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A Study of Technology

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Standards for
Technological Literacy (ITEA) and
National Educational Technology
Standards (ISTE):
Compare and Contrast
New Mexico Technology in Education
Conference
Ruidoso, NM
October 3-5, 2007
Overview of this presentation




Background of Ed. Standards in U. S.
Confusion about “technology” by the public
Some basic definitions
Standards for Technological Literacy
(STL)(ITEA)
 National Educational Technology Standards
(NETSВ·S)(ISTE)
 The importance of NETS·S and STL in today’s
education
 Summary
Background of
Educational Standards
in the U. S.
Educational Standards
 Late 1970’s and 1980’s
 1989 - Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for
School Mathematics (NCTM) (Revised in 2000)
 1993 - Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS)
 1996 - National Science Education Standards
(NRC)
 Almost all of the other subject areas in schools
developed national standards in the 1990’s
Confusion about
“technology” by the
public in the U. S.
Technology is not understood
 Gallup poll (ITEA)
Confusion about Technology in
U.S.
 The ITEA Gallup Poll findings on “What
Americans Think About Technology” are in
the in the March 2002 and September,
2004 issues of The Technology Teacher
(www.iteaconnect.org)
Technology is not understood






Gallup poll (ITEA)
Technology is Science
Technology is Engineering
Technology is computers
Technology is “digital stuff”
Technology affects people, society, the
environment, history
 Technology solves problems … technology
creates problems
Some basic definitions
What is Technology?
 In the broadest sense, technology extends our abilities to
change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to
move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our
hands, voices, and senses. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy,
AAAS, 1993)
 The goal of technology is to make modifications in the world to
meet human needs. (National Science Education Standards,
NRC, 1996)
 It is the innovation, change, or modification of the natural
environment in order to satisfy perceived human wants and
needs. (Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA, 2000)
 Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to
meet their needs and wants. (Technically Speaking: Why All
Americans Need to Know More About Technology, NAE/NRC,
2002)
What is Science?
 Science deals with understanding the
natural world. (National Science
Education Standards, 1996)
What is Engineering?
 Engineering is “design under constraint”
William Wulf
Past President
National Academy of Engineering

What is Technological
Literacy?
ITEA’s Standards for Technological Literacy: Content
for the Study of Technology defines technological
literacy as the ability to use, manage, evaluate, and
understand technology.
 Technological literacy, like other forms of literacy, is
what every person needs in order to be an informed
and contributing citizen for the world of today and
tomorrow.
 Technological literacy is more a capacity to
understand the broader technological world rather
than an ability to work with specific processes of it.
(NAE/NRC, 2002)
Technological Literacy (Cont.)
 To achieve technological literacy,
students must develop a broad sense of
technological knowledge and abilities.
 Technological literacy is NOT the same
as technical competency.
 Technical competency is what some
people need to be successful in a
technical career. (ITEA, 2003)
Standards for
Technological Literacy
International Technology
Education Association
(ITEA)(2000/2002/2008)
(Funded by NSF & NASA)
STL presents the
content for what
every student
should know and
be able to do in
order to be
technologically
literate.
www.iteaconnect.org
Standards
 Standards are written statements
about what is valued that can be
used for making a judgment of
quality.
 Standards represent fundamental
concepts.
 The goal is to meet all of the
standards in Grades K-12.
Nature of Technology
1.
2.
3.
Students will develop an understanding of the
characteristics and scope of technology.
Students will develop an understanding of the core
concepts of technology.
Students will develop an understanding of the
relationships among technologies and the
connection between technology and other fields of
study.
Technology and Society
4.
5.
6.
7.
Students will develop an understanding of the
cultural, social, economic, and political effects
of technology.
Students will develop an understanding of the
effects of technology on the environment.
Students will develop an understanding of the
role of society in the development and use of
technology.
Students will develop an understanding of the
influence of technology on history.
Design
 Students will develop an understanding of the
attributes of design.
 Students will develop an understanding of
engineering design.
 Students will develop an understanding of the
role of troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and innovation, and
experimentation in problem solving.
Abilities for a Technological
World
 Students will develop the abilities to apply
the design process.
 Students will develop the abilities to use
and maintain technological products and
systems.
 Students will develop the abilities to
assess the impact of products and
systems.
The Designed World
 Students will develop an understanding of
and be able to select and use medical
technologies.
 Students will develop an understanding of
and be able to select and use agricultural
and related biotechnologies.
 Students will develop an understanding of
and be able to select and use energy and
power technologies.
The Designed World (Cont.)
 Students will develop an understanding of and
be able to select and use information and
communication technologies.
 Students will develop an understanding of and
be able to select and use transportation
technologies.
 Students will develop an understanding of and
be able to select and use manufacturing
technologies.
 Students will develop an understanding of and
be able to select and use construction
technologies.
Benchmarks
Features of Nationally-Developed
Standards
 Emphasize a comprehensive, focused, and
coherent approach to education.
 Emphasize content more than curriculum.
 Recognize the need to define more than what
students should know and be able to do.
Summarized from Rodger Bybee, BSCS
Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy:
Student Assessment, Professional Development,
and Program Standards (ITEA, 2003)
(www.iteaconnect.org)
National Educational
Technology Standards
International Society for
Technology in Education (ISTE)
(1998 & 2007)
Ready or Not . . .
The World is Different !
 Work is different ...
 Tools are different ...
 Communication is different ...
 Information is different ...
 Kids are different ...
. . . And Learning Must Be
Different, Too !
Defining Learning
Technology
Standards for the
Digital Generation
Then . . . And . . . Now
The World is Different !
Then …
telecommunications
audio tapes
video tapes
simulations
email
web projects
problem-solving
multimedia
hypermedia
Now …
mobile access
GIS/GPS systems
instant messaging
blogs
Wikis
MUVEs
laptops (1:1 access)
Cell Phones
Virtual reality
Resources to Support
Learning Technology Standards
1998 - ISTE NETS for Students were
released
1999 - ISTE NETS Connecting Curriculum
and Technology (Lessons and Units)
2000 - ISTE NETS for Teachers
2001 - Preparing Teachers To Use
Technology
2002 - NETS•T: Resources for Assessment
2003 - ISTE NETS for Administrators
2005 - NETS•S: Resources for Assessment
NETS•S Refresh Process
Consensus Building
• Feedback Forums
• Online Surveys
• Advisory Groups
• Accreditation and
Standards Committee
• ISTE Leadership Team
Revision Guidelines . . .
• Incorporate feedback from the field
• Consider multiple audiences
• Preserve backward compatibility
• Include standards statements for each
category
• Align numbering of items with other NETS
• Preserve roughly similar length
• Update language
• Lead with student learning rather than tools
• Consolidate where needed
• Expand to include new needs
• Add assessment resources to package
ISTE NETS for Students
Standards Categories. . .Transition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1998
Basic Operations and
Concepts
Social, Ethical, and
Human Issues
Technology Productivity
Tools
Technology
Communications Tools
Technology Research
Tools
Technology Problemsolving and Decisionmaking Tools
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
2007
Creativity and
Innovation (3,4,6)
Communication and
Collaboration (4)
Critical Thinking,
Problem-solving and
Decision-making (6,3)
Research & Information
Retrieval (5)
Digital Citizenship (2)
Technology Operations
and Concepts (1)
ISTE
NETS•S
Refresh
Digital
Creativity &
Innovation
Critical Thinking,
Problem Solving
& Decision
Making
Technology
Operations &
Concepts
Research &
Information
Fluency
Communication
& Collaboration
Citizenship
Draft of Refreshed ISTE National Educational Technology Standards for Students
Copyright ISTEВ® 2007
ISTE NETS for Students
Performance Profiles
Profiles include performance
indicators for each of four grade
ranges:




Pre-Kindergarten - Grade 2
Grades 3-5
Grades 6-8
Grades 9-12
The importance of
NETSВ·S and STL in
today’s education
Why NETSВ·S & STL
 Wide acceptance: NETS·S is used in 49 states
and STL in used in 42 states
 NETS·S focuses on “… what students should
know and be able to do to live productively in an
increasingly digital world”
 STL focuses on “… what students should know
and be able to do in order to be technologically
literate”
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 The next generation of NETS·S targets skills
and expertise and less on tools
 NETS·S addresses:







Creativity and innovation
Communication and collaboration
Research and information fluency
Critical thinking
Problem-solving and decision making
Digital citizenship
Technology operations and concepts
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 At the Student Profile levels (Pre K-2, 3-5, 6-8, &
9-12), NETSВ·S is concerned with content and
experiences that includes:
 Information technology and digital resources
 Digital tools
 Media-rich resources
 Virtual environments (such as electronic books, simulation
software, and websites)
 Digital instruments and measurement devices
 Hardware and software
 Media (videos, animations, presentations, etc.)
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 NETS·S received support from:
 Level one:
 Adobe Systems
 Apple
 Intel
 Pearson Education
 Level two:
 Microsoft
 Promethean Inc.
 Smart Technologies
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 STL focuses on content and experiences
that includes:
 What is technology (broadly speaking) and
how does it relate to technological literacy
 How does technology affect society and viceversa
 Design and problem solving
 Abilities for a technological world
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
STL is concerned with content and experiences that
includes:
 Major technologies found in the designed world today:
 Information and communication technology
 Medical technology
 Agriculture and related biotechnology
 Energy and Power technology
 Transportation technology
 Manufacturing technology
 Construction technology
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 ITEA & STL received support from:
 National Science Foundation (NSF)
 National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA)
 STL was successfully reviewed by the
National Research Council and the
National Academy of Engineering
 STL was given formal support by the
National Academy of Engineering
Why NETSВ·S & STL
(Continued)
 Each set of standards (NETS·S & STL) is
designed to provide quite different knowledge
and skills of what each student needs in their
education to prepare them for the future
 NETS·S should not be used as the basis to
educate students on what to know and be able
to do to be technologically literate
 Likewise, STL should not be used as the basis
to educate students on what to know and be
able to do to learn effectively and live
productively in an increasingly digital world
Summary
Thank You!
William E. Dugger, Jr.
Senior Fellow
International Technology Education Association
wdugger@iteaconnect.org
www.iteaconnect.org
This PowerPoint:
www.iteaconnect.org/Resources/PressRoom.pressroom.htm
And look under “Presentations”
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