o o r ly
C o n t r o lle d
S y m p to m s
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
T h ro u g h o u t th e d a y
N ig h ttim e a w a k e n in g s
п‚Ј 2 x /m o n th
1 пЂ­ 3 x /w e e k
п‚і 4 x /w e e k
In te rfe re n ce w ith n o rm a l a ctiv ity
None
S o m e lim ita tio n
E x tre m e ly lim ite d
S h o rt-a ctin g b e ta 2 -a g o n is t u s e fo r
s y m p to m co n tro l (n o t p re v e n tio n o f E IB )
п‚Ј 2 d a y s /w e e k
> 2 d a y s /w e e k
S e v e ra l tim e s p e r d a y
F E V 1 o r p e a k flo w
> 8 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
6 0 пЂ­ 8 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
< 6 0 % p re d icte d /
p e rs o n a l b e s t
0
п‚Ј 0 .7 5 *
п‚і20
1–2
п‚і 1 .5
16пЂ­19
3–4
N /A
п‚Ј15
V a lid a te d q u e stio n n a ire s
ATAQ
ACQ
ACT
E x a ce rb a tio n s re q u irin g o ra l s y s te m ic
co rtico s te ro id s
R is k
0 пЂ­ 1 /y e a r
п‚і 2 /y e a r (s e e n o te )
C o n s id e r s e v e rity a n d in te rv a l s in ce la s t e x a ce rb a tio n
P ro g re s s iv e lo s s o f lu n g fu n ctio n
E v a lu a tio n re q u ire s lo n g -te rm fo llo w u p ca re
T re a tm e n t-re la te d a d v e rs e e ffe cts
M e d ica tio n s id e e ffe cts ca n v a ry in in te n s ity fro m n o n e to v e ry tro u b le s o m e
a n d w o rris o m e . T h e le v e l o f in te n s ity d o e s n o t co rre la te to s p e c ific le v e ls o f
co n tro l b u t s h o u ld b e co n s id e re d in th e o v e ra ll a ss e s s m e n t o f ris k .
R e c o m m e n d e d A c t io n
fo r T r e a t m e n t
(s e e fig u re 4 пЂ­ 5 fo r t re a t m e n t s t e p s )
• M a in ta in cu rre n t ste p .
• R e g u la r fo llo w u p s
e v e ry 1 пЂ­ 6 m o n th s to
m a in ta in co n tro l.
• C o n s id e r s te p d o w n if
w e ll co n tro lle d fo r a t
le a st 3 m o n th s .
• S te p u p 1 s te p a n d
• R e e v a lu a te in
2пЂ­ 6 w eeks.
• F o r s id e e ffe cts ,
co n s id e r a lte rn a tiv e
tre a tm e n t o p tio n s .
• C o n s id e r s h o rt co u rs e o f
o ra l s y s te m ic
co rtico s te ro id s ,
• S te p u p 1  2 s te p s , a n d
• R e e v a lu a te in 2 w e e k s .
• F o r s id e e ffe cts ,
co n s id e r a lte rn a tiv e
tre a tm e n t o p tio n s .
Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Youths >12 Years of Age & Adults
Intermittent
Asthma
Persistent Asthma: Daily Medication
Consult asthma specialist if step 4 care or higher is required.
Consider consultation at step 3
Step 6
Step 5
Step 4
Step 3
Preferred:
Low dose ICS
Low-dose ICS +
LABA
OR – Medium
dose ICS
Alternative:
Cromolyn,
LTRA,
Nedocromil or
Theophylline
Alternative:
Low-dose ICS +
either LTRA,
Theophylline, or
Zileuton
Step 2
Preferred:
Step 1
Preferred:
SABA
PRN
Preferred:
Medium Dose
ICS + LABA
Alternative:
Medium-dose
ICS + either
LTRA,
Theophylline,
or Zileuton
Preferred
High
Dose ICS +
LABA
AND
Consider
Omalizumab
for patients
who have
allergies
Preferred
High dose ICS
+ LABA + oral
corticosteroid
AND
Consider
Omalizumab
for patients
who have
allergies
Each Step: Patient Education and Environmental Control and management of comorbidities
Steps 2 – 4: Consider subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy for patients who have allergic asthma
Step up if
needed
(first check
adherence,
environmental
control &
comorbid
conditions)
Assess
control
Step
down if
possible
(and asthma
is well
controlled at
least 3
months)
•Quick-relief medication for ALL patients -SABA as needed for symptoms: up to 3 tx @ 20 minute
intervals prn. Short course of o systemic corticosteroids may be needed.
• Use of SABA >2 days a week for symptom relief (not prevention of EIB) generally indicates inadequate
control & the need to step up treatment.
Section 5
Managing Exacerbations of Asthma
75
Key Points –
Managing Exacerbations
Early treatment of asthma exacerbations is the best strategy
for management:
Patient education includes a written asthma action plan (AAP) to
guide patient self-management of exacerbations
– especially for patients who have moderate or severe persistent
asthma and any patient who has a history of severe
exacerbations
пѓ� A peak-flow-based plan for patients who have difficulty perceiving
airflow obstruction and worsening asthma is recommended
пѓ�
EPR -3 Pg. 373
76
Key Points – cont.
– Recognition of early signs of worsening asthma & taking
prompt action
– Appropriate intensification of therapy, often including a
short course of oral corticosteroids
– Removal or avoidance of the environmental factors
contributing to the exacerbation
– Prompt communication between patient and clinician about
any serious deterioration in symptoms or peak flow,
decreased responsiveness to SABAs, or decreased duration
of effect
77
Exacerbations Defined - RISK
пѓ�
пѓ�
Are acute or subacute episodes of progressively worsening
shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness?
— or some combination of these symptoms
Are characterized by decreases in expiratory airflow that can
be documented and quantified by spirometry or peak
expiratory flow
– These objective measures more reliably indicate the
severity of an exacerbation than does the severity of
symptoms
78
Classifying Severity of Asthma Exacerbations in the UC or ER Setting
Severity
Mild
Symptoms &
Signs
Dyspnea only with
activity (assess
tachypnea in young
children)
Initial PEF
(or FEV1)
PEF п‚і70 percent
predicted or personal
best



Usually cared for at home
Prompt relief with inhaled SABA
Possible short course of oral systemic
corticosteroids
PEF 40пЂ­69 percent
predicted or personal
best



Usually requires office or ED visit
Relief from freq. inhaled SABA
Oral systemic corticosteroids; some
symptoms last 1–2 days after treatment
is begun
PEF <40 percent
predicted or personal
best

Usually requires ED visit and likely
hospitalization
Partial relief from frequent inhaled
SABA
PO systemic corticosteroids; some
symptoms last >3 days after treatment
is begun
Adjunctive therapies are helpful
пЃ®
Moderate
Severe
Dyspnea interferes with
or limits usual activity
Dyspnea at rest;
interferes with
conversation
Clinical Course



Subset: Life
threatening
Too dyspneic to speak;
perspiring
PEF <25 percent
predicted or personal
best




Requires ED/hospitalization; possible
ICU
Minimal or no relief w/ frequent inhaled
SABA
Intravenous corticosteroids
Adjunctive therapies are helpful
Managing Asthma Exacerbations at Home
A s s e s s S e v e r it y
 P a tie n ts a t h ig h r is k fo r a fa ta l a tta c k (s e e fig u r e 5 – 2 a ) r e q u ir e im m e d ia te m e d ic a l a tte n tio n
a fte r in itia l tr e a tm e n t.
пЂ« S y m p to m s a n d s ig n s s u g g e s tiv e o f a m o re s e rio u s e x a c e rb a tio n s u c h a s m a rk e d b re a th le s s n e s s ,
in a b ility to s p e a k m o re th a n s h o rt p h ra s e s , u s e o f a c c e s s o ry m u s c le s , o r d ro w s in e s s (s e e
fig u re 5 – 3 ) s h o u ld re s u lt in in itia l tre a tm e n t w h ile im m e d ia te ly c o n s u lti n g w ith a c lin ic ia n .
пЂ« L e s s s e v e re s ig n s a n d s y m p to m s c a n b e tre a te d in itia lly w ith a s s e s s m e n t o f re s p o n s e to th e ra p y
a n d fu rth e r s te p s a s lis te d b e lo w .
 If a v a ila b le , m e a s u re P E F — v a lu e s o f 5 0 – 7 9 % p re d ic te d o r p e rs o n a l b e s t in d ic a te th e n e e d fo r
q u ic k -re lie f m e d ia tio n . D e p e n d in g o n th e re s p o n s e to tre a tm e n t, c o n ta c t w ith a c lin ic ia n m a y a ls o
b e in d ic a te d . V a lu e s b e lo w 5 0 % in d ic a te th e n e e d fo r im m e d ia te m e d ic a l c a re .
In itia l T r e a tm e n t
 In h a le d S A B A : u p to tw o tre a tm e n ts 2 0 m in u te s a p a rt o f 2 – 6 p u ffs
b y m e te re d -d o s e in h a le r (M D I) o r n e b u liz e r tre a tm e n ts .
пЃ® N o te : M e d ic a tio n d e liv e ry is h ig h ly v a ria b le . C h ild re n a n d
in d iv id u a ls w h o h a v e e x a c e rb a tio n s o f le s s e r s e v e rity m a y n e e d
fe w e r p u ffs th a n s u g g e s te d a b o v e .
G ood R esponse
In c o m p le te R e s p o n s e
Poor R esponse
N o w h e e z in g o r d y s p n e a
(a s s e s s ta c h y p n e a in y o u n g
c h ild re n ).
P e rs is te n t w h e e z in g a n d
d y s p n e a (ta c h y p n e a ).
M a rk e d w h e e z in g a n d d y s p n e a .
P E F п‚і 8 0 % p re d ic te d o r
p e rs o n a l b e s t.
пЃ® C o n ta c t c lin ic ia n fo r
fo llo w u p in s tru c tio n s a n d
fu rth e r m a n a g e m e n t.
пЃ® M a y c o n tin u e in h a le d
S A B A e v e ry 3 – 4 h o u rs fo r
2 4 – 4 8 h o u rs .
пЃ® C o n s id e r s h o rt c o u rs e o f
o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id s .
P E F 5 0 – 7 9 % p re d ic te d o r
p e rs o n a l b e s t.
пЃ® A d d o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id .
P E F < 5 0 % p re d ic te d o r
p e rs o n a l b e s t.
пЃ® A d d o ra l s y s te m ic
c o rtic o s te ro id .
пЃ® C o n tin u e in h a le d S A B A .
пЃ® R e p e a t in h a le d S A B A
im m e d ia te ly .
пЃ® C o n ta c t c lin ic ia n u rg e n tly
(th is d a y ) fo r fu rth e r
in s tru c tio n .
пЃ® If d is tre s s is s e v e re a n d
n o n re s p o n s iv e to in itia l
tre a tm e n t:
— C a ll y o u r d o c to r A N D
— PROCEED TO ED;
— C o n s id e r c a llin g 9 – 1 – 1
(a m b u la n c e tra n s p o rt).
пЃ® To ED .
What the EPR -3 Does NOT Recommend
– Drinking large volumes of liquids or breathing warm,
moist air (e.g., the mist from a hot shower)
– Using over-the-counter products such as antihistamines
or cold remedies
– Although pursed-lip and other forms of controlled
breathing may help to maintain calm during respiratory
distress, these methods do not bring about improvement
in lung function
EPR -3 , P.384
81
Many Thanks To Colleagues who shared their power point presentations and/or
provided feedback on the foundation for this presentation:
–
–
–
–
–
Dr. Gail M Brottman MD, Director,
Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, HCMC
Dr. Don Uden, Pharm. D., Professor,
University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy
Dr. Barbara P. Yawn, MD, MSc,
Director of Research, Olmsted Medical Clinic
Dr. Mamta Reddy, MD, Chief
Allergy/ Immunology, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, NY
Mary Bielski, RN, LSN, CNS,
Nursing Service Manager, Minneapolis Public Schools
82
Minnesota Department of Health
Asthma Program
www.health.state.mn.us/asthma
83
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