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Internal Security” in Finland – challenges for policing

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Internal Security in Finland –
challenges for policing
Leeds 18th September 2008
Sirpa Virta
University of Tampere
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
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Anti-social behaviour?
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Translated literally in Finnish, the term has not necessarily
negative connotations, it does not refer to bad behaviour but
rather to isolation, not very social and talkative personality
(which we think is okay!) – ”small talk” is a nightmare
situation to the Finns…
Anti-social behaviour phenomena are connected to social
exclusion and public order issues. (Alcohol-related, middleage, male and violence issue.)
Children and young people have problems (family, health,
mental health, school drop outs..) but THEY ARE NOT THE
PROBLEM
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
2
Security landscape
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the EU Member State
location next to Russia
not in NATO
Safe country -reputation and reality
securitization of everyday life (through ”prevention of social
exclusion”)
development of a new kind of ”internal security” concept
(threats from abroad and threats within)
policy transfer or policy laundering?
from control and prevention of (anti-social) behaviour to
control and prevention of (radical/ anti-social) thoughts?
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
3
The EU strategies: governing through counter
terrorism
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The Tampere Programme 1999, The Hague Programme 2004, The EU
Counter Terrorism Strategy 2005, The EU Strategy on Combating
Radicalisation and Recruitment 2005
the Action Plans – implementation and monitoring, guidelines for local
counter terrorism / local policing
criminal justice model (vs. war model)
institutional development: COSI (2009?), Europol, Eurojust, SitCen,
CEPOL…plus numerous new intelligence networks & task forces
The Post-Hague Programme / The Future Groups’ reports (July 2008)
Who governs and how? (strategies as organised forms of exercising
power / Hörnqvist 2007)
Sirpa Virta: Re-building the EU: Governing Through Counter Terrorism
(working title) forthcoming in de Lint & Bajc ed. Security in Everyday
Life. Routledge. 2009.
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
4
National security going local
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New national security / internal security strategies in Member
States – new concept of national security (bird flu, climate
change, home grown terrorism, organised crime, stability and
vulnerability of society, critical infrastructure…)
”Security in an interdependent world” (UK, March 2008)
threat assessment industry (TE-SAT, OCTA: Europol annual
intelligence products) – global, EU, national, local
Scientific support (for improvement of threat assessments)
Community intelligence, schools and universities / teachers’
reporting on suspicious behaviour / talk / thoughts… we all
are obliged to serve the high policing purposes and national
security?
Tensions between secret / security services and local policing
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
5
Finland: internal security and policing
challenges
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Next to Russia/not in Nato: the War in Georgia has changed
perceptions of insecurity towards old state-centred and
military national security( – temporarily or permantently?)
Safe country: reputation:
The Guardian 13.2.2003: How scared are we? (people in
Britain) – unpertubed -> mildly concerned -> sporadically
anxious -> distinctly jumpy -> worried sick -> paralysed with
terror -> stockpiling food -> MOVING TO FINLAND
Internal Security Programme 2004 and 2008: prevention of
social exclusion
Community Policing Strategy 2007: early intervention
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
6
Internal Security Programme 2008: Safety
First (Government’s Programme)
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”Finland will be the safest country in Europe in 2015” –
safety utopia?
The Safety Utopia (Boutellier 2005) – safe freedom,
comprehensive preventive policy, solidarity, moral, empathy
”Internal security is a state of society where everyone can
enjoy the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the rule of law
and a safe society without fear or insecurity caused by crime,
disruptions, accidents or any other phenomena in Finnish
society or the increasingly globalised world” (translation of
MOI)
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
7
Main objectives and means (following the
”precautionary principle”)
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Prevention of social exclusion
Training and research (internal security issues for all
authorities, threat awareness…)
Threat assessment and intelligence exchange (building a
comprehensive cross-sectoral system)
Local Safety Planning
Reducing violence
Prevention of minor and major accidents and disasters
Border security, prevention of illegal immigration, customs
security
Combating terrorism, preventing radicalisation and
recruitment
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
8
Community Policing Strategy 2007
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Neighbourhood policing and Local Safety Planning
Implementation of Internal Security Programme, but also the
EU policing strategies directly
Prevention of social exclusion: early intervention (police
visits in schools, co-operation with social and health
sector,…)
Local Safety Planning – the police is one actor (but not the
main actor any more) in partnerships
New tasks for neighbourhood policing: working with
minorities, prevention of social exclusion of immigrants,
integration (in order to prevent radicalisation and recruitment)
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
9
What is to be done with social
exclusion?
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Internal Security Programme: mix of all kinds of security
related (?) issues – security is everything and nothing…?
Why security, why not economics, politics, social policy?
Security = welfare society = security; security as a new
justification or legitimation of welfare society politics?
Social exclusion: vague concept (alcohol, drugs, health and
mental health, unemployment, school drop outs, poverty…)
Social exclusion: as a root cause (for crime, violence,
radicalisation…)
Social exclusion: as a consequence (of lack of public services,
poverty, unemployment, divorce…)
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
10
Welfare and security –relationship?
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security is taken over welfare
security of minorities & immigrants – minorities &
immigrants as security threats
the nature of community policing will change dramatically (?)
– trust / suspiciouness, secrecy / transparency, …(may be
very harmful for police legitimacy)
control and prevention of (radical, anti-social, unacceptable)
thinking – thought policing?
security, politics and power
policy transfer or policy laundering?
Sirpa Virta, Leeds 18.9.2008
11
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