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Mainstreaming Disability in Development Cooperation
- Experience, vision and future
Case Finland
Ronald Wiman
Senior Advisor on Social Development
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Department for Development Policy
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
1
Contents
•
•
•
•
”Vision 1990”: A Society for All
Current Finnish policies
Some practices
Evaluations and lessons
learned
• What to do next
• Guide to knowledge resources
Background: UN-DESA initiative
already in the 1990’s
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
2
”Vision 1990”
• ” In a Society for All the needs of all citizens constitute the basis for
planning and policy. The general system of society is made
accessible for all.
• By accommodating its structures and functioning to the needs of all,
a society mobilizes the potential of all its citizens, and consequently,
strengthens its development potential....
• The concept of ”A Society for All” encompassing human diversity and
development of all human potential, can be said to embody, in a
single phrase, the human rights instruments of the UN.”
• Report of the UN Secretary-General to the 49th GA ( 1991)
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
3
The New Development Cooperation Policy
of Finland 2007, Some Highlights
”Eradication of poverty through ecologically, economically and socially
sustainable development”
• A Global perspective
• Comprehensive approach to
development:
– Economic, ecological,
societal, cultural
– Comprehensive
social/societal policy
– Think globally - act locally
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
4
Cross-cutting Themes (CCTs) in the Policy
– Gender equality;
– Social equality;
– Rights and equal opportunties of vulnerable
groups incl. people with disabilities,
children, indigenous peoples, ethnic
minorities
– HIV/AIDS as a health and societal challenge
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
5
Finnish ”3-track”
Disability and Development Approach (2004)
1.
Mainstream disability as a cross-cutting quality issue in all sectors
and accommodate people with disabilities on basis of the equal &
universal Human Rights Approach ( re: The Convention)
2.
Complement universal provisions with targeted, additional support
and services to equalize access and opportunities for people with
disabilities
3.
Empower people with disabilities collectively to help them have a
stronger voice (support DPOs) and access to decisionmaking
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
6
A Long Track Record
by Finland on Disability-sensitive Policy Coherence
пѓј Support to intergovernmental organizations
 Communiques by Nordic Countries’ Ministers for Development
Cooperation 2000 and 2005 and follow up (2009)
пѓј Finnish Government Report on Disability (2006): Rights-based
approach; all sectors responsible
пѓј Disability included as crosscutting issue in development policies
пѓј The Convention will be ratified
пѓј EU-positions on disability supported
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
7
Examples of Disability Mainstreaming Initiatives
• Cooperation with the UN (”DESA”) in 1990s resulted in the ”Manual
on Inclusive Planning” and radiated into the 1995 Social Summit
themes
• Support to the Word Bank to include disability aspects to PRSP
sector analyses (expetise and trust funds)
• Sector-specific mainstreaming in bilateral cooperation: e.g.
inclusive education initiatives (e.g Ethiopia, South Africa, the Balkans)
• EFA (Education for All) flagship for inclusive education secretariat at
the Univ. of Jyväskylä, Finland
• Global Partnership on Disability and Develoment (GPDD, funded
with Italy, Norway and the World Bank)
• Disability component included in the training at the Ministry
• DPOs as contracted expert bodies in project appraisal and
implementation - ”nothing about us without us”
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
8
The Main Stream Is Still
Disability - Specific Activities
• Gov funding (ODA) channeled
mainly through NGOs/DPOs
• Preferential treatment: Disability
projects by NGOs/DPOs require
only 7.5% own funding (others
15%)
• In bilateral assistance ups and
downs
• Some earmarked funding to
multilateral organizations
(c) RW
Headquarters of the Ethiopian
Disabled Womens’s Association
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
9
Evaluations:
A Self-Critical Look at Policy and Practice
Goverment Evaluation Unit audit concerning the cross-cutting
themes (2009) :
– Expertise of DPOs used well and their ownership created
• But disability-specific activities are not ”mainstreaming”
– Mainstreaming, can it be outsourced?
• Ultimate responsibility for Human Rights cannot be outsourced?
– Isn’t every agency responsible for mainstreaming?
• But everybody’s responsibility is nobody’s responsibility.
– Good intentions have not always materialized (- in Finland, either).
пѓјBut: Lessons learned are now being implemented
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
10
GOAL: FROM STAND-ALONE DISABILITY PROJECTS
TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTIONS
(c) RW
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
The
beneficiaries
and agents
of action
of the Ethiopian
micro-credit
scheme of the
CBR -network
(CBR=
Community
Based
Rehabilitation)
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
11
Why Good Policies Tend to Evaporate?
What to Do?
• Make strategic decision at high level as part of the
mainstream Managing for Results (MfR) - framework (Paris
Declaration, Accra Agenda for Action on Aid Effectiveness)
• Revise management framework
–
–
–
–
–
Responsibilities
Accountability
Resources and capacity building
CCT support team to be established
Terms of Reference of Quality Assurance Board to be revised
• Revise guidelines for programme design and all
documentation
–
–
–
–
Terms of Reference (TOR and procurement guidelines)
Include CCTs in all steps (stakeholder analyses and impact assessment)
Include Price Tags and Budget Lines in plans
Establish indicators, monitoring and evaluation procedures
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
12
A Recent, Very Good Toolbox
”Make Development
Inclusive”
IDDC / CBM for the EU
Commission
- A how to practical manual on
mainstreaming (2009)
- Step-by-step advice on
including the disability
perspective in EU Project
Management Cycle (PCM)
• The on-line PCM toolbox at
http://www.inclusivedevelopment.org/cbmtools/
http://www.inclusivedevelopment.org/cbmtools/
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
13
Steps towards Implementing Mainstreaming
пѓј Make a Decision
пѓј Connect it with mainstream policies and priorities
пѓј Manage for Results and enforce accountability
пѓј Provide tools for desk officers, train and support
пѓј Get organized for the above
пѓј Budget realistically
пѓј Monitor and evaluate
Learn from mistakes
пѓј Do not overdo! Be aware of what is relevant in each intervention.
The best can be an enemy of the very good.
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
14
Contact Details
Ronald Wiman
Senior Social Development Advisor
KEO-20/ Department for Development Policy
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Katajanokanlaituri 3
P.O.Box 511; FIN-00023 Government, Helsinki, Finland
Tel: +358-9-1605559; GSM: +358-40-556 4812
e-mail: Ronald.Wiman@formin.fi
ronald.wiman@gmail.com
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
15
Reference Material (1)
• Convention (ICPRD) implementation toolkit by DPI:
<http://www.icrpd.net/implementation/en/index.htm>
• Label us Able. Evaluation of Finnish Development Cooperation from
the Disability Perspective. Min. for Foreign Affairs, 2003
<http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=13528&GUID={C2043295F121-4ED1-984D-B394F821C13D}>
• Making PRSP Inclusive.by HI and CBM (2007)
<http://www.handicapinternational.de/images/pdfs_multimedia/prsp_manual_eng_1.pdf>
• Make Development Inclusive. How to include the perspectives of persons
with disabilities in the Project Cycle Management Guidelines of the EC by
Christoffel-Blindenmission (CBM) 2009
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
16
Reference Material (2)
• Wiman, R (ed): Disability Dimension in Development Action. Manual on
Inclusive Planning. STAKES for the UN (1997, 2000, 2003)
<http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/publications/FFDisalibilityDim0103_b1.pdf>
• Wiman, R, Voipio, T, Ylönen, M (2007): Comperhensive Social Policies
for Development in a Globalizing World. Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
Finland <http://info.stakes.fi/ssd/EN/comprehensive/index.htm>
• Working on Disability in Country Programmes. DFID How to Note
(2007) <http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/DisguideDFID.pdf>
UN-DESA CSocD Side-Event 06.02.2009
Mainstreaming Disability
in Development Cooperation
ronald.wiman@formin.fi -06.02.2009
17
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