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Education in Finland

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EDUCATION IN FINLAND
• History
•
•
•
•
From the 13th century a part of Sweden
In 1809 ceded to Russia as an autonomous Grand
Duchy
Independent parliamentary democracy since 1917
A member of the EU since 1995
• People
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Population 5.2 million
Two official languages: Finnish and Swedish
Monetary unit the euro, €
Labour force (2007)
Public service
32%
Manufacturing
18%
Trade
16%
Finance and business
14%
Transport
7%
Construction
7%
Agriculture and forestry 5%
Wide international interest towards Finnish school system and
teacher education:
• PISA results
• The specific characteristics of Finnish teacher education
• Huge amount of applicants in teacher education
• Equality of education has high priority
• Education for all
• Social and regional equality
• Well-educated parents -> promotes motivation
• Life-long and life-wide learning
• Pre-school teaching provided at
schools and daycare centres
• Comprehensive school is a
compulsory nine-year education for all
children
• Post-comprehensive education is
given by general upper secondary
schools and vocational schools.
Studies provide eligibility for higher
education.
• Higher education system consists of
universities and universities of
applied sciences.
About 23% of the population have a
higher level degree.
• Adult education is provided widely
by post-comprehensive schools,
universities of applied sciences
polytechnics and universities.
The
Education
System of
Finland
Doc.
Lic.
2
4
Barcelor’s degrees
Universities
Matriculation
examination
Upper secondary school
1
Bachelor polytechnic
degrees
3
Polytechnics
1
Vocational qualifications
Vocational schools and
apprenticeship training
2
3
2
Age
9
16
15
14
7
6
5
4
Basic education
13
12
11
3
10
2
9
8
7
1
Preschool
Further
vocational
qualifications
1
10
8
Specialist
vocational
qualifications
6
Work experience
Compulsory schooling
Finnish Education system
3
Master’s degrees
Work
Experience
(min. 3 years)
Work experience
5
4
3
2
1
Polytechnic postgraduate
degrees
1. Preschool
For 6 years old children, who will start
compulsory education in the following year
Voluntary
Free of charge
Provided in kindergarten or school
environment in
pre-school classes
In 2004:
Aims and Key Contents
35 000 children in kindergarten classes
“Physical and motor development”
7 500 children in school environment classes Aims:
Together 65 % of entire age group is
Physical and motor condition, movement
participating preschool
control and basic motor skills shall be trained
education; number is increasing
through exercise and play
Pre-School
Education
PE shall support children in acting
independently, proactively and co-operatively
and in being brave in physical exercise
situations
Contents:
Daily physical exercise and everyday
activities (guided and self-motivated)
2. COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL
The comprehensive school
consists of
9 grades
Elementary level: 1-6 grades
(7-12 years old children)
Upper level: 7-9 grades
(13-16 years old teenagers)
PE is an obligatory subject (~2
h/week)
Health Education is a new school
subject
(~1h/week in grades 7-9)
Basic Education
Free of charge (including
teaching, food,
books, papers, pencils etc.)
Nearly all children (99.7%)
complete the
comprehensive school
syllabus in Finland
• Teaching groups in basic education are
formed according to year classes.
• During the first six years, instruction is usually
given by the class teacher, who teaches all or
most subjects.
• Instruction in the three highest forms is
usually in the form of subject teaching, where
different subjects are taught by subject
teachers.
• Basic education also includes pupil
counselling and, if necessary, special
education.
Features of basic education
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
no admission requirements
no charges
a nine-year comprehensive school
may include voluntary one-year pre-school education
and voluntary one-year additional education (10th form)
provides eligibility for all upper secondary education
almost all Finnish children complete comprehensive
school
interruption and repeating a form is rare
compulsory education is fulfilled by completing the basic
education syllabus
General Upper Secondary
education
• Upper secondary school offers general education for
students of about 16-19 years of age.
• It continues the educational task of comprehensive school
and gives students eligibility for all studies at the tertiary
level.
• Upper secondary school ends with the matriculation
examination.
• Since 1982, instruction in upper secondary schools has
been divided into courses, each consisting of about 38
lessons.
• The school year is usually divided into five or six
periods. A separate timetable is drawn up for each
period, concentrating on certain subjects.
• Students' progress and the composition of teaching
groups thus depends on the students' choice of
courses.
• Consequently, year classes have been abolished in
all upper secondary schools, which now function
without fixed forms Upper secondary school studies
consist of compulsory, specialisation and applied
courses.
• All students must complete the compulsory courses.
Schools must provide specialisation courses for
students to choose from.
Features of Upper Secondary School
• The admission requirement for the upper secondary school
is the completion of comprehensive school
– Upper secondary schools select their students mainly on the basis
of previous study record
– Application takes place through the national joint application
procedure
• Upper secondary school gives students eligibility for all
studies at the tertiary level
• More than half of each age group complete upper
secondary school
Matriculation examination
• The Matriculation Examination is held twice a year, in
spring and in autumn, in all Finnish upper secondary
schools, at the same time
• here are four compulsory tests in the matriculation
examination: mother tongue, the other national language,
foreign language and either mathematics or general
studies test. In addition, candidates may voluntarily take
optional tests.
• A candidate must complete the examination during not
more than three consecutive examination periods. The
examination can also be completed in one examination
period
VET (Vocational education and
training) in Finland
• Vocational upper secondary education and training is
based on the basic education syllabus. A three-year
vocational upper secondary qualification gives general
eligibility for higher education in both polytechnics and
universities.
• There are 52 vocational upper secondary qualifications
and 116 study programmes in them.
• A vocational qualification can be obtained either
through school-based education or in the form of
apprenticeship training.
2.6.2007
15
The content of VET studies
• Learning outcomes approach in education and training system
• The scope of a vocational qualification is 120 credits / 3 years.
90 credits of vocational studies including at least 20 credits of on-thejob learning that supports the studies, 10 credits of free-choice studies
and 20 credits of core subjects
• The core subjects required in all vocational studies are:
the mother tongue, second national language, a foreign language,
mathematics, physics and chemistry, social studies,
entrepreneurship and workplace studies, physical and health
education, arts and cultural studies.
2.6.2007
16
On-the-job learning as a learning
method
• On-the-job learning is guided, focused and assessed
training in compliance with the educational objectives
determined in the curriculum
• implemented in a genuine working environment
• based on a written contract between the education
providern and the workplace
– the contracts specify the tasks and responsibilities of the
parties concerned, the goals, core contents, assessmentn
of the students preformance, duration and timing of the
studies
2.6.2007
17
Polytechnic Education
• The Finnish polytechnic system was built during the 1990's to
create a non-university sector in higher education. It is founded
on the institutions which previously provided post-secondary
vocational education and which have been developed to form a
nationwide network of regional institutions of higher education,
i.e. polytechnics. In the autumn of 2001, there were a total of 29
polytechnics.
• Polytechnics provide instruction for expert functions in the
sectors of natural resources, technology and communications,
business and administration, tourism, catering and institutional
management, health care and social services, culture, and the
humanities and education.
• Studies leading to a polytechnic degree take 3.5-4.5 years.
• The Ministry of Education confirms the degree programmes, but
the curricula are independently decided by the polytechnics.
Universities in Finland in 2007
• One of the most comprehensive
university networks in Europe
• 10 multi-faculty universities
– Helsinki, Turku (2), Tampere, Oulu, Jyväskylä,
Joensuu, Vaasa, Kuopio, Rovaniemi
Rovaniemi
• 3 universities of technology
– Helsinki, Tampere, Lappeenranta
– + Faculty of Technology in Oulu: 4818 students
• 3 schools of economics and
business administration
– Helsinki (2), Turku
– + Faculty of Economics in Oulu:
1023 students
Oulu
Vaasa
Kuopio
Jyväskylä
• 4 art academies
Joensuu
Tampere
Lappeenranta
Turku
Helsinki
University Education
• There are twenty universities in Finland: ten multidisciplinary
universities, three universities of technology, three schools of
economics and business administration and four art academies.
The network of universities covers the different parts of the
country and provides a student place for almost one third of the
age group. All universities are owned by the State.
• Universities select their own students independently.
• Various types of entrance examinations form a central
part of the selection process.
• The total intake of the universities guarantees a student
place for about a third of the relevant age group.
• The average duration for completing a Master's degree
is about 6.5 years.
Two-cycle model for basic university degrees
•The two-cycled basic degrees consist of
•the Bachelor’s degree
•
(180 credits / 3 years) and
• the Master’s degree
•
(120 credits / 2 years)
•The third cycle will consist of postgraduate studies
•(leading to a doctoral degree)
•1 year = 1600 working hours = 60 ECTS
Teacher Education in Finland
Teacher’s profession has a high status
• Popular field of study > high qualifications required
•
•
Master’s degree necessary also for primary level teachers
•
Integration of theory and practice (Teacher training school)
•
Pedagogical knowledge and subject knowledge integrated
• Teachers are seen as life-long learners
• Teacher education is research-based
KRISTIINA KUMPULAINEN
Finnish Teacher Education has a long history
• Teacher education for primary and secondary
schools was transferred to universities in 1971
• Typical features
- research-based orientation
- continuous national and international
evaluations
- basic core curriculum in pedagogy
KRISTIINA KUMPULAINEN
Finnish Teacher Education
Classroom Teacher Model
•
•
•
Education as a major
Studies at the Department of
Education
How to get competence to a subject
teacher?
Subject Teacher Model
• An academic subject as a major
• Studies at the Subject Department
• Teacher´s pedagogical studies at the
Dept of Ed
• How to get competence to a class
teacher?
KRISTIINA KUMPULAINEN
A CLASSROOM TEACHER
• The classroom teacher completes a Master’s Thesis
(M.A) and the study programme consists of 300 study
points.
• Main subject: Education (140 sp)
Minor subject (60 sp) consists of all the 13 school
subjects a class teacher teaches at the first 6 grades of
elementary school.
• Theory practice relation
– Academic tradition of research-based teaching
– Practice teaching
– Methodology and method studies
KRISTIINA KUMPULAINEN
TEACHER’S PROFESSION
TEACHER’S PROFESSION
”TEACHERSHIP”
TEACHING
What is a proper knowledge base for a good teacher?
KRISTIINA KUMPULAINEN
DON’T DO AS I DO, DO WHAT I SAY TO DO
TEACHERS TEACH AS THEY WERE TAUGHT
Finland in PISA Studies
• Finland came out top in the OECD´s 2003 PISA
study of learning results among 15-year olds,
with high performances in
• mathematics
• science
• mother tongue
• problem solving
11 official explanations of the PISA success
by the Finnish National Board of Education
•
Equal opportunities for education irrespective of domicile, sex, economic situation or mother
tongue
•
Regional accessibility of education
•
No separation of sexes
•
Education totally free of charge
•
Comprehensive, non-selective basic education
•
Supportive and flexible administration – centralised steering of the whole, local
implementation
•
Interactive, co-operative way of working at all levels; idea of partnership
•
Individual support for learning and welfare of pupils
•
Development-oriented evaluation and pupil assessment – no testing, no ranking lists
•
Highly qualified, autonomous teachers
•
Socio-constructivist learning conception
China is switching to course-based high school education in
line with the Finnish model.
• Schools function without fixed forms, no year classes
• School year divided into 5 or 6 periods
•
Instruction divided into 38 lessons, “courses”
• A separate timetable is drawn up for each period,
concentrating on certain subjects
• Students' progress and the composition of teaching groups
depends on the students' choice of courses.
The strengths of Finnish schools
• good teachers
• efficient teaching
• uniform quality
We may have something to give to other
countries, so they seem to think
“Foreign educators in droves want to visit Finnish schools for
the simple reason that they are so good -- very likely the best
on Earth.”
Washington Post
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