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Finland and WWII: Three Wars

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Finland and WWII:
Three Wars
History of Finland
The Winter War, 1939-40
The Continuation War, 1941-44
Lapland War, 1944 - 1945
Brief History of Finland
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1155 A.D. Finland under Kingdom of Sweden
1808 Czarist Russia invades Finland
1809 Sweden surrenders Finland
“Grand Duchy of Russia”
Independence declared, 1917
(Bolshevik Revolution)
Civil War in Finland, 1918
Republic of Finland established, 1919
Constitution adopted
Finland: The Winter War
пЃ· Soviet-German NonAgression Pact, 1939
пЃ· Invasion by Soviet
Russia
пЃ· Nov 1939-March 1940
пЃ· Valiant effort with little
support
пЃ· Peace treaty, Finland
forced to cede
territories (%10) to
USSR
Clip
Aspects of The Winter War
пЃ· Finnish forces were ill-equipped, but skillful
пЃ· Soviet attack stalled and even thrown back in
some areas
пЃ· USSR used air superiority, tanks, greater,
man-power to wear down Finnish defense
пЃ· Winter War drew world attention
The Continuation War
June 24, 1941- September 4, 1944
 Finland “co-belligerent” of Nazi Germany in
“Operation Barbarossa” (German attack on
USSR)
пЃ· Contested theories regarding reasons for
alliance, including:
 Finland’s security viewed as dependent on
collaboration with Germany (distrust of USSR)
пЃ· Opportunity to win back territories lost in WW
пЃ· Belief that Germany would win war.
The Continuation War
пЃ· Finland allowed Germans to attack via
Finland
пЃ· Declared war on USSR after bombing of
Finnish Cities
пЃ· Recaptured areas lost in Winter War
пЃ· Refused to join in attack on Leningrad
The Continuation War
Mannerheim President of Finland, August 1944 пЃ· War in Static phase
1941 -summer 1944
пЃ· June 9, 1944: Soviets
attacked Finnish Front
(Karelian Isthmus)
 Nordic History’s largest
battle fought June 25July 6, 1944
пЃ· Armistice (USSR &
Finland, signed Sept.
1944
The Lapland War
Sept. 27, 1944 - April 27, 1945
пЃ· War fought against Germany, after signing of
armistice with USSR.
пЃ· Fighting in Northern Finland (Lapland)
пЃ· Finland under pressure from Allies and USSR
пЃ· Finns to disarm German troops and drive out
of Finland
пЃ· Finland required to withdraw to 1940-lines
пЃ· Finland to pay war indemnity to USSR
Results of Wars
пЃ· Loss of 85,000 Finnish lives 1939-1945
пЃ· Finland sole country among defeated
nations, not occupied by foreign troops
пЃ· Finland saved its independence (the Baltic
States annexed July 1940 by USSR)
пЃ· Continued development under democratic
government after Wars.
Väinö Linna (1920-1992)
пЃ· Self-taught factory worker
пЃ· Military service in
Continuation War (machinegun platoon)
пЃ· Author, first work in 1947
пЃ· Unknown soldier, 1954
пЃ· Historical Epic
пЃ· Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
пЃ· Backwoods Realism
 Working man’s perspective
пЃ· Regional types: Dialects
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