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200 years of Foreigners in Finland

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200 years of
Foreigners in Finland
Antero Leitzinger
Dr. Pol. Sc.
Researcher, Finnish Immigration Service
antero.leitzinger@migri.fi
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
2
Sources
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Archives of the Finnish Immigration Service (1918-), Finnish
National Archives (1939-1950), provincial archives, etc.
Database of naturalizations 1832-1946 (over 14.000 persons or
families)
Official statistics of foreigners in largest towns 1870, 1880, 1890,
1900, 1910, and 1920; nationally in 1920, 1922-1924, and since
1926
Official statistics of naturalizations since 1928
Biographies, family chronicles, local histories, articles...
Researches only on some nationalities, professions, or periods
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Dissertation in Turku,
June 2008
http://www.ewbhelsinki.com/
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Numbers
• no exact numbers are available because there were always
gaps in the statistics, and f. ex. women naturalized through
marriage have never been counted or researched
• comparable to Sweden until 1944
• comparable to the population of the city of Viipuri (Wiborg)
• records surpassed only in the 21st century
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Nationalities by 1917
• Russian Empire (> 22 %, incl. ethnic Finns, Estonians,
Poles, etc. – Jews and Tatars not yet naturalized)
• Sweden (< 46 %)
• Germany (< 19 %)
• Denmark (< 4 %), Norway, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary,
United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, USA (Finnish
emigrants), Ottoman Empire (Greeks), Italy, etc.
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
6
Nationalities in 1920 / 1970
•Total numbers
•Former Russian Empire /
Soviet Union:
Former Russian subjects
Soviet citizens
Estonia
Latvia
Poland
Ukraine
24.451 / 5483 or 7325
61 % / < 1549
0 % / 341
4%/1%/3 % / 211
1%
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Nationalities in 1920 / 1970 cont.
•Sweden
•Germany
•Norway
•Denmark
•USA
•United Kingdom
•Italy
•Switzerland
4080 (17 %) / ?
1645 (7 %) / 1504 + 64
457 / ?
379 / ?
124 / 955
190 / 484
127 / 347
269 / 242
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Professions 1832-1917
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Merchants
Accountants
Peasants
Restaurateurs
Clerks
Soldiers (retired)
Engineers
Gardeners
Housewives
Tailors
Brewers
246 naturalizations
226
182
163
89
89
83
79
68
60
47
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Dramatic cases
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deportations of gypsies and Jews based on vagrancy laws throughout the
19th century; German beggars in 1859; swindlers from the Middle East at
least in 1854-1908
summer guests to the datchas of Terijoki
Russian Jews escaping pogroms in 1905 and Muslims seeking inspiration
for self-rule and westernization model
revolutionary refugees from the Russian Empire in 1900-1918, incl. Lenin
and Stalin; the bank robbery in early 1909
refugees from revolutionary Russia since 1917, incl. Grand Duke Kiril
whose son Vladimir was born in Haikko 30 August 1917, and two former
gouvernor generals invited by the president in 1922
Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921: some 8000 refugees overnight (only
initial research made)
Ingermanland and East Karelians after failed uprisings in 1919-1922
runaways from Solovetsk GULAG in 1929-1930
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Dramatic cases cont.
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Estonian right-wing activists in 1934-1936, remaining until 1944
Jews from Central Europe 1933-1941: some 400 remained through the
war years and 8 deported on 6 November 1942 (very well researched by
Taimi Torvinen and Hannu Rautkallio, but still myths circulating specially in
international media)
Baltic refugees since 1940, incl. 6000 Estonians in 1943-1944
internment of Soviet citizens in occupied areas (Miehikkälä and East
Karelian camps)
evacuation of over 63.000 Ingermanlandians in 1942-1944
forced repatriation of Soviet prisoners-of-war, and some others in 19441955 (research project by the Finnish National Archives)
11 Finnish and 8 foreign "Leino prisoners" deported on 21 April 1945
14 Estonian and 1 Lithuanian ex-soldiers deported in January 1948
Soviet defectors: ca 150 in 1945-1981, aliens' passports for East European
defectors
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Immigration administration
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centralized naturalization process since 1832
centralization of immigration administration in 1918-1939
State police (Valtiollinen poliisi) passport bureau until 1948 and separate Aliens'
Bureau (Ulkomaalaistoimisto) since 1949, both in 1937-1970 under Aarne Kovero:
constant under-funding
Eila Kännö as chief 1970-1984: increasing critical publicity
Name changes to Aliens' Centre (Ulkomaalaiskeskus), Aliens' Office / Directorate of
Immigration (Ulkomaalaisvirasto) 1993-2007, and Maahanmuuttovirasto (Immigration
Office/Service) since 2008
extra concerns: epidemies, estate ownership, tourism, visa policy (liberal until 1976),
State Refugee Assictance Centre (Valtion pakolaisavustuskeskus) in 1922-1958, work
permits since 1927, international cooperation, crime, espionage, failures in
bureaucracy
8.7.2009
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Sweden
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separation by 1809 (with a transitional option of citizenships)
special regulations at the northern border
industrialists, restaurateurs, gardeners, architects, glasworkers,
goldsmiths, miners, prostitutes
Pehr Cerelius Rettig (1811-1871), Carl Ulrik Frietsch (1821-1881)
easy integration, difficult to distinguish from the old Swedish minority
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Other Scandinavian countries
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Norwegian fishmerchant: Sören Berner (1859-1902)
Norwegian photographer: Carl Nyblin (1856-1923)
Norwegian sawmill owners and workers: Hans Gutzeit (1836-1919),
Adolfsen family (later Ahtisaari)
communities in Kotka and Kemi
some research made (f. ex. by Merja Bertling)
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Danish seamen and dairyworkers
Danish cablemen's community in Uusikaupunki
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one Icelandic resident in 1931-1932
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Germany
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Prussia (41 %), LГјbeck (12 %), Saxony (10 %), Mecklenburg (8 %), Hamburg (6 %),
Hannover (5 %), Bavaria (5 %), and other states in the 19th century
Prussian architect: Karl Ludwig Engel (1778-1840)
LГјbeck merchants: Heinrich Stockmann (1825-1906), Gustav Paulig (1850-1907)
Hamburg musician: Friedrich Pacius (1809-1891)
Bavarian brewers
Bavarian or Swiss mystery woman: Alina Frasa (1834-1899)
sometimes enemies or allies with special treatment (deportation in 1914-1918,
internment in 1944-1947)
German schools and (lutheran) churches, mechanics in the 1920s
some research made (f. ex. by Robert Schweitzer, Martha MГјller)
8.7.2009
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Switzerland
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cheesemakers: Jost Leuzinger (1766-1849), Rudolf Klossner (1824-1915),
Christian Oesch (1860-1935)
conditeurs, restaurateurs, and hoteliers: Florio Theodor Catani (17811871), Christian Andrea (1843-1900)
teachers and gouvernantes: Leon Gabriel Biaudet (1848-1898), Sophie
Weber, Anna Lockert
hatmaker: Eduard Peter Fazer (1821-1894)
engineer: Jakob Robert Huber (1844-1905)
well researched
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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West and South Europe
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Belgian ceramics designer Alfred William Finch (1854-1930)
Luxemburg teacher CathГ©rine ServГ© (1911-?)
French gouvernante and teacher Marie de Verneuil (1859-1897)
British industrialists James Finlayson (1772-1852) and John Barker, and comedian
Neil Hardwick (b. 1948)
Italian posetive players; toy peddlers, ice cream and sweets merchants: Antonio
Casagrande, Oreste Magi (1850-1924)
Greek tobaccoworkers; ice cream and sweets (halva) merchants: Vasili Christides,
Stefan Papakostas (1888-1978), Georg Karaokyros (1887-1965)
no Albanians before very recent decades
some research made on French, Italian, and Greek immigration (f. ex. by Gunilla de
Chapelle, Maija Lehtonen, Roberto Tanzi-Albi, and Nina Lehtonen)
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Russians
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settlement in Kyyrölä village already since late 18th century
soldiers (retired), incl. Jews
servs in Raivola and Karatsalmi villages
merchants, monks
painter Ilja Repin (1844-1930), movie star Valentin Ivanoff (Vaala, 1909-1976), singer
Viktor Klimenko (b. 1942)
privileged position under Russian rule, unfounded pogrom scare of 1905, mass
deportations and Viipuri massacre in spring 1918, but only individual internment
during war years 1939-1944
Russian schools and (orthodox) churches
many surnames changed into Finnish during the 1920s and 1930s
some reserarch made (f. ex. by Natalia Baschmakoff and Marja Leinonen), and some
myths circulating
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
18
Imperial non-Russian subjects
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Ingermanlandians and East Karelians (ethnic Finns), peddlers and
peasants, easy integration: f. ex. radio reporter Pekka Tiilikainen (19111976)
Estonian fishermen, bakers, seasonal workers, smugglers, and refugees: f.
ex. Ella Murrik (later Hella Wuolijoki, 1886-1954), Aino Kallas (former
Finnish citizen, 1878-1956), Jutta Kingo (later Zilliacus, b. 1925)
Latvian movie star Theodor Tugai (Teuvo Tulio, 1912-2000)
Polish composer Georg de Godzinsky (1914-1993) and comedian Pentti
Siimes (b. 1929)
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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•Armenian missionary Abraham bek Amirchanjanz (1838-1913), and freedomfighter Anushavan Zatikjan
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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•Jewish tailors, later politicians: Santeri Jacobsson and his nephew Max Jakobson (b.
1923), Ben Zyskowicz (b. 1954)
•Muslim (mainly Mishar Tatar) cloth peddlers, fur and carpet merchants; world's
northernmost mosque in Järvenpää built in 1942
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Other continents
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African missionary children in late 19th century
Chinese fortification workers in 1916-1917 and Alfred Wan (1922-?)
Finnish emigrants to America and Australia repatriating
British, French, and other colonial powers had citizens from the colonies
First Turks, Iranians, and Afghans, by 1947
Marriages with Finnish women specially since early 1950s
Students
Pakistani mass immigration attempt in 1971
First refugee quota from Chile in late 1973, later from Vietnam, Kurds of Iraq and Iran,
others from Iraq and Iran, Afghanistan and Myanmar (Burma)
asylum-seekers from Somalia and Kosovo in the 1990s
labour immigration increasing from Russia and other countries
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
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Foreigners in Finland today
(31 December 2008: 143.197 foreign residents)
•Russia
•Estonia
•Sweden
•Somalia
•China
•Thailand
•Germany
•Turkey
•United Kingdom
•Iraq
•Serbia & Montenegro & Kosovo
•India
•Iran
•USA
•Vietnam
•Afghanistan
26.887
22.509
8493
4919
4515
3924
3480
3437
3243
3219
< 2855
2716
2502
2340
2267
2176
(mostly repatriated Finns)
(mostly asylum-seekers)
(mostly wives)
(mostly quota refugees)
(mostly asylum-seekers)
(partly quota refugees)
(partly quota refugees)
(mostly quota refugees)
8.7.2009
Antero Leitzinger
23
Conclusions
• Immigration was always an integral part of Finnish history
• Early immigrants were integrated into the Finnish society
better than expected
• Only failures of immigration policy are remembered and
researched, success is forgotten or considered self-evident
• No modern challenges are really new in essence, only
heavier in quantity
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