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EDUCATIONAL POLICY-MAKING
IN TVET
For learning and competence
ADMINISTRATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND
TRAINING IN FINLAND
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PARLIAMENT
GOVERNMENT
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STATE PROVINCIAL
OFFICES
• Certain administrative tasks
MINISTRY OF
EDUCATION
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• EDUCATION AND
TRAINING COMMITTEES
• QUALIFICATION
COMMITTEES
• Links to the world of work
NATIONAL
BOARD OF
EDUCATION
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Legislation
State budget
Government decrees
Development plans and general policy papers
General objectives of education
Educational policymaking
Regulation and financing
List of qualifications
National core curricula and qualifications
Implementing development programmes
Evaluation of learning outcomes
Service functions
PROVIDERS OF пЃµ Local planning and organisation
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Providing VET
EDUCATION
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Local consultative committees
2
For learning and competence
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF FINLAND
Polytechnics postgraduate
6
5
4
Universities
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
Additional VET *)
WORKING
LIFE
3
2
1
9 (10)
1
General upper
secondary
schools
Polytechnics
Further voc. qualifications
Specialist voc. qualifications
3
2
1
Upper secondary
vocational
qualifications *)
Basic education, ages 7 - 16
Pre-school education, 6-year-olds
*) Also provided in the form of apprenticeship training
3
For learning and competence
SCHOOL LEAVERS AFTER 9 YEARS OF
COMPULSORY EDUCATION IN 2002
School leavers
(comprehensive
school)
66,300 (year 2000)
64,000 (year 2001)
61,500 (year 2002)
55 % upper secondary
general education
37 % upper secondary
vocational education
2 % optional 10th year
in comprehensive
school
6 % did not continue
directly in education
Proportions of those continuing in general and vocational education
have remained unchanged.
4
For learning and competence
PARTICIPATION IN UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION
after comprehensive school
98
97
96
95
%
94
93
92
91
90
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
5
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Main Challenges
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Access to education for all
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Co-operation between schools and the world of work –
increasing on-the-job learning
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Co-operation between vocational and general education
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Opening paths to further studies
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Improving the quality and performance of education
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Increasing the prestige and attractiveness of VET
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Special education, preventing drop-outs
6
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Vocational Qualifications
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52 broad-based vocational qualifications, 113 study
programmes
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All qualifications take 3 years (120 Finnish credit units)
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Minimum six months on-the-job learning
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Combinations of vocational and general studies
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Gives eligibility for higher education (universities and
polytechnics)
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Personal study plans, optional studies
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Cooperation with the world of work
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Vocational skills demonstrations
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For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Sectors and qualifications
1.
Natural Resources
5 Vocational qualifications
5.
Health and Social Services
5 Vocational qualifications
2.
Technology and Transport
26 Vocational qualifications
6.
Culture
5 Vocational qualifications
3.
Business and
Administration
2 Vocational qualifications
7.
Leisure and Physical
Education
4 Vocational qualifications
4.
Tourism, Catering and
Home Economics
5 Vocational qualifications
8
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Composition of studies ( 3 years = 120 credits)
Vocational studies
- basic field-specific
- specific (mainly optional)
- includes 20 credits (minimum)
of on-the-job learning
90 credit
Common subjects
20 credits
Free-choice studies
10 credits
Core skills and common emphases
are cross-curricular objectives.
9
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Broad-based Vocational Competence
Broad-based vocational
competence
common
subjects
core
skills
common
emphases
Specific
skills
10
Workplace
based learning
Freechoice
studies
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Common emphases
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Occupational health and safety
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Promotion of sustainable development
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Technology and ICT
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Entrepreneurship
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Quality
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Customer service and consumer skills
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Internationalisation
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For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Core skills common to all fields
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Learning skills
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Problem-solving skills
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Interaction and communication skills
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Co-operation skills
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Ethical and aesthetic skills
12
For learning and competence
VET in Finland – Upper Secondary Level
Subjects common to all fields (20 credits)
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Native language / Finnish or Swedish
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Second national language
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Foreign language
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Mathematics
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Physics and chemistry
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Social and labour-market subjects
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Health education
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Physical education
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Arts and culture
13
For learning and competence
Proficiency of 15-year-olds on the PISA reading literacy scale (2000)
% 100
Below Level 1
80
60
Level 1
40
Level 2
20
0
0
Finland
Korea
Canada
Japan
Ireland
New Zealand
Australia
United Kingdom
Sweden
Belgium
Austria
Iceland
Norway
France
United States
Denmark
Switzerland
Spain
Czech Republic
Italy
Germany
Poland
Hungary
Greece
Portugal
Luxembourg
Mexico
20
Level 3
40
Level 4
60
Level 5
80
100 %
SPECIAL NEEDS STUDENTS
10 000
9 000
10 000
Special Needs Students in Vocational Colleges
Students in Vocational Special Colleges
9 000
8 000
8 000
7 000
7 000
6 000
6 000
5 000
5 000
4 000
4 000
3 000
3 000
2 000
2 000
1 000
1 000
0
0
1993
15
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
For learning and competence
PREPARATORY AND REHABILITATIVE
EDUCATION IN VET
Number of
Students
in Vocational Colleges
in Special Vocational Colleges
1 400
1 400
1 200
1 200
1 000
1 000
800
800
600
600
400
400
200
200
0
Year 1999
16
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
For learning and competence
DROP-OUTS IN VET
14
12
10
8
%
6
4
2
0
2000 - 2001
2001 - 2002
2002 - 2003
School year
17
For learning and competence
YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT 1992 - 2004
%
16
120 000
100 000
Unemployed job seekers, 15 - 24
years old
14
Proportion of unemployed
persons in the age group
12
80 000
10
8
60 000
6
40 000
4
20 000
2
0
0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
18
For learning and competence
THE PERFORMANCE-BASED FINANCING SYSTEM
FINANCING OF VET
STATUTORY
GOVERNMENT TRANSFER
UNIT PRICE/
STUDENT/
YEAR
19
PERFORMANCE-BASED
FINANCING (government subsidy)
BASED ON
OPERATIONAL
OUTCOME
- effectiveness
- processes
- staff
(Quantitative
indicators)
BASED ON
QUALITY
ASSESMENT
(EFQM)
- SPECIAL
THEMES
(Qualitative)
OUTCOME
BASED FUNDS
QUALITY
AWARD
For learning and competence
APPLICANTS FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND
TRAINING, Changes in numbers of applicants after 2000
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
0
-500
-1 000
-1 500
-2 000
-2 500
-3 000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
First choices of applicants in the joint application system. The data for 2005 is preliminary.
20
For learning and competence
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