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ANSI Z136.1 (2007) - Purdue University

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Laser Safety Training:
Online Segment
Radiological and Environmental Management
Purdue University
with information from ANSI Z136.1 - 2007
Modules
1
Fundamentals of laser operation
2
Bioeffects of laser radiation on the eye and skin
3
Significance of specular and diffuse reflections
4
Non-beam hazards of lasers
5
Laser and laser system classifications
6
Control measures
7
Laser Safety Project Information
8
Facility and personnel responsibilities
9
Medical surveillance practices
10
Required training
11
Consequences of Non-Compliance
12
Emergency Procedures
Module 1
Fundamentals of Laser Theory and Operation
Laser Definition
пЃ± Laser Components
пЃ± Laser Characteristics
пЃ±
What is a laser?
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пЃЇ
пЃЇ
LASER: an acronym for Light Amplification
by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Laser System: a laser and its associated
electrical, mechanical, and optical
components.
UV lamps, light boxes are NOT lasers
Laser Components
1.
Optical Cavity: resonator that provides the necessary
geometry
F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
Resonator encapsulated by a fully-reflective mirror on one end and a partially-reflective mirror on
the other.
Laser Components (2)
2.
Lasing Medium: causes amplification of a certain incident
light at a particular wavelength.
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пЃ®
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Solid-state
Gas
Dye
Semi-conductor
F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
L a s in g M e diu m
Atoms at “ground-state” awaiting stimulus from energy source.
Laser Components (3)
3.
Pumping System: imparts energy to the atoms or molecules
of the laser medium.
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пЃ®
пЃ®
Optical pumping
Collision pumping
Chemical pumping
P u m pin g S y s te m
F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r
L a s in g M e diu m
Energy delivered to medium, causing excitation of atoms and the release of photons.
Q-Switch
пЃЇ
Provides laser pulses of an extremely short
time duration.
Laser Characteristics
пЃЇ
Monochromatic: either a
single wavelength or a
relatively small range of
wavelengths.
VS.
Laser Characteristics2
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Monochromatic: either a
single wavelength or a
relatively small range of
wavelengths.
Directional: “parallel light
beam” - small divergence
over distance, unless
purposely diverged (e.g.
diffusing lenses).
VS.
Laser Characteristics3
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Monochromatic: either a
single wavelength or a
relatively small range of
wavelengths.
Directional: “parallel light
beam” - small divergence
over distance, unless
purposely diverged (e.g.
diffusing lenses).
Coherent: a “fixed phase”
relationship exists within
the wavelength – in step.
VS.
Module 2
Bioeffects of Laser Radiation on the Eye and Skin
Criteria for Eye and Skin Exposure
пЃ± Eye Tissues
пЃ± Mechanisms of Eye Injury
пЃ± Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength
пЃ± Special Considerations for Ocular Exposure
пЃ± Mechanisms of Dermal Injury
пЃ±
Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin
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пЃЇ
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Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits are
below known hazardous levels.
Exposures at the MPE limit may be uncomfortable.
MPEs are normalized relative to the limiting
aperture area – we assume the limiting aperture area
is 7mm for the pupil size of a dark-adapted eye in
most cases.
Irradiance is affected by the Radiant Exposure and
the Exposure Duration
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Eye Tissues
Eye Tissues - Macula
Macula: devoid of blood vessels;
area of eye most responsible for
color vision.
Fovea: center of macula; area of
eye of clearest vision/focusing.
Eye Tissues – Optic Nerve
Optic Nerve:
transmits electrical
impulses from the
retina to the brain;
fibers enter eye at the
Optic Disk.
Eye Tissues – Retina
Retina: innermost
coat of outside of
eye, responsible
for vision.
Eye Tissues – Vitreous Body
Vitreous Body:
transparent, colorless,
gelatinous material
which fills the eyeball
chamber.
Eye Tissues – Lens
Lens: focuses
light onto the
retina.
Eye Tissues - Pupil
Pupil: opening
in the center of
the iris; pupil
size determines
amount of light
entering eye.
Eye Tissues - Iris
Iris: pigmented
muscle that
dilates and
constricts,
depending on
ambient light.
Eye Tissues - Cornea
Cornea:
transparent,
layered window
of eye; provides
2/3 of eye’s
focusing power.
Mechanisms of Eye Injury
пЃЇ
Thermal
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пЃЇ
Photochemical (blue light and UV)
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Potential effects: charring, edema, hemorrhage
Potential effects: production of toxins and
biochemical changes which may cause
inflammation, lesions and lens opacities
Photoacoustic (short intense pulses)
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Potential effects: explosive forces due to
expanding gases
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength
TARGET: Cornea
Far IR (IRC): 3000 nm – 1 mm
Mid IR (IRB): 1400 nm – 3000 nm
Mid UV (UVB): 280 nm – 315 nm
Far UV (UVC): 100 nm – 280 nm
EFFECT:
Mid IR and Far IR: Thermal
Mid UV and Far UV: Acute
inflammation and conjunctivitis,
fluorescence of lens, corneal and
lenticular opacities (“clouding”)
cataractogenesis (peaks at 300 nm)
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength
(Retina)
TARGET: Retina
Near IR (IRA) : 700 nm – 1400 nm
Visible Light: 400 nm – 700 nm
EFFECT:
Thermal burns, hemorrhage,
scotoma (“blind spot”),
photoretinitis (“blue light damage”)
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength (Lens)
TARGET: Lens
Near UV (UVA): 315 nm – 400 nm
EFFECT:
Development of cataracts
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Special Considerations for Ocular
Exposures
пЃЇ
Lower MPE limits may be required when normal
protective mechanisms such as eye movement and
pupil constriction are hindered. Inform your LPI if
you think that you have a condition that may impact
your susceptibility to the laser beam.
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пЃ®
For example, individuals who have had pupil dilation
performed will not have the natural defenses of the
constricting iris which could limit that amount of radiation
entering their eye.
Also, advanced age of an individual may reduce the
ability of the iris to contract.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for
Exposures of Eye and Skin
Mechanisms of Dermal Injury2
пЃЇ
Thermal (from direct beam or specular reflection) for Near
UV, Visible, and IR wavelengths
пЃ®
пЃ®
Potential effects: mild reddening (erythema) to blistering
Severity is dependent upon exposure dose rate, exposure dose, and
conduction of heat away from the site of absorption
L A SE R
Mechanisms of Dermal Injury
пЃЇ
Photochemical (from scatter of beam, specular or diffuse
L A SE R
reflection) for Mid UV and Far UV wavelengths
пЃ®
пЃ®
Potential effects: erythema to blistering, possibly carcinogenic
Bu r n e d dose
ag ain !
Effects are dependent upon wavelength and exposure
DRAT!
Laser B arrier
Module 3
Significance of Specular and Diffuse Reflections
Specular Reflection
пЃ± Diffuse Reflection
пЃ± Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection
пЃ± Important Notes
пЃ±
Specular Reflection
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пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Mirror-like Reflection
Reflected wavelength is near same shape and
intensity as direct beam
Obeys the Law of Reflection: Angle of
Reflection = Angle of Incidence
Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is
greater than the irregularities of the surface
the beam hits
Diffuse Reflection
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Reflected wavelength is blurred and weaker
than direct beam
Obeys Lambert’s Law or the Cosine Law of
Reflection
Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is
smaller than the irregularities of the surface
the beam hits
Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection
пЃЇ
Specular
пЃЇ
Diffuse
Important Notes
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Avoid having objects that may produce a
specular reflection in or near laser beam (e.g.
jewelry, tools, etc.), unless deliberately used
as part of laser system (e.g. mirrors)
Surfaces that appear dull and pitted to our
eyes may be a specular surface to beams of
larger wavelengths
Module 4
Non-Beam Hazards of Lasers
General Information
пЃ± Physical Agents
пЃ± Chemical Agents
пЃ± Biological Agents
пЃ± Human Use
пЃ±
General Information
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Include physical, chemical, and biological
agents, as well as human use issues.
May occur when:
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
material is exposed to a laser beam.
laser-related materials are released into the
atmosphere.
Individuals contact system components.
Written SOPs shall address non-beam
hazards, as well as beam hazards.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Physical Agents
пЃЇ
Electrical Hazards
пЃ®
Potential Hazards
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Shock: risk from contact with energized electrical
conductors, power supplies, and other devices
operating at potentials or 50 volts and above. (note:
600 volts and higher are considered to be High
Voltage)
Resistive Heating: routinely check equipment for
decay.
Electric Spark Ignition of Flammable Materials:
malfunction ANSI
canZ136.1-2007
lead Section
to fire;
sparks may be ignition
7: Non-Beam
Hazards
source.
Physical Agents (2)
пЃЇ
Collateral and Plasma Radiation
пЃ®
пЃ®
Ionizing Radiation: x-rays from electronic
components of laser system (e.g. voltages
exceeding 15 kV) and laser-metal induced
plasmas.
Non-Ionizing Radiation:
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
UV and Visible: suitably shielded so as not to exceed
limits specified by the ACGIH TLVs.
Electromagnetic Fields (EMF): MPEs set by IEEE
C95
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Plasma: UV and blue
light
Physical Agents (3)
пЃЇ
Fire Hazards
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
Use flame retardant materials wherever possible.
Possible affected material: beam enclosures,
barriers, unprotected wire insulation, and plastic
tubing.
Obtain appropriate fire protection information
from manufacturer.
Explosion Hazards
пЃ®
Possible causes: component (high-pressure arc
lamps, filament lamps, and capacitor banks)
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Physical Agents (4)
пЃЇ
Mechanical Hazards Associated with
Robotics
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
Potential hazards: damage to protective housing
and beam delivery system, misalignment of
beam, pinning/pinching of personnel.
Protective measures: may include surface
interlock mats, interlocked light curtains, nonrigid walls and barriers.
Consult REM for further information.
Noise:
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Chemical Agents
пЃЇ
Laser Generated Air Contaminants (LGACs)
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Primary Factors: target material, cover gas, and
the beam irradiance.
Lower limit of occurrence appears at an
irradiance level of approximately 107 W/cm2.
Possible carcinogenic toxic, and noxious airborne
contaminants (list in Appendix F, ANSI Z136.1 –
2007).
LSO must ensure industrial hygiene
characterizations of exposure to LGACs are
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Chemical Agents (2)
пЃЇ
Compressed Gases
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
E.g.: chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen chloride,
hydrogen fluoride.
All compressed gases with a Hazardous Material
Information System (HMIS) or NFPA Diamond
with a health, flammability, or reactivity rating of
3 or 4 shall be properly contained (i.e in an
approved and appropriately exhausted gas cabinet
that is alarmed with sensors to indicate potential
leakage conditions).
SOPs shall be developed for safely handling
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Chemical Agents (3)
пЃЇ
Laser Dyes and Solvents
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Fluorescent compounds which, when in solution
with certain solvents, form a lasing medium for
dye lasers.
Some are highly toxic or carcinogenic.
Dye handling must employ special care (see
Purdue University Chemical Hygiene Plan)
Dye lasers containing 100 ml or greater of
flammable liquids shall be in conformance with
NFPA 30 and 45, and the NEC Article 500.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Chemical Agents (4)
пЃЇ
Control Measures: Engineering controls
preferred
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Exhaust Ventilation
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пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃ®
Respiratory Protection
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃ®
avoid recirculation of LGACs.
use enclosing hoods, if possible.
designed in accordance with ACGIH and ANSI Z9.2.
for brief exposures or interim control measure.
If used, must comply with 29 CFR 1910.134 (OSHA).
Process Isolation
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Biological Agents
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
LGACs: may be generated when a highpowered lasers interacts with biological
tissue.
Infectious Materials: may survive beam
irradiation and become airborne.
Consult ANSI Z136.3, Appendix F.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Human Factors
пЃЇ
Ergonomics
пЃ®
пЃЇ
Limited Work Space
пЃ®
пЃЇ
E.g.: workstation layout, worker-machine
interface, handling techniques, area illumination,
visual distractions.
There must be sufficient room for personnel to
turn around an maneuver freely, without trip/fall
hazards (e.g. wires or cables on floor).
Work Patterns
пЃ®
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Unusual or long hours may affect worker
Human Factors (2)
пЃЇ
Disposal
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
Laser Disposal: donation, remove all means or
activation and disposed, destruction
Laser Waste Disposal: waste disposal shall
conform with Purdue University disposal
requirements (see REM’s Hazardous Material
Management webpage)
Chillers
пЃ®
May be employed to reduce heat load produced
by lasers.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam
Hazards
Module 5
Laser and Laser System Classifications
Laser Classifications
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Class 1: exempt from control measures or other
surveillance, considered incapable of producing
damaging radiation levels during operation. Former
Class IIa lasers are considered to be in this category.
Class 1M: exempt from any control measures other
than to prevent potentially hazardous optically aided
viewing, considered incapable of producing
hazardous exposure conditions during normal
operation unless the beam is viewed with an optical
instrument.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Laser Classifications (2)
Both Class 2 and Class 2M laser emit only in the visible spectrum
(400 – 700 nm wavelengths). In the visible spectrum, the
human aversion response (a reflex action of blinking and
looking away from a strong optical stimulus) occurs when the
eye becomes exposed; the response time occurs within 0.25
seconds.
пЃЇ Class 2 lasers are considered harmless for accidental viewing
based on the power level and protection of the human
aversion response.
пЃЇ Class 2M lasers are considered potentially hazardous if
viewed with certain optical aids. For instance, a focusing lens
may produce a magnified intensity to which the eye could be
exposed. The Laser Safety Officer should evaluate a Class
2M laser or laser system to determine what hazard controls
may be necessary forANSIthe
safe use of the laser.
Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Laser Classifications (3)
пЃЇ
Class 3 (medium power): may be hazardous for
direct or specular reflections (normally not a diffuse
reflection or fire hazard). 2 subclasses.
пЃ®
пЃ®
Class 3R: potentially hazardous under some direct and
specular reflection viewing conditions (if eye is focused
and stable, highly improbable). Not a fire or diffuse
reflection hazard.
Class 3B: viewing hazard under direct or specular
reflection conditions, normally not a diffuse reflection or
fire hazard
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Laser Classifications (4)
пЃЇ
Class 4 (high power):
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Hazard to eye or skin from the direct beam, and
May be a diffuse reflection or fire hazard
May also be a source of laser generated air contaminants
(LGACs) and hazardous plasma radiation.
For lasers not classified by manufacturer, or where
class level may change because of alteration of
engineering control measures, the Laser Safety
Officer (LSO) may classify
Laser classifications are in Arabic Numerals; Roman
Numerals are no longer accepted.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Module 6
Control Measures
пЃ±Engineering Controls
Rules
пЃ±Administrative & Procedural Controls
пЃ±Accident Trends
пЃ±Special Considerations
пЃ±Operation, Maintenance, and Service
пЃ±Protective Equipment
пЃ±Unattended Use
пЃ±Area Warning Signs & Equipment
пЃ±Laser Modification
Labels
пЃ±General
General Rules
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Use minimum laser radiation required for the
application.
Maintain beam height at a level other that the
position of the user’s eye standing or sitting.
Prefer engineering controls, however must
have administrative and procedural controls.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Accident Trends
пЃЇ
Reported incidents related to lasers are most often
associated with:
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Unanticipated eye exposure during alignment
Misaligned optics and upwardly directed beams
Available eye protection not used
Equipment malfunction
Improper methods of handling high voltage
Intentional exposure of unprotected personnel
Operators unfamiliar with laser equipment
Lack of protection for non-beam hazards
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Accident Trends (2)
пЃЇ
Reported incidents related to lasers are most often
associated with (cont’d):
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пЃ®
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пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
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Improper restoration of equipment following service
Eyewear worn not appropriate for laser in use
Unanticipated eye/skin exposure during laser usage
Inhalation of laser generated air contaminants and/or
viewing laser generated plasmas
Fires resulting from the ignition of materials
Eye or skin injury of photochemical origin
Failure to follow SOPs
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Operation, Maintenance, and Service
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Lasers are classified under conditions of intended
use.
Maintenance and Service functions should be
delineated in the service manuals of the laser.
Consult with manufacturer for special use
conditions/service of laser.
Consult REM Laser Section for guidance on service
procedures.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Unattended Use
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Operate lasers under direct supervision or control of an
authorized user – operator shall maintain visual surveillance
of conditions for safe use and terminate laser operation in the
event of malfunction or other unsafe condition.
Unattended operation may ONLY be allowed under LSOapproved control measures are in place; control measures
MUST provide adequate protection so that unprotected
spectators shall not receive eye or skin exposures that exceed
the MPE limits.
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пЃ®
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Service Personnel
Emergency Personnel
Administrative/Other Personnel
Students/General Public
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Laser Modification
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
LSO may reclassify a modified laser.
May necessitate recertification,
reclassification, and compliance reporting
under Federal Laser Product Performance
Standard (FLPPS).
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Engineering Controls
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пЃЇ
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Protective Housing – Require interlocks and appropriate
labels.
Service Access Panels – Shall only be removed by service
personnel; interlocked or removal tool and warning label
required.
Key Control – Master switch that can initiate and terminate
system operation shall be operated by a key or coded access.
The key (or code) shall only be accessible to authorized
personnel.
Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting Optics –
shall incorporate suitable means to maintain the exposure to
below MPE.
Beam Paths –separate requirements for fully open, limited
open, and enclosed.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Engineering Controls (2)
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Remote Interlock Connector – Class 3B should and Class 4
shall have this control to eliminate accessible radiation to
below the MPE
Beam Stop or Attenuator - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall
have this permanently attached control to eliminate accessible
radiation to below the MPE when laser output is not required.
Warning Area Warning Signs and Activation Warnings Class 3B and Class 4 areas shall be posted with the
appropriate signage, both for beam and non-beam hazards.
Activation Warning Devices - Class 3B should and Class 4
shall use this control during activation or startup.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Engineering Controls (3)
пЃЇ
Indoor Laser Controlled Area – Analysis shall be performed
by the LSO
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Requirements for Class 4 more strict than Class 3B.
Emergency Conditions – For emergencies, there shall be a clearly
marked “Emergency Stop” available for deactivating the laser or
reducing output to below the MPE.
Entryway Controls – Class 4 laser areas shall have one of the
following
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Non-Defeatable: for deactivation of laser or reducing output to below
MPE in the event of unexpected entry into laser controlled area.
Defeatable: only if clearly evident that there is no laser radiation hazard
at the point of entry.
Procedural: only when safety latches or interlocks are not feasible or are
inappropriate (e.g. Surgery).
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Engineering Controls (4)
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пЃЇ
пЃЇ
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Outdoor control measures - Lasers are not to be used
outdoors without evaluation and approval by LSO.
Temporary Laser Controlled Areas – in case of service or
other conditions where housing, panels are removed and MPE
is exceeded
Controlled Operation
Equipment Labels – in accordance with FLPPS or IEC
60825-1
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Housing,
Control Panel (if separated from housing by more than 2 meters), and
Long Distance Beam Conduit (at intervals of 3 meters)
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Administrative and Procedural
Controls
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Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – shall be written and
maintained with the laser(s) for reference regarding operation
and alignment, maintenance and service, emergency for
personnel injury and fire, and all applicable non-beam
hazards (including electrical safety).
Output Emission Limitations – LSO may require if excessive
power or radiant energy is deemed excessive.
Education and Training – required, must cover topics
required by ANSI, records must be maintained.
Authorized Personnel – LPI authorizes, training and
registration are conditions of authorization.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Administrative and Procedural
Controls (2)
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Alignment Procedures
Spectators – Shall not be permitted unless
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LPI has approved,
Spectators are informed of the hazards by authorized
users, and
Appropriate protective measures are taken.
Service Personnel – Only those with the education
and safety training commensurate with the laser
contained within protective housing. Typically,
certified technicians from the manufacturer.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Special Considerations
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пЃЇ
пЃЇ
General Public – Class 3B and 4 require a laser light
show variance issued by the Center for Devices and
Radiological Health (CDRH), other requirements.
Optical Fiber Transmission Systems – considered
enclosed within cable, if disconnecting where MEP
is exceeded, NHZ requirements implemented.
Robotic Installations – working envelope included in
NHZ.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Protective Equipment
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пЃЇ
General – enclosure of beam is the preferred method
of control.
Eyewear –
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Required within NHZ for Class 3B and 4 lasers
Non-beam hazards may exist which require additional eye
protection (ANSI Z87.1)
LSO shall determine the OD for eyewear based on laser
specifications.
Shall be labeled with the OD and its corresponding
wavelength.
Shall be cleaned and inspected to ensure proper condition.
Only use eyewear that is in proper working condition.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Protective Equipment (2)
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пЃЇ
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Window Protection – within NHZ shall be provided with an appropriate
filter, barrier, or screen with reduces laser radiation to below all applicable
MPE.
Barriers and Curtains – material shall be selected to withstand direct and
diffuse reflection of beam, must not support combustion or release toxic
fumes upon laser exposure.
Labeling of Protective Equipment – Shall be permanently labeled with:
пЃ®
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Eyewear – OD and corresponding wavelength.
Protective Windows – OD and corresponding wavelength, exposure time, and
conditions under which protection is afforded.
Collecting Optics Filters – OD and corresponding wavelength, threshold limit
(TL) and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which
protection is afforded.
Barriers (unless integral part of laser system) – TL and corresponding
exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded.
Viewports and Films (unless integral part of laser system) – OD and
corresponding spectral region which shall be provided by the manufacturer.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Protective Equipment (3)
пЃЇ
Skin Protection - mostly applicable to Class 4
UV lasers
пЃ®
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
LSO shall determine if skin protection is needed.
best achieved through engineering controls
Other Protective Equipment – respirators,
local exhaust ventilation, fire extinguishers,
and hearing protection may be required.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Area Warning Signs and Equipment
Labels
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Design – In accordance with ANSI Z535.
Symbols – 2 accepted symbols:
пЃ®
Laser Symbol Design:
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃ®
пЃЇ
ANSI Z535: sunburst pattern
IEC 60825-1: equilateral triangle with sunburst pattern
Safety Alert Symbol: equilateral triangle surrounding an exclamation
mark – must conform with ANSI Z535.3.
Signal-Words
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Danger: Class 3R, 3B, and 4; OD and corresponding wavelength must
be on sign.
Caution: Class 2 and 2M.
Notice: Temporary laser controlled areas (e.g. service).
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Area Warning Sign Example
DANGER!
L A S E R R A D IA T IO N
E xa m p le s o f P e rtin e n t In fo rm a tio n :
A v oid e y e or s k in e x p os ur e to d ir e c t or s c a tte r e d r a d ia tion.
Inv is ib le La s e r R a d ia tion.
K noc k b e for e e nte r ing .
If lig ht is on:
-D o not e nte r if not a n a uthor iz e d la s e r us e r for this p r oje c t.
-La s e r p r ote c tiv e e y e w e a r is r e q uir e d up on e ntr y .
L a s e r T y p e , E m itte d W a v e le n g th a n d O p tic a l
D e n s ity , P u ls e D u ra tio n (if a p p lic a b le ), a n d
M a x im u m P o w e r/E n e rg y O u tp u t
C la s s 4 L A S E R
Area Warning Signs and Equipment
Labels (2)
пЃЇ
Pertinent Sign Information – requirements:
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Appropriate signal word.
Precautionary instructions or protective action.
Laser type or emitted wavelength, pulse duration, and maximum
output.
Laser classification.
Conspicuously displayed in best locations to warn onlookers.
Pertinent Equipment Label Information – Different
requirements for different classes, conspicuously displayed.
Existing Signs – Signs and labels prepared in accordance with
previous revisions are acceptable.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures
Module 7
Laser Safety Project Information
пЃ±Forms
пЃ±Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements
Project Approval Process
пЃЇ
Forms must be completed and approved by
LSO, LSC
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Form LU-1: Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of
Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems
(New/Amend Project Form), with SOPs attached.
Form LF-1: Laser Facility Approval Request (New Lab
Application)
Form LS-1: Laser Registration
Form LU-2: Application to Use Class 3B and Class 4
Lasers and Laser Systems (New User Application)
Project Approval Process (2)
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Training must be completed by all restricted
and unrestricted users. The LPI is not
exempt.
LSO must perform an assessment of the
facility.
LPI will ensure all required engineering,
administrative, and procedural control
measures are in place.
Restricted vs Unrestricted Users
пЃЇ
Restricted Users
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Must always be under direct supervision of an
authorized, unrestricted user
May never work alone with the laser unit
Not required to submit an LU-2 form or complete
the classroom session
Must receive unit specific training on the laser
being used
Must complete retraining every two years
Restricted vs Unrestricted Users2
пЃЇ
Unrestricted Users
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Must submit an LU-2 form and complete the
classroom session
Must receive unit specific training on the laser
being used
Once all registration and training requirements
are fulfilled, unrestricted users may work with the
laser without supervision
Must complete retraining every two years
New User Information
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
New users can only be added to approved laser projects.
New users must:
пЃ® Fulfill all training requirements
пЃ® Submit a completed LU-2 to the LSO
пЃЇ LU-2 forms are only required for unrestricted users
пЃЇ Restricted users are not required to complete an LU-2
form, however, they must still gain approval from the
LPI to use the laser system
пЃ® Comply with the requirements established for the laser
safety project and the Laser Safety Manual.
Module 8
Facility and Personnel Responsibilities
пЃ±Laser Safety Program & Provisions
пЃ±Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements
Laser Safety Program
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Purdue University, as a facility utilizing Class
3B and Class 4 lasers, shall establish and
maintain an adequate program for the control
of laser hazards.
Class 3B and Class 4 laser systems: overseen
by Purdue University Laser Safety Program,
all users must complete required training.
Purdue University policy established by
Executive Memorandum No. D-2
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Laser Safety Program Provisions
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
LSO has authority and responsibility to
evaluate laser hazards, monitor and enforce
compliance with required standards and
regulations, and perform other specific duties
and responsibilities.
Education of authorized personnel in the
safety use of lasers and laser systems.
Application of adequate protective measures.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Laser Safety Program Provisions (2)
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Incident investigation.
Appropriate medical examination and
surveillance.
Formation of a Laser Safety Committee when
the number, hazards, complexity, and/or
diversity of laser activities warrants.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Personnel Responsibilities
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Establish the safe use of the laser or laser system that is used.
Inform LSO of any fabrication, altering, or installation of a
Class 3B or Class 4 laser or laser system.
Comply with the requirements as set forth by the ANSI
Standard Z136.1 (2007) and Purdue University Laser Safety
Guidelines.
Different expectations for different personnel types
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Laser Principal Investigator (LPI)
Employees working with lasers
Other personnel
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Personnel Requirements
пЃЇ
Laser Principal Investigator (LPI)
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Issue appropriate instruction and training materials on laser hazards
and their control to all personnel who may work with lasers that are
operated within supervisor’s jurisdiction.
Not permit the operation of a laser unless there is adequate control of
laser hazards to employees, visitors, and the general public.
Ensure all individuals working have submitted a completed LU-2
form, including LPI
Ensure LU-1 (that must be submitted to LSO) has all authorized
individuals listed. Subsequent users may be listed with all required
information either as an LU-1 addendum, or by written
documentation to LSO.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Personnel Requirements2
пЃЇ
Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) – cont’d
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
For any known or suspected accident relating to a laser under his/her
authority, enact appropriate response plan, which includes
notification of the LSO.
If necessary, assist in obtaining appropriate medical attention for any
employee involved in a laser accident.
Not permit operation of a new or modified Class 3B or Class 4 laser
under his/her authority without LSO approval.
Shall submit plans for Class 3B and Class 4 laser
installations/modifications of installations to the LSO for review.
Shall be familiar with the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for
each Class 3B and Class 4 laser under his/her authority, and ensure
that that they are provided to all users of such lasers.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Personnel Requirements3
пЃЇ
Employees working with lasers
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Not energize or work with or near a laser unless
authorized to do so by the laser’s supervisor.
Comply with Purdue University Laser Safety
Guidelines, LSO and LPI safety rules and
procedures.
Inform his/her LPI of any known or suspected
accident involving a laser under their LPI’s
jurisdiction. If the LPI is not available, notify the
LSO.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General
Module 9
Medical Surveillance Practices
пЃ±
General Information
General Information2
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Medical surveillance must be performed as soon as possible,
but no later than 48 hours of a suspected or actual laserinduced injury.
Medical surveillance is encouraged for personnel using Class
3B and 4 lasers; surveillance may be ophthalmologic and/or
dermatologic
Dependent upon employee category (i.e. incidental personnel
or laser personnel), the surveillance may be visual acuity or
baseline as determined by ocular history.
Frequency – should be performed prior to participation in
laser work; shall be performed following suspected laser
injury; periodic examinations are not required.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 6: Medical
Examinations
Module 10
Required Training
пЃ±
General Information
General Information3
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Required for any employee routinely working with
(unrestricted users) or potentially exposed to (restricted and
unrestricted users) Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation.
Refresher training (online) is required at 2 year intervals.
Trainer Qualifications – LSO or individual with training skills
and knowledge including knowledge of lasers, laser safety
concepts, and laser safety standards.
LSO – multiple requirements; specialized training.
User Training – Where appropriate, shall include CPR
training and safety procedures for applicable non-beam
hazards.
Training records must be maintained by LSO regarding
trainee information, date, and topics covered.
ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 5: Education and
Training
Module 11
Consequences of Non-Compliance
пЃ±
General Information
General Information4
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
The LSO has the authority to suspend, restrict, or
terminate the operation of a laser system if the LSO
deems that controls are not adequate.
LPIs, authorized users, and/or associated personnel
found in non-compliance of the Purdue Laser Safety
Program and/or applicable governmental regulations
may be subject to review by the Laser Safety
Committee, at a minimum.
Penalties for non-compliance shall be determined by
the Laser Safety Committee and/or other applicable
bodies of authority.
Module 12
Emergency Procedures
Personnel Injury
пЃ± Fire
пЃ±
Incidents/Emergencies - Injury
пЃЇ
PERSONNEL INJURY
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Turn off the laser system with the “Emergency Button” or
power switch.
If injured personnel require medical assistance, don
appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, i.e.
gloves), and provide minimum assistance, as needed.
Ensure someone remains with the victim until medical
personnel arrive.
Contact medical personnel (call 911). Inform them of the
accident and that lasers are involved.
Contact REM (49-46371).
Complete incident report.
Incidents/Emergencies - Fire
пЃЇ
FIRE
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Sound fire alarm.
Contact fire department (call 911). Inform them of the
incident.
If fire has gone out, call the Purdue University Fire
Department (PUFD) at the non-emergency number (4946919)
Turn off the laser system with the “Emergency Button” or
power switch.
Evacuate area.
Contact REM (49-46371).
Complete incident report.
Contact Information
пЃЇ
Zach Tribbett, Laser Safety Officer
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
Jerry Gibbs, Laser Training and Authorization
Information
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃЇ
494-1478
ztribbet@purdue.edu
494-0207
jjgibbs@purdue.edu
Other Radiation Safety Staff: 494-6371
Test and Classroom Session
пЃЇ
The link to the examination is included on the next slide. Once you have
completed the test, you will receive an email indicating whether or not
you have passed.
пЃ®
Unrestricted users:
пЃЇ
пЃ®
If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become an unrestricted user, the
confirmation email you receive will include a link to the online registration
for the classroom session.
Restricted users:
пЃЇ
If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become a restricted user, you
will receive a confirmation email detailing the responsibilities of a restricted
user. An email will also be sent to your LPI notifying them that you wish to join
their project. The email will only be sent if you pass. They will not be notified of
a failed exam.
Test
пЃЇ
пЃЇ
Complete the test indicated below. You must have a
minimum score of 75% to pass.
Your results will be sent to you through email, and,
if you have passed, will be the documentation you
would use to prove certification for renewal.
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