Laser Safety Training: Online Segment Radiological and Environmental Management Purdue University with information from ANSI Z136.1 - 2007 Modules 1 Fundamentals of laser operation 2 Bioeffects of laser radiation on the eye and skin 3 Significance of specular and diffuse reflections 4 Non-beam hazards of lasers 5 Laser and laser system classifications 6 Control measures 7 Laser Safety Project Information 8 Facility and personnel responsibilities 9 Medical surveillance practices 10 Required training 11 Consequences of Non-Compliance 12 Emergency Procedures Module 1 Fundamentals of Laser Theory and Operation Laser Definition пЃ± Laser Components пЃ± Laser Characteristics пЃ± What is a laser? пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ LASER: an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation Laser System: a laser and its associated electrical, mechanical, and optical components. UV lamps, light boxes are NOT lasers Laser Components 1. Optical Cavity: resonator that provides the necessary geometry F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r Resonator encapsulated by a fully-reflective mirror on one end and a partially-reflective mirror on the other. Laser Components (2) 2. Lasing Medium: causes amplification of a certain incident light at a particular wavelength. пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Solid-state Gas Dye Semi-conductor F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r L a s in g M e diu m Atoms at вЂњground-stateвЂќ awaiting stimulus from energy source. Laser Components (3) 3. Pumping System: imparts energy to the atoms or molecules of the laser medium. пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Optical pumping Collision pumping Chemical pumping P u m pin g S y s te m F u lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r P a rtia lly -R e fle c tiv e M irro r L a s in g M e diu m Energy delivered to medium, causing excitation of atoms and the release of photons. Q-Switch пЃЇ Provides laser pulses of an extremely short time duration. Laser Characteristics пЃЇ Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. VS. Laser Characteristics2 пЃЇ пЃЇ Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. Directional: вЂњparallel light beamвЂќ - small divergence over distance, unless purposely diverged (e.g. diffusing lenses). VS. Laser Characteristics3 пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. Directional: вЂњparallel light beamвЂќ - small divergence over distance, unless purposely diverged (e.g. diffusing lenses). Coherent: a вЂњfixed phaseвЂќ relationship exists within the wavelength вЂ“ in step. VS. Module 2 Bioeffects of Laser Radiation on the Eye and Skin Criteria for Eye and Skin Exposure пЃ± Eye Tissues пЃ± Mechanisms of Eye Injury пЃ± Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength пЃ± Special Considerations for Ocular Exposure пЃ± Mechanisms of Dermal Injury пЃ± Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits are below known hazardous levels. Exposures at the MPE limit may be uncomfortable. MPEs are normalized relative to the limiting aperture area вЂ“ we assume the limiting aperture area is 7mm for the pupil size of a dark-adapted eye in most cases. Irradiance is affected by the Radiant Exposure and the Exposure Duration ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Tissues Eye Tissues - Macula Macula: devoid of blood vessels; area of eye most responsible for color vision. Fovea: center of macula; area of eye of clearest vision/focusing. Eye Tissues вЂ“ Optic Nerve Optic Nerve: transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain; fibers enter eye at the Optic Disk. Eye Tissues вЂ“ Retina Retina: innermost coat of outside of eye, responsible for vision. Eye Tissues вЂ“ Vitreous Body Vitreous Body: transparent, colorless, gelatinous material which fills the eyeball chamber. Eye Tissues вЂ“ Lens Lens: focuses light onto the retina. Eye Tissues - Pupil Pupil: opening in the center of the iris; pupil size determines amount of light entering eye. Eye Tissues - Iris Iris: pigmented muscle that dilates and constricts, depending on ambient light. Eye Tissues - Cornea Cornea: transparent, layered window of eye; provides 2/3 of eyeвЂ™s focusing power. Mechanisms of Eye Injury пЃЇ Thermal пЃ® пЃЇ Photochemical (blue light and UV) пЃ® пЃЇ Potential effects: charring, edema, hemorrhage Potential effects: production of toxins and biochemical changes which may cause inflammation, lesions and lens opacities Photoacoustic (short intense pulses) пЃ® Potential effects: explosive forces due to expanding gases ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength TARGET: Cornea Far IR (IRC): 3000 nm вЂ“ 1 mm Mid IR (IRB): 1400 nm вЂ“ 3000 nm Mid UV (UVB): 280 nm вЂ“ 315 nm Far UV (UVC): 100 nm вЂ“ 280 nm EFFECT: Mid IR and Far IR: Thermal Mid UV and Far UV: Acute inflammation and conjunctivitis, fluorescence of lens, corneal and lenticular opacities (вЂњcloudingвЂќ) cataractogenesis (peaks at 300 nm) ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength (Retina) TARGET: Retina Near IR (IRA) : 700 nm вЂ“ 1400 nm Visible Light: 400 nm вЂ“ 700 nm EFFECT: Thermal burns, hemorrhage, scotoma (вЂњblind spotвЂќ), photoretinitis (вЂњblue light damageвЂќ) ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength (Lens) TARGET: Lens Near UV (UVA): 315 nm вЂ“ 400 nm EFFECT: Development of cataracts ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Special Considerations for Ocular Exposures пЃЇ Lower MPE limits may be required when normal protective mechanisms such as eye movement and pupil constriction are hindered. Inform your LPI if you think that you have a condition that may impact your susceptibility to the laser beam. пЃ® пЃ® For example, individuals who have had pupil dilation performed will not have the natural defenses of the constricting iris which could limit that amount of radiation entering their eye. Also, advanced age of an individual may reduce the ability of the iris to contract. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Mechanisms of Dermal Injury2 пЃЇ Thermal (from direct beam or specular reflection) for Near UV, Visible, and IR wavelengths пЃ® пЃ® Potential effects: mild reddening (erythema) to blistering Severity is dependent upon exposure dose rate, exposure dose, and conduction of heat away from the site of absorption L A SE R Mechanisms of Dermal Injury пЃЇ Photochemical (from scatter of beam, specular or diffuse L A SE R reflection) for Mid UV and Far UV wavelengths пЃ® пЃ® Potential effects: erythema to blistering, possibly carcinogenic Bu r n e d dose ag ain ! Effects are dependent upon wavelength and exposure DRAT! Laser B arrier Module 3 Significance of Specular and Diffuse Reflections Specular Reflection пЃ± Diffuse Reflection пЃ± Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection пЃ± Important Notes пЃ± Specular Reflection пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Mirror-like Reflection Reflected wavelength is near same shape and intensity as direct beam Obeys the Law of Reflection: Angle of Reflection = Angle of Incidence Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is greater than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Diffuse Reflection пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Reflected wavelength is blurred and weaker than direct beam Obeys LambertвЂ™s Law or the Cosine Law of Reflection Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is smaller than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection пЃЇ Specular пЃЇ Diffuse Important Notes пЃЇ пЃЇ Avoid having objects that may produce a specular reflection in or near laser beam (e.g. jewelry, tools, etc.), unless deliberately used as part of laser system (e.g. mirrors) Surfaces that appear dull and pitted to our eyes may be a specular surface to beams of larger wavelengths Module 4 Non-Beam Hazards of Lasers General Information пЃ± Physical Agents пЃ± Chemical Agents пЃ± Biological Agents пЃ± Human Use пЃ± General Information пЃЇ пЃЇ Include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as human use issues. May occur when: пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ material is exposed to a laser beam. laser-related materials are released into the atmosphere. Individuals contact system components. Written SOPs shall address non-beam hazards, as well as beam hazards. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Physical Agents пЃЇ Electrical Hazards пЃ® Potential Hazards пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Shock: risk from contact with energized electrical conductors, power supplies, and other devices operating at potentials or 50 volts and above. (note: 600 volts and higher are considered to be High Voltage) Resistive Heating: routinely check equipment for decay. Electric Spark Ignition of Flammable Materials: malfunction ANSI canZ136.1-2007 lead Section to fire; sparks may be ignition 7: Non-Beam Hazards source. Physical Agents (2) пЃЇ Collateral and Plasma Radiation пЃ® пЃ® Ionizing Radiation: x-rays from electronic components of laser system (e.g. voltages exceeding 15 kV) and laser-metal induced plasmas. Non-Ionizing Radiation: пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ UV and Visible: suitably shielded so as not to exceed limits specified by the ACGIH TLVs. Electromagnetic Fields (EMF): MPEs set by IEEE C95 ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Plasma: UV and blue light Physical Agents (3) пЃЇ Fire Hazards пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ Use flame retardant materials wherever possible. Possible affected material: beam enclosures, barriers, unprotected wire insulation, and plastic tubing. Obtain appropriate fire protection information from manufacturer. Explosion Hazards пЃ® Possible causes: component (high-pressure arc lamps, filament lamps, and capacitor banks) ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Physical Agents (4) пЃЇ Mechanical Hazards Associated with Robotics пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ Potential hazards: damage to protective housing and beam delivery system, misalignment of beam, pinning/pinching of personnel. Protective measures: may include surface interlock mats, interlocked light curtains, nonrigid walls and barriers. Consult REM for further information. Noise: ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Chemical Agents пЃЇ Laser Generated Air Contaminants (LGACs) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Primary Factors: target material, cover gas, and the beam irradiance. Lower limit of occurrence appears at an irradiance level of approximately 107 W/cm2. Possible carcinogenic toxic, and noxious airborne contaminants (list in Appendix F, ANSI Z136.1 вЂ“ 2007). LSO must ensure industrial hygiene characterizations of exposure to LGACs are ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Chemical Agents (2) пЃЇ Compressed Gases пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® E.g.: chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride. All compressed gases with a Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) or NFPA Diamond with a health, flammability, or reactivity rating of 3 or 4 shall be properly contained (i.e in an approved and appropriately exhausted gas cabinet that is alarmed with sensors to indicate potential leakage conditions). SOPs shall be developed for safely handling ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Chemical Agents (3) пЃЇ Laser Dyes and Solvents пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Fluorescent compounds which, when in solution with certain solvents, form a lasing medium for dye lasers. Some are highly toxic or carcinogenic. Dye handling must employ special care (see Purdue University Chemical Hygiene Plan) Dye lasers containing 100 ml or greater of flammable liquids shall be in conformance with NFPA 30 and 45, and the NEC Article 500. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Chemical Agents (4) пЃЇ Control Measures: Engineering controls preferred пЃ® Exhaust Ventilation пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃ® Respiratory Protection пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃ® avoid recirculation of LGACs. use enclosing hoods, if possible. designed in accordance with ACGIH and ANSI Z9.2. for brief exposures or interim control measure. If used, must comply with 29 CFR 1910.134 (OSHA). Process Isolation ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Biological Agents пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ LGACs: may be generated when a highpowered lasers interacts with biological tissue. Infectious Materials: may survive beam irradiation and become airborne. Consult ANSI Z136.3, Appendix F. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Human Factors пЃЇ Ergonomics пЃ® пЃЇ Limited Work Space пЃ® пЃЇ E.g.: workstation layout, worker-machine interface, handling techniques, area illumination, visual distractions. There must be sufficient room for personnel to turn around an maneuver freely, without trip/fall hazards (e.g. wires or cables on floor). Work Patterns пЃ® ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Unusual or long hours may affect worker Human Factors (2) пЃЇ Disposal пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ Laser Disposal: donation, remove all means or activation and disposed, destruction Laser Waste Disposal: waste disposal shall conform with Purdue University disposal requirements (see REMвЂ™s Hazardous Material Management webpage) Chillers пЃ® May be employed to reduce heat load produced by lasers. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Module 5 Laser and Laser System Classifications Laser Classifications пЃЇ пЃЇ Class 1: exempt from control measures or other surveillance, considered incapable of producing damaging radiation levels during operation. Former Class IIa lasers are considered to be in this category. Class 1M: exempt from any control measures other than to prevent potentially hazardous optically aided viewing, considered incapable of producing hazardous exposure conditions during normal operation unless the beam is viewed with an optical instrument. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Laser Classifications (2) Both Class 2 and Class 2M laser emit only in the visible spectrum (400 вЂ“ 700 nm wavelengths). In the visible spectrum, the human aversion response (a reflex action of blinking and looking away from a strong optical stimulus) occurs when the eye becomes exposed; the response time occurs within 0.25 seconds. пЃЇ Class 2 lasers are considered harmless for accidental viewing based on the power level and protection of the human aversion response. пЃЇ Class 2M lasers are considered potentially hazardous if viewed with certain optical aids. For instance, a focusing lens may produce a magnified intensity to which the eye could be exposed. The Laser Safety Officer should evaluate a Class 2M laser or laser system to determine what hazard controls may be necessary forANSIthe safe use of the laser. Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Laser Classifications (3) пЃЇ Class 3 (medium power): may be hazardous for direct or specular reflections (normally not a diffuse reflection or fire hazard). 2 subclasses. пЃ® пЃ® Class 3R: potentially hazardous under some direct and specular reflection viewing conditions (if eye is focused and stable, highly improbable). Not a fire or diffuse reflection hazard. Class 3B: viewing hazard under direct or specular reflection conditions, normally not a diffuse reflection or fire hazard ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Laser Classifications (4) пЃЇ Class 4 (high power): пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ пЃЇ Hazard to eye or skin from the direct beam, and May be a diffuse reflection or fire hazard May also be a source of laser generated air contaminants (LGACs) and hazardous plasma radiation. For lasers not classified by manufacturer, or where class level may change because of alteration of engineering control measures, the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) may classify Laser classifications are in Arabic Numerals; Roman Numerals are no longer accepted. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Module 6 Control Measures пЃ±Engineering Controls Rules пЃ±Administrative & Procedural Controls пЃ±Accident Trends пЃ±Special Considerations пЃ±Operation, Maintenance, and Service пЃ±Protective Equipment пЃ±Unattended Use пЃ±Area Warning Signs & Equipment пЃ±Laser Modification Labels пЃ±General General Rules пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Use minimum laser radiation required for the application. Maintain beam height at a level other that the position of the userвЂ™s eye standing or sitting. Prefer engineering controls, however must have administrative and procedural controls. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Accident Trends пЃЇ Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with: пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Unanticipated eye exposure during alignment Misaligned optics and upwardly directed beams Available eye protection not used Equipment malfunction Improper methods of handling high voltage Intentional exposure of unprotected personnel Operators unfamiliar with laser equipment Lack of protection for non-beam hazards ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Accident Trends (2) пЃЇ Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with (contвЂ™d): пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Improper restoration of equipment following service Eyewear worn not appropriate for laser in use Unanticipated eye/skin exposure during laser usage Inhalation of laser generated air contaminants and/or viewing laser generated plasmas Fires resulting from the ignition of materials Eye or skin injury of photochemical origin Failure to follow SOPs ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Operation, Maintenance, and Service пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Lasers are classified under conditions of intended use. Maintenance and Service functions should be delineated in the service manuals of the laser. Consult with manufacturer for special use conditions/service of laser. Consult REM Laser Section for guidance on service procedures. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Unattended Use пЃЇ пЃЇ Operate lasers under direct supervision or control of an authorized user вЂ“ operator shall maintain visual surveillance of conditions for safe use and terminate laser operation in the event of malfunction or other unsafe condition. Unattended operation may ONLY be allowed under LSOapproved control measures are in place; control measures MUST provide adequate protection so that unprotected spectators shall not receive eye or skin exposures that exceed the MPE limits. пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Service Personnel Emergency Personnel Administrative/Other Personnel Students/General Public ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Laser Modification пЃЇ пЃЇ LSO may reclassify a modified laser. May necessitate recertification, reclassification, and compliance reporting under Federal Laser Product Performance Standard (FLPPS). ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Engineering Controls пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Protective Housing вЂ“ Require interlocks and appropriate labels. Service Access Panels вЂ“ Shall only be removed by service personnel; interlocked or removal tool and warning label required. Key Control вЂ“ Master switch that can initiate and terminate system operation shall be operated by a key or coded access. The key (or code) shall only be accessible to authorized personnel. Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting Optics вЂ“ shall incorporate suitable means to maintain the exposure to below MPE. Beam Paths вЂ“separate requirements for fully open, limited open, and enclosed. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Engineering Controls (2) пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Remote Interlock Connector вЂ“ Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE Beam Stop or Attenuator - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this permanently attached control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE when laser output is not required. Warning Area Warning Signs and Activation Warnings Class 3B and Class 4 areas shall be posted with the appropriate signage, both for beam and non-beam hazards. Activation Warning Devices - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall use this control during activation or startup. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Engineering Controls (3) пЃЇ Indoor Laser Controlled Area вЂ“ Analysis shall be performed by the LSO пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Requirements for Class 4 more strict than Class 3B. Emergency Conditions вЂ“ For emergencies, there shall be a clearly marked вЂњEmergency StopвЂќ available for deactivating the laser or reducing output to below the MPE. Entryway Controls вЂ“ Class 4 laser areas shall have one of the following пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Non-Defeatable: for deactivation of laser or reducing output to below MPE in the event of unexpected entry into laser controlled area. Defeatable: only if clearly evident that there is no laser radiation hazard at the point of entry. Procedural: only when safety latches or interlocks are not feasible or are inappropriate (e.g. Surgery). ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Engineering Controls (4) пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Outdoor control measures - Lasers are not to be used outdoors without evaluation and approval by LSO. Temporary Laser Controlled Areas вЂ“ in case of service or other conditions where housing, panels are removed and MPE is exceeded Controlled Operation Equipment Labels вЂ“ in accordance with FLPPS or IEC 60825-1 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Housing, Control Panel (if separated from housing by more than 2 meters), and Long Distance Beam Conduit (at intervals of 3 meters) ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Administrative and Procedural Controls пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) вЂ“ shall be written and maintained with the laser(s) for reference regarding operation and alignment, maintenance and service, emergency for personnel injury and fire, and all applicable non-beam hazards (including electrical safety). Output Emission Limitations вЂ“ LSO may require if excessive power or radiant energy is deemed excessive. Education and Training вЂ“ required, must cover topics required by ANSI, records must be maintained. Authorized Personnel вЂ“ LPI authorizes, training and registration are conditions of authorization. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Administrative and Procedural Controls (2) пЃЇ пЃЇ Alignment Procedures Spectators вЂ“ Shall not be permitted unless пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ LPI has approved, Spectators are informed of the hazards by authorized users, and Appropriate protective measures are taken. Service Personnel вЂ“ Only those with the education and safety training commensurate with the laser contained within protective housing. Typically, certified technicians from the manufacturer. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Special Considerations пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ General Public вЂ“ Class 3B and 4 require a laser light show variance issued by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), other requirements. Optical Fiber Transmission Systems вЂ“ considered enclosed within cable, if disconnecting where MEP is exceeded, NHZ requirements implemented. Robotic Installations вЂ“ working envelope included in NHZ. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Protective Equipment пЃЇ пЃЇ General вЂ“ enclosure of beam is the preferred method of control. Eyewear вЂ“ пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Required within NHZ for Class 3B and 4 lasers Non-beam hazards may exist which require additional eye protection (ANSI Z87.1) LSO shall determine the OD for eyewear based on laser specifications. Shall be labeled with the OD and its corresponding wavelength. Shall be cleaned and inspected to ensure proper condition. Only use eyewear that is in proper working condition. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Protective Equipment (2) пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Window Protection вЂ“ within NHZ shall be provided with an appropriate filter, barrier, or screen with reduces laser radiation to below all applicable MPE. Barriers and Curtains вЂ“ material shall be selected to withstand direct and diffuse reflection of beam, must not support combustion or release toxic fumes upon laser exposure. Labeling of Protective Equipment вЂ“ Shall be permanently labeled with: пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Eyewear вЂ“ OD and corresponding wavelength. Protective Windows вЂ“ OD and corresponding wavelength, exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Collecting Optics Filters вЂ“ OD and corresponding wavelength, threshold limit (TL) and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Barriers (unless integral part of laser system) вЂ“ TL and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Viewports and Films (unless integral part of laser system) вЂ“ OD and corresponding spectral region which shall be provided by the manufacturer. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Protective Equipment (3) пЃЇ Skin Protection - mostly applicable to Class 4 UV lasers пЃ® пЃЇ пЃЇ LSO shall determine if skin protection is needed. best achieved through engineering controls Other Protective Equipment вЂ“ respirators, local exhaust ventilation, fire extinguishers, and hearing protection may be required. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Area Warning Signs and Equipment Labels пЃЇ пЃЇ Design вЂ“ In accordance with ANSI Z535. Symbols вЂ“ 2 accepted symbols: пЃ® Laser Symbol Design: пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃ® пЃЇ ANSI Z535: sunburst pattern IEC 60825-1: equilateral triangle with sunburst pattern Safety Alert Symbol: equilateral triangle surrounding an exclamation mark вЂ“ must conform with ANSI Z535.3. Signal-Words пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Danger: Class 3R, 3B, and 4; OD and corresponding wavelength must be on sign. Caution: Class 2 and 2M. Notice: Temporary laser controlled areas (e.g. service). ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Area Warning Sign Example DANGER! L A S E R R A D IA T IO N E xa m p le s o f P e rtin e n t In fo rm a tio n : A v oid e y e or s k in e x p os ur e to d ir e c t or s c a tte r e d r a d ia tion. Inv is ib le La s e r R a d ia tion. K noc k b e for e e nte r ing . If lig ht is on: -D o not e nte r if not a n a uthor iz e d la s e r us e r for this p r oje c t. -La s e r p r ote c tiv e e y e w e a r is r e q uir e d up on e ntr y . L a s e r T y p e , E m itte d W a v e le n g th a n d O p tic a l D e n s ity , P u ls e D u ra tio n (if a p p lic a b le ), a n d M a x im u m P o w e r/E n e rg y O u tp u t C la s s 4 L A S E R Area Warning Signs and Equipment Labels (2) пЃЇ Pertinent Sign Information вЂ“ requirements: пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ пЃЇ Appropriate signal word. Precautionary instructions or protective action. Laser type or emitted wavelength, pulse duration, and maximum output. Laser classification. Conspicuously displayed in best locations to warn onlookers. Pertinent Equipment Label Information вЂ“ Different requirements for different classes, conspicuously displayed. Existing Signs вЂ“ Signs and labels prepared in accordance with previous revisions are acceptable. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 4: Control Measures Module 7 Laser Safety Project Information пЃ±Forms пЃ±Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements Project Approval Process пЃЇ Forms must be completed and approved by LSO, LSC пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Form LU-1: Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems (New/Amend Project Form), with SOPs attached. Form LF-1: Laser Facility Approval Request (New Lab Application) Form LS-1: Laser Registration Form LU-2: Application to Use Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems (New User Application) Project Approval Process (2) пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Training must be completed by all restricted and unrestricted users. The LPI is not exempt. LSO must perform an assessment of the facility. LPI will ensure all required engineering, administrative, and procedural control measures are in place. Restricted vs Unrestricted Users пЃЇ Restricted Users пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Must always be under direct supervision of an authorized, unrestricted user May never work alone with the laser unit Not required to submit an LU-2 form or complete the classroom session Must receive unit specific training on the laser being used Must complete retraining every two years Restricted vs Unrestricted Users2 пЃЇ Unrestricted Users пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Must submit an LU-2 form and complete the classroom session Must receive unit specific training on the laser being used Once all registration and training requirements are fulfilled, unrestricted users may work with the laser without supervision Must complete retraining every two years New User Information пЃЇ пЃЇ New users can only be added to approved laser projects. New users must: пЃ® Fulfill all training requirements пЃ® Submit a completed LU-2 to the LSO пЃЇ LU-2 forms are only required for unrestricted users пЃЇ Restricted users are not required to complete an LU-2 form, however, they must still gain approval from the LPI to use the laser system пЃ® Comply with the requirements established for the laser safety project and the Laser Safety Manual. Module 8 Facility and Personnel Responsibilities пЃ±Laser Safety Program & Provisions пЃ±Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements Laser Safety Program пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Purdue University, as a facility utilizing Class 3B and Class 4 lasers, shall establish and maintain an adequate program for the control of laser hazards. Class 3B and Class 4 laser systems: overseen by Purdue University Laser Safety Program, all users must complete required training. Purdue University policy established by Executive Memorandum No. D-2 ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Laser Safety Program Provisions пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ LSO has authority and responsibility to evaluate laser hazards, monitor and enforce compliance with required standards and regulations, and perform other specific duties and responsibilities. Education of authorized personnel in the safety use of lasers and laser systems. Application of adequate protective measures. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Laser Safety Program Provisions (2) пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Incident investigation. Appropriate medical examination and surveillance. Formation of a Laser Safety Committee when the number, hazards, complexity, and/or diversity of laser activities warrants. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Personnel Responsibilities пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Establish the safe use of the laser or laser system that is used. Inform LSO of any fabrication, altering, or installation of a Class 3B or Class 4 laser or laser system. Comply with the requirements as set forth by the ANSI Standard Z136.1 (2007) and Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines. Different expectations for different personnel types пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) Employees working with lasers Other personnel ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Personnel Requirements пЃЇ Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Issue appropriate instruction and training materials on laser hazards and their control to all personnel who may work with lasers that are operated within supervisorвЂ™s jurisdiction. Not permit the operation of a laser unless there is adequate control of laser hazards to employees, visitors, and the general public. Ensure all individuals working have submitted a completed LU-2 form, including LPI Ensure LU-1 (that must be submitted to LSO) has all authorized individuals listed. Subsequent users may be listed with all required information either as an LU-1 addendum, or by written documentation to LSO. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Personnel Requirements2 пЃЇ Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) вЂ“ contвЂ™d пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® For any known or suspected accident relating to a laser under his/her authority, enact appropriate response plan, which includes notification of the LSO. If necessary, assist in obtaining appropriate medical attention for any employee involved in a laser accident. Not permit operation of a new or modified Class 3B or Class 4 laser under his/her authority without LSO approval. Shall submit plans for Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations/modifications of installations to the LSO for review. Shall be familiar with the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each Class 3B and Class 4 laser under his/her authority, and ensure that that they are provided to all users of such lasers. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Personnel Requirements3 пЃЇ Employees working with lasers пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Not energize or work with or near a laser unless authorized to do so by the laserвЂ™s supervisor. Comply with Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines, LSO and LPI safety rules and procedures. Inform his/her LPI of any known or suspected accident involving a laser under their LPIвЂ™s jurisdiction. If the LPI is not available, notify the LSO. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 1: General Module 9 Medical Surveillance Practices пЃ± General Information General Information2 пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Medical surveillance must be performed as soon as possible, but no later than 48 hours of a suspected or actual laserinduced injury. Medical surveillance is encouraged for personnel using Class 3B and 4 lasers; surveillance may be ophthalmologic and/or dermatologic Dependent upon employee category (i.e. incidental personnel or laser personnel), the surveillance may be visual acuity or baseline as determined by ocular history. Frequency вЂ“ should be performed prior to participation in laser work; shall be performed following suspected laser injury; periodic examinations are not required. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 6: Medical Examinations Module 10 Required Training пЃ± General Information General Information3 пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ Required for any employee routinely working with (unrestricted users) or potentially exposed to (restricted and unrestricted users) Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation. Refresher training (online) is required at 2 year intervals. Trainer Qualifications вЂ“ LSO or individual with training skills and knowledge including knowledge of lasers, laser safety concepts, and laser safety standards. LSO вЂ“ multiple requirements; specialized training. User Training вЂ“ Where appropriate, shall include CPR training and safety procedures for applicable non-beam hazards. Training records must be maintained by LSO regarding trainee information, date, and topics covered. ANSI Z136.1-2007 Section 5: Education and Training Module 11 Consequences of Non-Compliance пЃ± General Information General Information4 пЃЇ пЃЇ пЃЇ The LSO has the authority to suspend, restrict, or terminate the operation of a laser system if the LSO deems that controls are not adequate. LPIs, authorized users, and/or associated personnel found in non-compliance of the Purdue Laser Safety Program and/or applicable governmental regulations may be subject to review by the Laser Safety Committee, at a minimum. Penalties for non-compliance shall be determined by the Laser Safety Committee and/or other applicable bodies of authority. Module 12 Emergency Procedures Personnel Injury пЃ± Fire пЃ± Incidents/Emergencies - Injury пЃЇ PERSONNEL INJURY пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Turn off the laser system with the вЂњEmergency ButtonвЂќ or power switch. If injured personnel require medical assistance, don appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, i.e. gloves), and provide minimum assistance, as needed. Ensure someone remains with the victim until medical personnel arrive. Contact medical personnel (call 911). Inform them of the accident and that lasers are involved. Contact REM (49-46371). Complete incident report. Incidents/Emergencies - Fire пЃЇ FIRE пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Sound fire alarm. Contact fire department (call 911). Inform them of the incident. If fire has gone out, call the Purdue University Fire Department (PUFD) at the non-emergency number (4946919) Turn off the laser system with the вЂњEmergency ButtonвЂќ or power switch. Evacuate area. Contact REM (49-46371). Complete incident report. Contact Information пЃЇ Zach Tribbett, Laser Safety Officer пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ Jerry Gibbs, Laser Training and Authorization Information пЃ® пЃ® пЃЇ 494-1478 email@example.com 494-0207 firstname.lastname@example.org Other Radiation Safety Staff: 494-6371 Test and Classroom Session пЃЇ The link to the examination is included on the next slide. Once you have completed the test, you will receive an email indicating whether or not you have passed. пЃ® Unrestricted users: пЃЇ пЃ® If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become an unrestricted user, the confirmation email you receive will include a link to the online registration for the classroom session. Restricted users: пЃЇ If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become a restricted user, you will receive a confirmation email detailing the responsibilities of a restricted user. An email will also be sent to your LPI notifying them that you wish to join their project. The email will only be sent if you pass. They will not be notified of a failed exam. Test пЃЇ пЃЇ Complete the test indicated below. You must have a minimum score of 75% to pass. Your results will be sent to you through email, and, if you have passed, will be the documentation you would use to prove certification for renewal.