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Education Pays
2007
1
Education Pays 2007
www.collegeboard.com
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Education Pays 2007
www.collegeboard.com
Median Earnings and Tax Payments of Full-Time Year-Round
Workers Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 2005
Notes: Taxes paid include federal income, Social Security, and Medicare taxes, and state and local income, sales, and property taxes.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, PINC-03; Internal Revenue Service, 2006; McIntyre et al., 2003; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Expected Lifetime Earnings Relative to High
School Graduate, by Education Level
Notes: Based on the sum of median 2005 earnings from ages 25 to 64 for each education level. Future earnings are discounted using a 3 percent annual rate to account for the reality that,
because of foregone interest, dollars received in the future are not worth as much as those received today.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, PINC-03; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Estimated Cumulative Earnings Net of Loan
Repayment for Tuition and Fees, by Education Level
Note: Based on median 2005 earnings for each education level at each age and discounted using a 3 percent annual rate. Earnings for bachelor’s degree recipients
include only those with no advanced degree. Assumes tuition and fees are financed with borrowing, and loan payments are made for 10 years after graduation.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, PINC-03, PINC-04; The College Board, 2005; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Median Earnings of Full-Time Year-Round Workers
Ages 25–34, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and
Education Level, 2005
Note: Sample sizes for
Asian females as well as
Asian males with less
than a high school
diploma and associate
degrees are too small to
allow reliable reporting.
Sources: U.S. Census
Bureau, 2006, PINC-03.
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Education Pays 2007
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Median, 25th Percentile, and 75th Percentile
Earnings of Full-Time Year-Round Workers Ages 25
and Older, by Gender and Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006, PINC-03; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Median Earnings of Full-Time Year-Round
Workers Ages 25-34, by Gender and Education
Level, 1971–2005 (in Constant 2005 Dollars)
Sources: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2007, Indicator 20 (based on U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey); calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Full-Time Year-Round Workers
Ages 25 and Older Who Were Offered EmployerProvided Pension Plans, by Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Eligible Full-Time Year-Round Workers
Ages 25 and Older Who Participated in EmployerProvided Pension Plans, by Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Private-Sector Workers Ages 18–64 Working
at Least Half-Time Covered by Employer-Provided Health
Insurance, by Education Level, 1979–2005
Sources: Mishel et al., 2007, Table 3.12.
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Education Pays 2007
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The Impact of Increases in the Proportion of
College Graduates in the Workforce on Wages
of All Workers, by Education Level
Sources: Moretti, 2004; calculations by the authors.
12
Education Pays 2007
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Unemployment Rates of Individuals Ages 25 and
Older, by Race/Ethnicity and Education Level, 2006
Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007, Table 7 (based on U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey).
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older
Living in Households in Poverty, by Household
Type and Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement; calculations by the authors.
14
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older
Living in Households That Participated in Public
Assistance Programs, by Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement; calculations by the authors.
15
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and
Older Reporting Excellent or Very Good Health,
by Income and Education Level, 2005
Sources: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 2005 National Health Interview Survey; calculations by the authors.
16
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older
Reporting Excellent or Very Good Health, by
Age and Education Level, 2005
Sources: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 2005 National Health Interview Survey; calculations by the authors.
17
Education Pays 2007
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Smoking Rates of Individuals Ages 25 and Older,
by Education Level, 1940–2005
Notes: Data for 2001-05 are three-year moving averages (i.e., the average of the current year and the two previous years).
Sources: De Walque, 2004; NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, various years.
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Education Pays 2007
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Distribution of Smoking Histories Among Individuals
Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 2005
Notes: Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Sources: NCHS, 2005 National Health Interview Survey; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older
Reporting Vigorous or Light/Moderate Activity,
by Education Level, 2005
Sources: NCHS, 2005 National Health Interview Survey; calculations by the authors.
20
Education Pays 2007
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Cognitive Skills of Preschool Children Ages 3–5,
by Mother’s Education Level, 2005
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2007, Table 224 (based on 2005 National Household Education Survey).
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Students in Kindergarten Through
Eighth Grade Who Participated in After-School
Activities, by Parents’ Highest Education Level, 2005
Sources: NCES, After-School Programs and Activities Survey of the 2005 National Household Education Survey.
22
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older
Who Donated Blood in the Past 12 Months,
by Education Level, 2005
Sources: NCHS, 2005 National Health Interview Survey, calculations by the authors.
23
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25 and Older Who
Volunteered and the Median Number of Hours
Volunteered, by Education Level, 2006
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007, Table 1.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of U.S. Citizens Ages 25 and Older
Who Voted, by Age and Education Level, 2004
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Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, Table 5.
Education Pays 2007
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Importance Placed by Individuals Ages 25 and
Older on Trying to Understand Opinions of Others,
by Education Level, 2005
Sources: National Opinion Research Center, General Social Survey, 2004 Citizenship Module; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Recent High
School Graduates by Family Income, 1983–2005
Notes: Based on enrollment in college within 12 months of high school graduation. Income quintiles are defined in terms of all households. In 2005, the upper income limits of the quintiles were: lowest,
$16,799; 2nd, $31,998; 3rd, $50,380; and 4th, $80,662. High school graduates are not evenly distributed among income quintiles. In 2005, 13 percent of high school graduates were in the lowest income
quintile, 15 percent were in the 2nd, 16 percent were in the 3rd, 24 percent were in the 4th, and 31 percent were in the highest income quintile.
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Sources: NCES, unpublished tabulation using data from the Current Population Survey.
Education Pays 2007
www.collegeboard.com
Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Recent High
School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity, 1973–2005
Note: Postsecondary enrollment includes both undergraduate and graduate students.
Sources: Snyder et al., 2006, Table 181 and Table 184; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005, Table 1; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of High School
Graduates Ages 18–24 by Race/Ethnicity, 1973–2005
Note: Postsecondary enrollment includes both undergraduate and graduate students.
Sources: Snyder et al., 2006, Table 181 and Table 184; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005, Table 1; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Recent High
School Graduates by Gender, 1967–2005
Note: Postsecondary enrollment includes both undergraduate and graduate students.
Sources: Snyder et al., 2006, Table 182 and Table 184; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005, Table 1; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of High School
Graduates Ages 18–24 by Gender, 1967–2005
Note: Postsecondary enrollment includes both undergraduate and graduate students.
Sources: Snyder et al., 2006, Table 182 and Table 184; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005, Table 1; calculations by the authors.
31
Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Individuals
Ages 18–34 by Age, 1970–2005
Note: Includes part-time and full-time enrollment in postsecondary institutions with programs of at least two years.
Source: NCES, 2007, Indicator 1.
32
Education Pays 2007
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Family Income Distribution of Dependent Students
Within Postsecondary Sectors, 2003-04
Notes: The “Other” category in Figure 2.5b includes students who were enrolled in public less-than-two-year institutions, private not-for-profit less-than-four-year institutions,
and those who were enrolled in more than one institution. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Horn et al., 2006, Table 1.3 and Table 3.5A.
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Education Pays 2007
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Dependent Students’ Choice of Postsecondary
Sector by Family Income, 2003-04
Notes: The “Other” category includes students who were enrolled in public less-than-two-year institutions, private not-for-profit less-than-four-year institutions, and those who
were enrolled in more than one institution. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Horn et al., 2006, Table 1.3 and Table 3.5A.
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Education Pays 2007
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Education Level in 2000, by Math Test Scores
and Socioeconomic Status in High School,
High School Class of 1992
Notes: Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education, occupations, and family income. Middle SES and middle math scores
include middle two quartiles. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Fox, et al., 2005, Table 21.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Full-Time First-Year Dependent Students at
Four-Year Institutions in 1995 Who Had Completed
Bachelor’s Degrees by 2001, by Family Income, Parent
Education Level, and Test Scores
Notes: Includes first-year dependent students who were enrolled full-time at a public four-year or private not-for-profit four-year institution during the first term of the 1995-96 school year. Sample size for
highest SAT quartile students with family income of $70,000 and over, neither of whose parents has a bachelor’s degree is too small to allow reliable reporting. The SAT score is a combined score
derived as either the sum of SAT verbal and math scores or the ACT composite score converted to an estimated SAT score.
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Sources: NCES, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996/2001; calculations by the authors.
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Full-Time First-Year Dependent
Students at Four-Year Institutions in 1995 Who Had
Completed Bachelor’s Degrees by 2001, by Family
Income, Parent Education Level, and Test Scores
Notes: Includes first-year dependent students who were enrolled full-time at a public four-year or private not-for-profit four-year institution during the first term of the 1995-96
school year. Sample size for highest SAT quartile students with family income of $70,000 and over, neither of whose parents has a bachelor’s degree is too small to allow reliable
reporting. The SAT score is a combined score derived as either the sum of SAT verbal and math scores or the ACT composite score converted to an estimated SAT score.
Sources: NCES, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996/2001; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Full-Time First-Year Dependent
Students at Four-Year Institutions in 1995 Who
Had Completed Bachelor’s Degrees by 2001,
by Race/Ethnicity and Family Income
Notes: Includes first-year dependent students who were enrolled full-time at a public four-year or private not-for-profit four-year institution during the first term of the
1995-96 school year. The SAT score is a combined score derived as either the sum of SAT verbal and math scores or the ACT composite score converted to an
estimated SAT score.
Sources: NCES, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996/2001; calculations by the authors.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Full-Time First-Year Dependent
Students in Four-Year Institutions in 1995 Who
Had Completed Bachelor’s Degrees by 2001,
by Race/Ethnicity and Parent Education Level
Notes: Includes first-year dependent students who were enrolled full-time at a public four-year or private not-for-profit four-year institution during the first term of the
1995-96 school year. The SAT score is a combined score derived as either the sum of SAT verbal and math scores or the ACT composite score converted to an
estimated SAT score.
Sources: NCES, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996/2001; calculations by the authors.
39
Education Pays 2007
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Education Level of Individuals Ages 25 and Older,
1940–2006
40
Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006a, Table A-1.
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25–29 Who Have
Completed High School, Some College, and
College, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 1971–2006
Source: NCES, 2007, Indicator 27.
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Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25–29 Who Have
Completed High School, Some College, and
College, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 1971–2006
Source: NCES, 2007, Indicator 27.
42
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Ages 25–29 Who Have
Completed High School, Some College, and
College, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, 1971–2006
Source: NCES, 2007, Indicator 27.
43
Education Pays 2007
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Education Level of Individuals Ages 25 and Older,
by Metropolitan/Nonmetropolitan Residence and
Race/Ethnicity, 2006
Notes: The term “metropolitan” refers to all counties in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and the term “nonmetropolitan” refers to all counties outside MSAs.
The underlying concept of an MSA is that of a core area containing a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of
economic and social integration with that core. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006a, Table 11.
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Education Pays 2007
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Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Recent
High School Graduates by Type of
Postsecondary Institution and Selected High
School Characteristics, 1999–2000
Note: Enrollment rates are the percentages of 1999 high school graduates who were enrolled in a postsecondary institution in the 1999–2000 school year.
Source: Snyder et al., 2006, Table 183.
45
Education Pays 2007
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Percentage of Individuals Age 24 with First
University Degrees in Science and Engineering
and Other Fields, by Selected Region and
Country/Economy, 2002 or Most Recent Year
Source: National Science Foundation (NSF), 2006, Appendix Table 2-37.
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Education Pays 2007
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Academic Achievement Levels of Students Age 15,
by Selected Country/Economy, 2003
Notes: Hong Kong is not an Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) country/region.
Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: OECD, 2003.
47
Education Pays 2007
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Academic Achievement Levels of Students Age 15,
by Selected Country/Economy, 2003
Notes: Hong Kong is not an Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) country/region.
Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: OECD, 2003.
48
Education Pays 2007
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Academic Achievement Levels of Students Age 15,
by Selected Country/Economy, 2003
Notes: Hong Kong is not an Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) country/region.
Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: OECD, 2003.
49
Education Pays 2007
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