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Kelly, 2007 - National Center for Higher Education Management

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Mounting Pressures Facing the U.S. Workforce and the
Increasing Need for Adult Education and Literacy
Patrick J. Kelly
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems
Percentage of Adults with at Least a High School Diploma by Age-Group
2004
100
25 to 34 Year Olds
90
45 to 54 Year Olds
80
70
60
50
40
The United States ranks 11th among OECD
countries in the percentage of young adults
with a high school diploma – the only
country in which the younger adults are
less educated than the previous generation.
30
20
10
Mexico
Turkey
Portugal
Poland
Spain
Italy
Iceland
United Kingdom
Greece
Luxembourg
Australia
Ireland
Belgium
Netherlands
France
Hungary
New Zealand
Germany
Denmark
United States
Austria
Switzerland
Finland
Canada
Sweden
Czech Republic
Slovak Republic
Japan
Norway
Korea
0
Source: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development, 2006 Education at a Glance
87.1
88.0
89.7
86.4
58.6
69.3
77.5
88.7
86.1
83.2
78.9
75.9
72.8
89.4
86.3
90.6
87.6
83.4
80.8
64.0
65.0
33.8
40
57.2
60
55-64
87.2
84.3
45-54
70.6
82.0
84.1
86.7
82.2
93.6
92.8
93.7
90.9
94.0
94.0
86.2
77.6
80
35-44
91.4
88.7
25-34
95.5
92.1
85.9
100
97.0
Percent of Adults with a High School Diploma by Age-Group – The U.S. and
Leading OECD Countries (2004)
20
0
Korea
Norway
Japan
Slovak
Czech
Sweden
Republic Republic
Canada
Source: Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Education at a Glance 2005
Finland Switzerland Austria
United
States
Differences in College Attainment (Associate and Higher) Between Young and
Older Adults – The U.S. and OECD Countries, 2004
60
25 to 34
50
45 to 54
40
30
20
10
0
Turkey
Czech Republic
Slovak Republic
Italy
Portugal
Hungary
Mexico
Austria
Germany
Poland
Greece
New Zealand
Switzerland
Luxembourg
Iceland
Netherlands
United Kingdom
Denmark
Australia
Finland
France
Spain
United States
Norway
Ireland
Belgium
Sweden
Korea
Japan
Canada
Source: Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Education at a Glance
2006
Percent of Adults with an Associates Degree or Higher by Age-Group – The U.S.
and Leading OECD Countries (2004)
25-34
60
53.3
50
35-44
45-54
55-64
51.6
49.1
47.0
45.1
42.3
41.4
40.7
40.4
40
34.5
36.2
35.7
32.7
33.5
32.9
30
40.7
39.4
39.0
39.2
34.1
32.3
29.4
28.9
27.3
25.2
20.0
19.2
20
16.4
21.5
23.2
15.7
9.7
10
0
Canada
Japan
Korea
Sweden
Belgium
Source: Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Education at a Glance 2005
Ireland
Norway
United States
Changing Workforce Needs: The Projected Percentage Employment Growth in the U.S.
from 2004 to 2014 by Level of Education Required
Short-Term On-the-Job Training (No Formal Award)
11.4%
Moderate-Term On-the-Job Training (No Formal Award)
8.5%
Long-Term On-the-Job Training (No Formal Award)
8.7%
Work Experience in Related Occupation (No Formal Award)
9.6%
Postsecondary Vocational Award
17.7%
Associates Degrees
25.1%
Bachelor's Degree
19.6%
Postsecondary Degree Plus Work Experience
16.6%
Masters Degree
18.8%
Doctorate Degree
30.8%
Professional Degree
0%
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
19.0%
7%
14%
21%
28%
35%
Changing Workforce Needs: The Projected Number Employment Growth in the U.S. from
2004 to 2014 by Level of Education Required
(In Thousands)
Short-Term On-the-Job
Training (No Formal Award)
5,891
Moderate-Term On-the-Job
Training (No Formal Award)
2,473
Long-Term On-the-Job
Training (No Formal Award)
960
Work Experience in Related
Occupation (No Formal
Award)
1,057
Employment Requiring
Some Level of
Postsecondary Education
8,526
0
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
Participation in the Workforce by Level of Education, 2000
(Percent)
100
Participating in the Workforce
Not Participating in the Workforce
82.7
79.3
80
60
87.6
84.6
73.0
56.8
43.2
40
27.0
20.7
17.3
20
15.4
12.4
0
Less than HS
High School
Some College
Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series 5% sample, www.ipums.org
Associate
Bachelor's
Graduate/Prof.
Projected Change in U.S. Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity From 2000
to 2020 (In Millions)
White
African-American
Hispanic /Latino
Asian /Pacific Islander
15
12.40
The majority of expected growth in our young population
from 2000 to 2020 is among segments of our population
that have the lowest levels of education – while whites
are projected to decline.
10
7.32
7.12
6.50
5.49
5
3.69
2.79
2.03
1.87
1.11
0.42
1.57
1.41
1.20
2.97
2.29
0.33
0
0 to 17
-0.88
18 to 24
25 to 44
-1.83
-5
-6.59
-10
Note: Projections based on the 2000 Census are not available for Native Americans
Source: US Census Bureau, Population Projections based on the 2000 Decennial Census
45 to 64
65 and Older
Transition and Completion Measures from High School to College
Completion for the U.S. – 2004
100%
White
Roughly half of Hispanics and African-Americans don’t
complete high school within four years.
African-American
Hispanic /Latino
78.4%
80%
Native American
69.3%
68.8%
Asian /Pacific Islander
62.5% 61.8%
58.2%
57.4%
60%
64.6%
54.5%
47.8%
45.8%
39.7%
40%
36.5%
32.7%
31.1%
30.3%
28.6%
24.3%
20%
Not Available
0%
Graduating from High
School Within Four Years
Attending College Directly
Out of High School
Three-Year Graduation Rate
at Two-Year Colleges
Six-Year Graduation Rate at
Four-Year Colleges
Source: National Center for Education Statistics; Common Core Data, Digest of Education Statistics, and IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey
Number Changes in Educational Attainment from 2000 to 2020 as a Result of the
Projected Changes in Race/Ethnicity (25 to 64 Year Olds)
8,000,000
7,378,402
Given current educational attainment
disparities by race/ethnicity and projected
changes in the population, it is likely that the
segment of our population with less than a high
school diploma will grow more than any other
– unless successful intervention takes place.
6,000,000
High School
Some College
Associates
Bachelor’s
Graduate/Professional
4,834,077
4,000,000
Less than High School
3,656,845
2,368,743
2,000,000
1,382,160
1,096,163
0
Source: NCHEMS, As America Becomes More Diverse: The Impact of State Higher Education Inequality
Target Populations
• Adults with no high school diplomas (or equivalent)
• High school only completers unprepared for the
workforce or to enter college (the best proxy we have
– those whose family incomes are less than a living
wage)
• English as a Second Language (ESL) – with less than
a high school diploma (or equivalent) or just a high
school diploma
• Incarcerated population
20%
15%
10%
19.8%
18.9%
18.8%
17.6%
17.1%
16.9%
16.9%
16.6%
16.2%
15.9%
15.8%
15.8%
15.5%
15.5%
14.6%
14.2%
14.1%
13.8%
13.6%
13.6%
13.3%
13.3%
13.1%
13.0%
12.7%
12.5%
12.2%
12.2%
11.7%
11.4%
11.3%
11.3%
11.0%
10.8%
10.3%
10.3%
10.2%
10.1%
9.9%
9.6%
9.4%
9.4%
9.3%
8.9%
8.9%
8.8%
8.4%
8.3%
8.1%
8.0%
7.8%
6.9%
Percent of Adults 18 to 64 Year Old with Less than a High School Diploma
(or Equivalent) 2005
25%
5%
0%
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
20%
15%
10%
8.3%
25%
25.2%
24.9%
24.1%
23.5%
23.5%
23.1%
23.1%
22.4%
22.3%
22.3%
22.0%
22.0%
21.5%
20.9%
20.8%
20.6%
20.5%
20.4%
19.7%
19.6%
19.6%
19.6%
19.5%
19.2%
19.2%
19.1%
18.8%
18.7%
18.0%
17.9%
17.9%
17.6%
17.6%
17.5%
17.3%
17.1%
17.0%
16.9%
16.2%
16.2%
16.0%
16.0%
15.9%
15.8%
15.8%
15.6%
15.5%
15.4%
15.3%
14.4%
11.9%
Percent of Adults 18 to 24 Year Old with Less than a High School Diploma
(or Equivalent) 2005
30%
5%
0%
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Distribution (%) of Residents 18 to 64 with Less than a High School
Diploma by Grade-Level Completed and State, 2005
9th to 12th Grade (No Completion)
5th to 8th Grade
Less than 5th Grade
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Note: Excludes 18 to 24 year olds enrolled in school
No School
600,000
2,579,656
3,000,000
661,822
572,991
405,061
291,011
266,011
204,657
160,927
159,443
137,938
131,889
117,677
117,279
108,092
88,618
86,029
74,434
68,428
62,005
59,181
55,941
50,621
48,540
47,318
46,692
45,469
43,355
39,898
33,692
32,805
31,263
29,476
28,453
26,823
26,484
23,803
20,758
17,203
14,747
14,360
10,684
6,469
4,344
4,326
3,425
2,840
589
516
465
336
1,274,890
Number of Residents Ages 18 to 64 Who Speak English Poorly or Not at All
by State, 2005
2,400,000
U.S. = 8,339,734
1,800,000
1,200,000
0
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Number of U.S. Residents Ages 18 to 64 Who Speak English Poorly or Not
at All by Level of Education Completed, 2005
4,500,000
3,997,270
U.S. = 8,339,734
3,000,000
2,459,145
1,883,319
1,500,000
696,499
530,690
269,852
204,856
0
Less than 9th
Grade
9th to 12th
Grade (No
Diploma)
High School
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Some
College
Associate
Bachelor's
Graduate or
Professional
1,500,000
1,090,711
1,089,271
1,034,744
1,001,589
973,247
843,119
789,126
629,606
611,202
611,190
595,907
588,529
568,872
555,734
542,814
514,962
498,705
432,751
410,267
395,163
394,303
382,354
365,538
338,720
337,262
289,130
265,229
255,476
242,116
228,546
218,909
189,630
170,458
151,810
131,886
121,427
84,571
76,359
75,638
70,149
69,587
66,142
58,646
54,387
47,705
40,862
33,767
1,761,945
1,723,791
3,038,986
3,707,705
Number of Residents Ages 18 to 64 with Just a High School Diploma or Less
in Families with Incomes Below a Living Wage* by State, 2005
4,500,000
U.S. = 28,770,543
3,000,000
0
* 200% of Poverty Level
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Number of U.S. Residents Ages 18 to 64 in Families with Incomes Below a
Living Wage by Education Level Completed, 2005
18,000,000
15,801,210
15,000,000
U.S. = 28,770,543
12,000,000
9,000,000
8,050,077
7,144,389
6,000,000
4,919,256
2,765,001
3,000,000
2,030,729
887,438
0
Less than 9th
Grade
9th to 12th
Grade (No
Diploma)
High School Some College Associates
Diploma
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Bachelor's
Graduate and
Professional
Proportion of Residents Ages 18 to 64 in Families with Incomes Below a
Living Wage Within Each Education Attainment Category, 2005
80%
61.0%
60%
46.5%
40%
29.9%
17.5%
20%
14.5%
8.9%
5.5%
0%
Less than 9th
Grade
9th to 12th
Grade (No
Diploma)
High School
Diploma
Some College
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
Associates
Bachelor's
Graduate and
Professional
Adult Education and Literacy: Target Population in 2005
18 to 64 Year Olds, 2005
138,127,986
Target Population (Exclusive Categories)
8,339,734
ESL: High School Diploma
Only or Less – No or Poor
Ability to Speak English
14,494,128
Not Prepared for College
or Work: High School
Diploma Only, In Families
Earning Less than a Living
Wage (Not ESL)
19,524,074
No High School Diploma or
Equivalent (Not ESL)
Target Population
42,357,936
(23.5%)
Note: Incarcerated population not separated out. All of the above categories include incarcerated individuals.
Sources: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey: Public Use Microdata Samples
13.6
25.9
25.8
26.3
25.9
27.2
27.1
28.2
27.5
29.0
28.9
29.7
30.3
15
10
5
0
Note: Incarcerated population not separated out. All of the above categories include incarcerated individuals.
Sources: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey: Public Use Microdata Samples
13.6
15.9
15.0
16.2
16.1
16.8
17.3
16.9
17.5
17.4
17.9
17.9
18.4
18.4
18.7
18.6
19.4
18.8
20.1
20.0
20.9
21.2
21.2
21.9
22.9
23.1
22.9
24.2
23.5
22.7
21.5
20.8
20.2
19.6
20
High School Diploma, Earning Less than a Living Wage (Not ESL)
Less than a High School Diploma or Equivalent (Not ESL)
24.6
25
29.3
30
ESL: High School Diploma Only or Less, No or Poor Ability to Speak English
29.9
30.5
32.4
Adult Education and Literacy: Target Populations as a Percentage
of all 18 to 64 Year Olds by State, 2005
35
Incarceration Rate in the U.S. – Prisoners Under Federal and State
Jurisdiction Per 100,000 Residents, 1980 to 2005
600
494
515
500
428
There were
1,525,924
prisoners in 2005
400
311
300
211
200
146
100
0
1980
1985
1990
Source: US Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Census Bureau
1995
2000
2005
Incarceration Rate by State in 2005 – Prisoners Under Federal and State
Jurisdiction Per 100,000 Residents
600
400
200
564
554
544
537
531
515
505
490
488
486
482
477
472
471
467
460
446
442
419
410
406
402
400
390
375
368
352
341
341
340
334
330
326
314
295
292
276
258
253
218
193
181
167
153
612
739
725
702
700
800
823
798
1,000
0
Source: US Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Census Bureau
Educational Attainment of 18 to 64 Year Olds – Total U.S. Population vs. the
Prison Population
Total Population
50%
Prison Population
43.1%
40%
34.0%
31.6%
29.3%
30%
22.6%
20%
12.3%
9.6%
10%
10.1%
4.5%
2.9%
0%
Less than 9th Grade 9th to 12th Grade,
High School
Some College
No Diploma
Graduate (Includes No Degree
Equivalency)
Source: US Bureau of Justice Statistics 2002 data, US Census Bureau 2005 data
College Graduate or
More
Performance
• ABE Participation (data available only for
state administered adult education programs)
• GED Production
• College Participation of Non-Traditional
Adults
Enrollment in State-Administered Adult Education Programs per 1,000
Residents with Less than a High School Diploma by Age-Group, 2005
350
(United States)
278
280
210
140
107
70
22
0
16 to 24*
25 to 44
* 16 to 24 year olds with no high school diploma or equivalent, not enrolled
Source: US Department of Education
45 and Older
606
800
788
Enrollment of 16 to 24 Year Olds in State-Administered Adult Education Programs per
1,000 16 to 24 Year Olds with Less than a High School Diploma, 2005
400
63
200
481
446
429
405
381
380
365
361
341
339
322
321
320
308
298
296
278
272
251
245
236
231
229
226
220
219
212
208
207
206
195
195
192
192
190
186
185
181
176
153
152
150
139
118
116
109
95
92
533
600
0
* 16 to 24 year olds with no high school diploma or equivalent, not enrolled
Source: US Department of Education
Enrollment of 25 to 44 Year Olds in State-Administered Adult Education Programs per
1,000 25 to 44 Year Olds with Less than a High School Diploma, 2005
213
250
280
70
55
54
52
52
48
48
42
38
140
168
158
153
146
141
139
138
129
128
127
123
115
107
107
103
98
96
95
94
94
93
89
89
87
86
85
85
84
82
80
80
79
77
76
75
74
73
71
70
68
66
187
210
0
Source: US Department of Education
GEDs Awarded Per 1,000 Adults with Less than a High School Diploma or
Equivalent by Age-Group, 2005
100
(United States)
84.5
80
60
40
20
14.9
4.7
0.5
0
16 to 24*
25 to 34
* 16 to 24 year olds with no high school diploma or equivalent, not enrolled
Source: GED Testing Service, US Census Bureau 2005 ACS data
35 to 49
50 and Older
GEDs Awarded to Adults Ages 16 to 24 per 1,000 Adults Ages 16 to 24*
with Less than a High School Diploma or Equivalent, 2005
240
185
183
202
North Dakota = 340
120
141
141
138
130
129
128
125
123
121
120
117
117
114
110
110
109
109
106
106
106
106
105
100
96
95
94
92
92
88
85
84
84
82
79
78
76
75
74
71
70
70
68
63
62
156
153
180
33
31
60
0
* 16 to 24 year olds with no high school diploma or equivalent, not enrolled
Source: GED Testing Service, US Census Bureau 2005 ACS data
GEDs Awarded to Adults Ages 25 to 34 per 1,000 Adults Ages 25 to 34
with Less than a High School Diploma or Equivalent, 2005
6
11
10
9
9
15
21
21
20
20
20
19
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
17
17
17
17
17
16
15
15
15
14
14
14
13
13
13
13
12
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
27
26
30
30
29
32
31
35
35
39
45
0
Source: GED Testing Service, US Census Bureau 2005 ACS data
Percent of All GEDs Awarded to High School Aged Students (16 to 18
Years Old), from 1990 to 2005
40%
32.4
30
33.7
27.2
21.9
20
10
0
1990
Source: GED Testing Service
1995
2000
2005
Distribution (%) of GEDs Awarded by Age-Group, 1990 and 2005
30%
25.125.6
1990
25
2005
20
16.1
15
13.7
14.1
13.9
12.7
11.9
10.9
9.5
10
6.8
5
6.7
6.2
6.0
4.4
3.9
4.9
2.3
1.0
1.5
0.8 0.3
0
16
17
Source: GED Testing Service
18
19
20-24
25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49
Age
50-59
60 +
Change in the Percentage of All GEDs Awarded to High School Aged
Students (Ages 16 to 18) by State from 1990 and 2005
10
0
-0.5
-3.0
20
22.3
21.8
20.7
20.4
20.1
20.1
19.6
19.3
18.0
15.8
15.6
14.8
14.6
13.7
13.6
13.5
13.4
12.4
12.4
12.3
11.8
11.8
11.6
10.6
10.3
10.2
9.8
9.5
9.3
9.2
9.1
8.9
7.0
6.6
5.2
4.1
1.9
-0.1
30
25.9
25.7
25.6
33.7
40
-10
-21.9
-20
-30
Source: GED Testing Service
Note: 1990 data not available for CA, HI, ID, IL, LA, NV, WV
15%
24.1%
23.2%
22.0%
19.8%
18.6%
17.7%
17.0%
16.9%
16.7%
16.1%
15.1%
15.0%
14.8%
14.7%
14.7%
14.5%
14.5%
14.4%
14.3%
14.0%
14.0%
13.9%
13.7%
13.2%
13.1%
13.0%
12.9%
12.8%
12.2%
12.0%
12.0%
11.4%
11.1%
11.1%
10.9%
10.9%
10.7%
10.7%
10.6%
10.5%
10.5%
9.7%
9.6%
9.6%
9.1%
9.0%
8.6%
8.5%
7.6%
7.5%
45%
40.1%
Enrollment of 25 to 49 Year Olds as a Percentage of 25 to 49 Year Olds with a High
School Diploma But No College (2005)
30%
0%
Sources: NCES, IPEDS Enrollment Survey; US Census Bureau 2005 ACS data
The Importance of the “Re-Entry”
Pipeline and the Ability of the U.S.
to Remain Globally Competitive
Current Educational Attainment, Educational Attainment in 2025 with Current
Degree Production, and the Best Performing Countries in 2025
(United States)
80%
60%
55.0%
41.9%
40%
45.9%
37.4%
20%
0%
Current Percentage of
Adults 25 to 64 with
College Degrees
(2005)
Projected Percentage
in 2025 with Current
Annual Degree
Production
Projected Percentage
in 2025 with Current
Annual Degree
Production and Net
Migration
Percentage Needed to
Reach Best-Performing
Countries by 2025
How Can the U.S. Reach International Competitiveness?
Current Degree Production Combined with Population Growth and Migration, and Best
Performance* on the Student Transition and Completion Measures
Degrees Produced from 2005 to 2025 with Current
Rate of Production
40,605,747
Additional Degrees from Population Growth
1,255,167
Additional Degrees from Net Migration of CollegeEducated Residents
7,045,932
Reaching Best Performance In High School
Graduation Rates by 2025
1,265,118
Reaching Best Performance In College-Going Rates
by 2025
3,270,900
Reaching Best Performance In Rates of Degree
Production Per FTE Student
Performance Measures
Are Cumulative and Are
Based on Traditional
College-Age Students
7,347,209
Total Degrees Produced from 2005 to 2025 If All of
the Above
60,790,073
Degrees Needed to Meet Best Performance (55%)
63,127,642
0
* Best performance is the average of the top three states.
20
40
Millions
60
80
Even Best Performance with Traditional College-Aged Students at Each Stage of the
Educational Pipeline Will Leave Gaps in More than 30 States
Texas
Florida
California
320,720
New Jersey
307,956
Tennessee
287,565
Nevada
204,814
Louisiana
186,640
Arkansas
159,765
Kentucky
132,748
North Carolina
122,061
Arizona
115,120
Mississippi
114,375
Ohio
112,681
South Carolina
110,495
Alabama
74,752
West Virginia
65,853
Alaska
62,332
Oklahoma
53,995
Oregon
53,574
Michigan
47,420
New Mexico
44,757
Wisconsin
39,436
Maine
37,706
Idaho
34,547
Montana
28,659
Hawaii
25,326
Georgia
24,741
Wyoming
23,542
Maryland
Connecticut 10,875
Missouri 8,898
Indiana 2,788
0
300,000
1,333,645
893,504
560,688
In order to reach international competitiveness by
2025, the U.S. and 32 states can’t close the gap with
even best performance with traditional college
students. They must rely on the re-entry pipeline –
getting older adults back into the education system
and on track to attaining college degrees.
600,000
900,000
1,200,000
1,500,000
The Benefits
Average Personal Income of 25 to 64 Year Olds by Level of Education
Completed, 2005
No school completed
$15,531
1st-4th grade
$14,894
5th-8th grade
$15,840
9th grade
$17,189
10th grade
$18,031
11th grade
$19,095
12th grade, no diploma
High school graduate, or GED
Some college, no degree
$22,319
$27,367
$34,644
$37,716
Associate degree
$54,532
Bachelors degree
$66,919
Masters degree
$107,353
Professional degree
$91,797
Doctorate degree
$0
$30,000
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
$60,000
$90,000
$120,000
Average Personal Income of 25 to 64 Year Olds by Level of Education
Completed, 2005
No school completed
If these residents were to complete
high school or equivalent, and the
additional earnings associated it, the
U.S. would experience a $191 billion
increase in personal income
1st-4th grade
5th-8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade, no diploma
High school graduate, or GED
Some college, no degree
$27,367
$34,644
$37,716
Associate degree
$54,532
Bachelors degree
$66,919
Masters degree
$107,353
Professional degree
$91,797
Doctorate degree
$0
$30,000
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
$60,000
$90,000
$120,000
Average Personal Income of 25 to 64 Year Olds by Level of Education
Completed, 2005
No school completed
If these residents were to complete an
associates degree, and the additional
earnings associated it, the U.S. would
experience a $848 billion increase in
personal income
1st-4th grade
5th-8th grade
9th grade
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade, no diploma
High school graduate, or GED
Some college, no degree
$34,644
$37,716
Associate degree
$54,532
Bachelors degree
$66,919
Masters degree
$107,353
Professional degree
$91,797
Doctorate degree
$0
$30,000
Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey
$60,000
$90,000
$120,000
The Relationship Between Personal Income and Tax Revenues
$45,000
CT
40,000
Correlation = 0.84
MA
NJ
MD
NY
35,000
NH
Personal
Income Per
Capita, 2003
NV
FL
30,000
SD
TN
AL
25,000
CO
VA
KS
MO
OR TX
GA ND IN
IA
NC
MN
DE IL
AKWA CA
PA
USMI
NE
VT
OH
RI
WY
HI
WI
ME
AZ
OK
MTSC
KYLA
UT
ID
NM
WV
AR
MS
20,000
$2,000
3,000
Actual Tax
Revenues Per
Capita, 2003
4,000
5,000
The Relationship Between Education and Health
95
ND
AK
SD
Correlation = 0.76
PA
90
DEMO IL
FL
OK
SC
85
LA
NY
WV
GA
AR
TN
IN
ME VT
IA
HI
WI
NE
KS
MD MI
OH
Percent of
Adults with a
High School
Diploma or
Higher
MN
WY
MT
ID
WA
CO
CT
NH
UT
MA
NJ
OR
VA
RI
US
NC
AZ
NM
AL
KY
NV
MS
CA
TX
80
-25
0
State Health Index,
United Health
Foundation
25
Summary
• For the first time in history, the U.S. is losing ground to other
countries in educational attainment of its workforce
• Increasing demand for higher levels of education within our own
workforce – particularly in occupations that pay a living wage
• Shifting demographics – within our workforce, race/ethnic
populations that are growing at the highest rates are the leasteducated, the most likely to drop out of high school, and the least
successful in college.
• Large Target Populations that Are Underserved
• We are leaving a large segment of this population behind
• Improvements in adult education and literacy are vital for the U.S.
to remain competitive
• There are tangible benefits to increasing the levels of education of
those who fell out of the education system.
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