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Finnish agriculture
Finland
•
Surface area 338 419 km2
– forestry land 262 700 km2 (78%)
– agricultural land 22 500 km2 (6.7%)
•
Population 5 300 000
– share of rural population about 30%
•
Population density 17.4 persons/km2
– (EU-27 114.7 persons/km2)
•
GDP
– 178.8 billion euros (€)
– 33 803 €/capita
– share of agriculture and forestry 26%
Finland – World’s northernmost agricultural country
•
Geographical location the greatest
handicap
•
Growing season (in the picture)
180 - 120 days
•
Temperature sum 1 300 - 400 degree days
- Germany 2 000 - 1 600 degree days
- Spain 2 800 - 2 400 degree days
•
Natural conditions reflected especially in
yield levels
в†’ only about half of those in Central
Europe
Farms receiving support by production sector in 2008 (%)
Whole country
Poultry 1.3%
Beef 6.2%
Pigs 3.8%
Dairy cattle
19.4%
Other 5.8%
Plant production
63.6%
North
Finland
Poultry 0.2%
Beef 7.4%
Pigs 1.2%
Dairy cattle
32.2%
Poultry 1.4%
Beef 6.4 %
Pigs 5.1%
Dairy cattle
19.9%
Other 7.6%
Plant production
51.4%
Other 4.9%
Plant production
62.4%
Poultry 1.8%
Other 5.2%
Beef 4.3%
Pigs 4.6%
Dairy cattle
10.7%
Plant production
73.5%
Poultry 0.4%
Beef 10.0%
Pigs 1.5%
West
Finland
East
Finland
South Finland
Other 7.4%
Plant producti
48.0%
Dairy cattle
32.6%
NUTS II regions Uusimaa and Г…land Islands
included in southern Finland
Source: MTT, Tike, Rural Business Register
Number of farms receiving support in 1995 and 2008
WHOLE COUNTRY
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
95562
65292
1995
North
Finland
2008
50000
40000
30000 24794
20000
10000
0
1995
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
17119
2008
West
Finland
East
Finland
43104
29368
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
9956
7304
1995
2008
17708
1995
11501
2008
South Finland
1995
2008
NUTS II regions Uusimaa and Г…land Islands
included in southern Finland
Source: MTT, Tike, Rural Business Register
Number and average size of active farms (ha)
in 1990–2007
1000 farms
ha
140
40
120
35
30
100
25
80
20
60
15
40
10
20
5
0
0
Farms, 1000
Size, ha
Source: MTT, Tike
Structural change in agriculture in 1995-2008
Size class distribution of farms
1995
2008
Arable area
ha
Number
%
Number
%
<10
22 850
24
13 120
20
10-20
30 698
32
14 262
22
20-30
19 669
21
10 539
16
30-50
15 414
16
12 762
20
50-100
5 706
6
10 923
17
784
1
3 304
5
>100
• Total number of farms fell by 32% ( 95 121 → 64 910)
• Average size of farms grew by 50% (22.8 ha → 34.2 ha)
• Number of farms with over 50 ha doubled (6 490 → 14 227)
Development of farm numbers and outlook for 2010
Number of farms
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
1995
lypsykarjat
(-6,5 %)
Dairy (-6.5%)
Beef (-7.2%)
nautatilat
(-7,2 %)
Pig (-6.2)
sikatilat
(-6,2 %)
Chicken -9.5%
siipikarjatilat
(-9,5 %)
2000
2005
2010
Year
Source: MTT
Changes in the shares of production sectors
Number of farms
Number of farms
45 000
10 500
40 000
9 000
Crop farms (-1.7%)
35 000
7 500
30 000
6 000
25 000
4 500
20 000
3 000
15 000
Other cattle farms (-49.2%)
Dairy farms (-53.2%)
1 500
10 000
Pig farms (-45.6%)
Poultry farms (-53.8%)
0
1995
1997
2000
2002
2004
2006
1995 1997 2000 2002 2004 2006
• Share of livestock farms decreased, share of crop farms increased
• In 1995 52% of the farms were livestock farms and 39% were crop farms
• In 2006 34% of the farms were livestock farms and 61% were crop farms
Finland in international context
70 N
Arctic circle
150
Average length of the thermal
growing season, days
60 N
200
250
300
Source: MTT
Productivity:
Yields 2004
Finland - France
Winter wheat,
tonnes / ha
8
7.9
6
4
2
0
Sugar beet,
tonnes / ha
80
40
60
30
70
40
3.4
Potatoes,
tonnes / ha
20
0
20
37
41
23
10
0
Source: MTT
Total Factor Productivity (TFP)
growth in agriculture
Index 1980=1
2
175
15
125
1
075
05
Denmark
Finland
Sweden
Norway
1985
1990
1995
2000
2004
year
Source: MTT
Food industry
Food industry
•
•
•
Agriculture is closely linked to domestic processing industry в†’ 85% of the raw
material of food industry is domestic
Food industry is the 4th largest industrial sector in Finland
Key figures for food industry (2008):
– gross value of the production 10.5 billion euros
– added value of the production 2.2 billion euros
– share of Finnish GDP 1.6%
– share of Finnish industrial production 7.6%
– number of staff 34 600
– number of places of business 1 900
– research and development expenditure 63 million euros
– exports 1.4 billion euros, imports 3.3 billion euros
Sectors of food industry (2008)
Fish 14%
Oils and fats 2.4%
Oils and fats
Other 30%
Milling22%
products and
Fish 1.7%
starch 3.0 %
Alcohol 26%
Vegetables
and fruit
Sugar 30%
4.5%
Milling products
Feed 6.2%
29%
Confectionary 38%
Meat 23.8%
Meat 267%
1
Vegetables
and
Bakery
and pasta
fruit products
49% 10.0%
Feed 58%
Beverages 11.8%
Dairy products and icecream 23.1%
Brewery 81%
Dairy 215%
Other (incl. sugar) 13.5%
Bakery
113%
Gross value of the production of food industry 10.5 billion euros in 2008
GDP share of agriculture and food industry (%)
30
Agriculture and related
services1
25
20
15
Manufacture of food,
beverages and tobacco
10
05
0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
1 At
factor price
Source: MTT, National acccounting 1998-2006e, Statistics Finland
Agricultural production and productivity
Finnish farm
Total number of farms 65 300
Finnish agriculture is based on family farms
в†’ 88.4% of farms privately owned
In 2008 a Finnish farm had the average of:
2.1 persons employed in agriculture (2007)
34.2 hectares of arable land
48 hectares forest
52 bovines/cattle farm
24 dairy cows/dairy farm
586 pigs/pig farm
7 206 birds/poultry farm
earnings and capital income from agriculture
14 569 euros (2006)
Structure of farm income (2008)
Income total
6.9 bill €
4 Other income 1.84 bill.
€12
3 Forest income 0.59 bill. €1
27%
9%
8%
2 Support 1.86 bill. €
29%
27%
1 Sales income of agriculture
and horticulture 2.61 bill. €
35%
38%
Sales income %
total 2.61 bill. €
Meat
25%
Horticulture
16%
Arable
crops
18%
Milk
39%
•
•
•
Eggs
2%
Total return on agriculture and horticulture 4.60 bill. €
Total costs of agriculture and horticulture 3.72 bill. €
→ agricultural income 869 mill. € = 13 200 €/farm
Agricultural support payments are based on the common agricultural policy of the EU
Sources: MTT and Gallup Food and Farm Facts
1 Preliminary, Gallup Food and Farm Facts
2 Incl. compensations for crop damages and rent income 98 mill. €
Use of agricultural land (2008)
Cultivated agricultural land
2.3 mill. ha
Cereal area
1.3 mill. ha
Other
Fallow 4%
9%
Wheat
18%
Rye Other
2% 1%
Oilseeds 3%
Barley
49%
Grasses
29%
Cereals
55%
•
Because of northern climate maize is not cultivated in Finland
Oats
30%
Arable crop production (2008)
Area
1000 ha
Yield
kg/ha
Total yield
mill. kg
В№Domestic
use
mill. kg
В№Selfsufficiency
%
Wheat
216.3
3 640
787.5
689.3
114
Rye
23.6
2 580
60.8
88.6
68
Barley
585.5
3 640
2 128.6
1 791.3
119
Oats
354.5
3 420
1 213.4
785.9
154
1 193.8
3 540
4 229.1
3 417.6
124
Pea
3.2
2 250
7.2
9.8
73
Potato
26.2
26 120
684.4
616.7
111
Sugar beet
13.6
34 520
468.0
not available
not available
Dry hay
102.0
3 610
367.8
not available
not available
Silage
451.4
17 790
8 032.7
not available
not available
Turnip rape and
oilseed rape
63.7
1 390
88.9
282.0
32
Cereals total
1 preliminary
Livestock production (2008)
Production
mill. kg/l
Consumption
mill. kg/l
Consumption
per capita, kg/l
Self-sufficency
%
Milk total
2 243.6
not available
not available
101
Liquid milk
products1
1 046.3
1 048.8
189.2
100
Butter
46.6
14.7
2.8
317
Cheese
105.4
97.9
18.4
107
Ice-cream
52.2
67.2
12.6
78
Meat total
400.8
387.4
76.7
103
Bovine
81.9
96.6
18.2
85
Pig
217.1
187.4
35.3
116
Poultry
100.9
98.1
18.5
103
Eggs
58.3
51.2
9.6
114
1 Liquid milk, soured milk products and cream (consumption figures for 2008 preliminary)
Number of active farms and agricultural income in
1994–2007
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
Number
of farms
Change from
year before%
66800
68766
69088
71100
72000
73386
75384
77896
82142
85690
88370
91281
95562
103000*
–29
–05
–28
–13
–19
–27
–32
–52
–41
–30
–32
–45
–72
Change from Agricultural
income at 2007
1994, %
prices, mill. €
–35
–33
–33
–31
–30
–29
–27
–24
–20
–17
–14
–11
–7
988
924
1017
1126
1181
1221
1190
1142
1077
1031
1253
1300
1488
1699
*Estimate of MTT Economic Research
Sources: MTT Economic Research, Support register of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Index 1992–94
average: 100
63
59
65
72
76
78
76
73
69
66
81
84
96
109
Yields per hectare in 1987–2007
kg/ha
5000
4000
kg/ha
5000
Rye
4000
kg/ha
5000
Spring wheat
4000
3000
3000
3000
2000
2000
2000
1000
1000
1000
0
1987
kg/ha
5000
4000
1992
1997
2002
2007
0
1987
kg/ha
5000
Oats
3000
2000
1992
1997
2002
2007
0
1987
kg/ha
25000
Dry hay
Barley
4000
20000
3000
15000
1992
1997
2002
2007
1997
2002
2007
Silage
1000
0
1987
1992
1997
2002
2007
2000
1987
1992
1997
2002
2007
10000
1987
1992
Source: MTT, Tike
Production of milk, meat and eggs in 1997–2007
mill. litres
2500
Milk production
2450
2400
Pigmeat
200
150
2350
100
2300
To dairies
2250
2200
1997
mill. kg
250
1999
2001
2003
2005
Beef
Poultry meat
50
2007
0
1997
Eggs
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
Source: MTT
Trend in agricultural income in 1994–2008
Ratio
110
100
90
80
Nominal
70
60
50
Real
40
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008e
Source: MTT
Trend in the result and profitability of agriculture by sector in
1998–2007e
Profitability coefficient
120
100
Pig farms
080
060
040
020
0
All farms
Dairy farms
Cereal farms
98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07e
Source: MTT
C4
Agricultural support
areas
C3
C2
C2north
C1
B
A
Source: MTT
Typology of Finnish
municipalities 2006
Urban (58)
Urban-adjacent rural (89)
Rural heartland (142)
Sparsely populated rural (143)
Source: MTT, Kajaani University Consortium of the University of Oulu
and Finnish Regional Research FAR
Fertiliser use levels in Finland
(kg/ha)
kg/ha
250
200
150
100
50
Potassium
Phosphorus
Nitrogen
0
88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08
Source: MTT, Tike
Food chain
National Quality Strategy for the Finnish Food Economy
•
Programme launched jointly by actors in the Finnish food sector in1997
в†’ aims to construct a quality chain for food from farm to table
Trade
Primary
production
Food
industry
Consumer
Transport
Food services
Input
industry
•
Purpose of the quality chain is to ensure safe, high-quality foodstuffs
(traceability of origin) and efficient operations all through the chain
National Quality Strategy for the Finnish Food Economy
•
Quality can be verified through e.g.
– certified systems (e.g. ISO 9000, ISO 14000)
– product certification
– verifiable quality contracts
– verification by official authorities
•
Fundamental aim of the quality strategy is to
– improve the competitiveness of the Finnish food chain
– reinforce socially responsible action in the food chain
– improve the competitive advantages of Finnish food chains
– improve consumer awareness of the work done in the food chain
•
•
Programme is administered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Budget for 2009 is 1.37 million euros
Trend in the manufacturer and consumer price for food and in
the general consumer price index in 1995–2008
Ratio
130
125
120
115
Consumer prices
Consumer price index
110
105
100
95
Manufacturer prices
95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
Source: MTT
Productivity ratios of labour and capital in 1992–2008 according to the
total calculation of agriculture
2,5
Productivity ratio of labour
2,0
1,5
1,0
Productivity ratio of capital
0,5
0
92
94
96
98
00
02
04
06 08e
The year 1992 is indicated by 1 (2008e=forecast)
Source: MTT
World market prices for cereals
in 2004–2008
€/tonne
250
200
€/tonne
250
Wheat
150
100
50
200
Rye
150
Barley
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
100
50
Oats
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: MTT
Finnish food exports by target country
in 2008 (%)
EU-15 – 38.5%
Sweden
15.3
Germany
6.1
Denmark
3.8
Great Britain 3.4
France
2.4
Netherlands 2.2
Belgium
1.8
Other
3.5
Member States as from 2004
and 2007 – 17.5%
Estonia
Poland
Lithuania
Latvia
Czech Republic
Other
9.7
3.5
1.6
1.1
0.6
1.0
Other countries – 19.9%
Russia – 24.1%
Norway
USA
Switzerland
Japan
Other
4.2
4.0
1.6
1.5
8.6
Total value: 1 401 million euros
Source: MTT, Board of Customs, ULJAS database
Finnish food imports by country
in 2008 (%)
EU-15 – 64.2%
Germany
Sweden
Netherlands
Denmark
France
Spain
Belgium
Italy
Other
14.1
10.9
10.4
6.5
5.9
4.4
3.4
3.4
5.2
Member States as from 2004
and 2007 – 10.0%
Estonia
Poland
Czech Republic
Lithuania
Latvia
Other
2.7
2.5
2.0
1.1
0.9
0.8
Other countries – 25.8%
Brazil
Norway
Indonesia
USA
Colombia
Chile
Other
Total value: 3 585 million euros
5.1
3.3
1.9
1.2
1.1
1.1
12.1
Source: MTT, Board of Customs, ULJAS database
WTO negotiations on agriculture
-
-
Doha round of trade negotiations on the liberalisation of agricultural
trade since 2001
Agreement and schedule still open
In the negotiations on agriculture the European Commission has
approached the extreme limits of its mandate
The solution is all but finalised; now disputes not related to the EU as
the obstacle
Main questions at the final stage of agriculture negotiations:
- sustainable solution on market access
- legal certainty of the rules for green support
The decisions lead to growth in price competition in Finland and the EU
due to easier imports and abolition of export subsidies
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