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Legal framework of using administrative records in Finland

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Administrative sources in Population
and Housing Censuses in Finland
Libourne, 4 - 7 June 2007
Kaija Ruotsalainen, Statistics Finland
Contents
1. Reasons for using administrative data in statistics
compilation
2. Examples of statistics which use register data
3. Milestones of population statistics in Finland
4. The basic units of register-based statistical system
5. Codes for combining the registers
6. Sources of Population and Housing Census in Finland
7.6.2007
B2
Why to use administrative data?
Cheaper?
пЃ® Easier?
пЃ® Lower response burden?
пЃ® More reliable?
пЃ® Rational?
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B3
Register-based Data Collection
Long experience, since the 1970 population census
пЃ® first in social and demographic statistics, nowadays more
and more also in business statistics
пЃ® about 96% of input data comes from administrative
sources (as measured in number of statistical units times
number of variables)
пЃ® direct data collection also very important
пЃ® these two methods are complementary to each other
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B4
Data collection
Indirect data collection (proportion about 97%)
пЃ¬ taxation registers
пЃ¬ population register
 Social Insurance Institution’s material
пЃ¬ central government accounts, etc.
пЃ® Direct data collection (proportion about 3%)
пЃ¬ paper questionnaires
пЃ¬ machine language collection
пЃ¬ interviews
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B5
Data collection in 2004 for official statistics
Total number of data collections:
пЃ® - administrative data:
пЃ® - interview
- other direct data collection
- on paper
- on WEB forms
- in electronic form (files etc)
189
пЃ®
73
8
108
35
41
32
(paper, WEB and electronic form are
double counted to some extent)
7.6.2007
B6
Some factors facilitating the increased use of
administrative registers in Finland
Use of uniform identification numbers
пЃ® Administrations own interest in building nation-wide
databases
пЃ® Acceptance of the population
пЃ¬ cost efficient
пЃ¬ reduces response burden
пЃ® Legal basis
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B7
Ways of utilising administrative data
Direct use of register data
пЃ® Register estimation
пЃ® Combined use of survey and register data
пЃ¬ additional information from registers
пЃ¬ use as sampling frame
пЃ¬ non-response control
пЃ¬ imputation
пЃ¬ determining the structure of non-response
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B8
Examples of totally register-based statistics in
Statistics Finland
Population statistics
пЃ® Population censuses
пЃ® Building and dwelling statistics
пЃ® Statistics on housing conditions
пЃ® Regional employment statistics
пЃ® Statistics about justice and crime
пЃ® Election statistics
пЃ® Income statistics
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B9
Examples of surveys in which register data are used
Income distribution statistics
пЃ® Household budget survey
пЃ® ECHP
пЃ® Labour force statistics
пЃ® Wage and salary statistics
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 10
Authorities delivering administrative data
Population register centre
пЃ® Taxation authorities
пЃ® Central Pension Security Institute
пЃ® The State Treasury
пЃ® Municipal Pension Institution
пЃ® National Pension Institute
пЃ® Ministry of Labour
пЃ® Ministry of Justice etc.
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 11
Milestones of population statistics in Finland (1)
the 1500s Church records of births and deaths
пЃ® the 1600s Everyone over the age of 12 entered in the church
registers
пЃ® 1748 Statistical bureau "Tabellverket" was established
пЃ® 1749 The first population census
пЃ® 1749-1930 Compilation of 10-year tables, censuses conducted
by largest towns
пЃ® 1938 Census law was enacted
пЃ® 1950,1960, 1970,1975, 1980,1985 Questionnaire-based
censuses
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 12
Milestones of population statistics in Finland (2)
1969 Central Population Register was established
пЃ® 1970 Use of registers in population censuses began
пЃ® 1980 Data collection for the Register of Buildings and
Dwellings
пЃ® 1989 The first statistics on the basis of register-based
employment statistics system were published
пЃ® 1990 The first register-based census,
second in the world
пЃ® 1995 and 2000 Register-based census
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 13
Development of the use of registers in Population
Censuses
took 20 years
пЃ® step by step
пЃ® full support of the Ministry of Finance and the management
of Statistics Finland
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 14
P o p u la tio n a n d H o u s in g C e n s u s e s 1 9 5 0 -2 0 0 0 in F in la n d
q = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m c e n s u s q u e s tio n n a ire s
R = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs o f a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
q r = d a ta fo r n o n -re s p o n d e n ts o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs a n d a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
R q = re g is te r d a ta s u u p p le m e n te d w ith q u e s tio n n a ire s
- = ite m n o t in c lu d e d in c e n s u s
Ite m
Year
1950
D e m o g ra p h ic D a ta
Ag e (D a te o f B irth )
Sex
M a rita l S ta tu s
M o th e r T o n g u e
C itiz e n s h ip
R e lig io n
U s u a l P la c e o f R e s id e n c e
E c o n o m ic D a ta
M a in T yp e o f Ac tiv ity
S ta tu s in E m p lo ym e n t
In d u s try
O c c u p a tio n
W o rk p la c e
L o c a tio n o f w o rk p la c e
S o c io -e c o n o m ic G ro u p
In c o m e
1960
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
R
q
R
R
R
R
R
q
R
R
R
R
R
R
q
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
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R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
-
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
-
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
R
q
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q
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q
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q
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q
q
q
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q
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qr
qr
qr
qr
qr
qr
qr
R
R
R
R
R
R
Rq
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Rq
R
R
R
R
R
Rq
R
Rq
R
R
7.6.2007
B 15
P o p u la tio n a n d H o u s in g C e n s u s e s 1 9 5 0 -2 0 0 0 in F in la n d
q = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m c e n s u s q u e s tio n n a ire s
R = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs o f a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
q r = d a ta fo r n o n -re s p o n d e n ts o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs a n d a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
R q = re g is te r d a ta s u u p p le m e n te d w ith q u e s tio n n a ire s
- = ite m n o t in c lu d e d in c e n s u s
C o m p le te d E d u c a tio n
D e g re e
S u b je c t
H o u s e h o ld a n d F a m ily D a ta
H o u s e h o ld T yp e
H o u s e h o ld S iz e
F a m ily T yp e
F a m ily S iz e
D w e llin g D a ta
S iz e o f D w e llin g U n it
N um ber of R oom s
K itc h e n
W a te r, S e w a g e , T o ile t
H e a tin g S ys te m
T e n u re S ta tu s
B u s in e s s P re m is e s D a ta
F lo o r Are a
T e n u re B a s is
U s e o f F lo o r Are a
In te n d e d U s e
q
q
q
q
q
q
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
q
q
q
q
q
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q
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R
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R
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R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
q
q
q
q
q
q
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q
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q
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q
q
q
q
q
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R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
-
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
-
R
R
R
R
-
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
-
7.6.2007
B 16
P o p u la tio n a n d H o u s in g C e n s u s e s 1 9 5 0 -2 0 0 0 in F in la n d
q = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m c e n s u s q u e s tio n n a ire s
R = d a ta o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs o f a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
q r = d a ta fo r n o n -re s p o n d e n ts o b ta in e d fro m re g is te rs a n d a d m in is tra tive re c o rd s
R q = re g is te r d a ta s u u p p le m e n te d w ith q u e s tio n n a ire s
- = ite m n o t in c lu d e d in c e n s u s
B u ild in g D a ta
T yp e o f B u ild in g
Y e a r o f C o n s tru c tio n
C o n s tru c tio n M a te ria l
M a in U s e o f B u ild in g
N u m b e r o f D w e llin g U n its
C a p a c ity m 3
H e a tin g S ys te m
N u m b e r o f S to re ys
S u m m e r C o tta g e D a ta
O w n e d /R e n te d
J o in t O w n e rs h ip
Y e a r o f C o n s tru c tio n
F lo o r Are a
S u ita b ility fo r Y e a r-R o u n d U s e
Fuel
Sauna
O rig in a l In te n d e d U s e
M a p C o o rd in a te s o f B u ild in g
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
-
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
q
-
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
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R
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
7.6.2007
B 17
Population and Housing Census 1970
Preprinted names, PINs and addresses on the
questionnaires
пЃ® data about religion from the Central Population Register
(CPR)
пЃ® data on income from the taxation authorities
пЃ® locations of buildings were specified with map coordinates
and registered to the CPR
пЃ® Register of Completed Education and Degrees was
established to Statistics Finland
пЃ® official population size was counted on questionnaires
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 18
Population and Housing Census 1975
Preprinted names, PINs and addresses on questionnaires
пЃ® preprinted household-dwelling units (lists of persons living
in the same dwelling)
пЃ® use of Business Register of Statistics Finland along with
other sources of enterprise data (link between employees
and establishments was coded manually)
пЃ® all demographic data from the Central Population Register,
income data from taxation and educational data from the
Register on Completed Education and Degrees
пЃ® official population size on the form
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 19
Population and Housing Census 1980
Preprinted names, PINs, addresses and householddwelling units
пЃ® data collection for the Register of Buildings and Dwellings
on the questionnaires of Population Register Center
пЃ® preprinted data about buildings (from taxation, coverage
incompl.)
пЃ® Link coded manually to Business Register (no full coverage
of Business Register)
пЃ® data from the register of Completed Education and
Degrees was preprinted on questionnaires and checked
пЃ® official population size was defined on the basis of CPR
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 20
Population and Housing Census 1985
Preprinted names, PINs, addresses and occupational titles
from CPR
пЃ® preprinted data about workplace from the Census 1980
пЃ® automated coding of occupation and workplace
пЃ® use of register data to persons who had not responded
пЃ® All other data except data about economic activity from
registers
пЃ® register-based parallel statistics using all available registers
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 21
Census data 1950-2000 according to the data source
100
80
Questionnaires
Registers
60
10 annual
censuses
8 MEUR
Census
1980
35 MEUR
40
20
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1985
1980
1975
1970
1965
1960
1955
1950
0
7.6.2007
B 22
Most important reasons for beginning to build a
totally register-based census system
costs
пЃ® administrative registers were sufficiently developed
пЃ® growing need for statistics
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 23
The costs of the censuses 1970-2000 (euro)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
7.6.2007
B 24
Statistical basic registers
Business register
Population register
Register of buildings
and dwellings
Organisation number
Personal identification
number (PIN)
Building/dwelling
number
Statistics Finland
Population register
centre
Population register
centre
7.6.2007
B 25
The basic units of register-based statistical system
пЃ®
1 Building code
Co-ordinates
Buildings and dwellings
(CPR)
Buildings
1
Dwellings
Free-time
recidences
7.6.2007
B 26
The basic units of register-based statistical system
Co-ordinates
пЃ®
пЃ®
1 Building code
2 Domicile code
Buildings and dwellings
(CPR)
Buildings
1
Free-time
residences
Dwellings
2
Persons
(CPR)
2
Householddwelling
units
Families
Persons
7.6.2007
B 27
The basic units of register-based statistical system
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
1 Building code
2 Domicile code
3 Enterprise number
4 Establishment number
5 Address
Co-ordinates
Buildings and dwellings
(CPR)
Buildings
1
Free-time
residences
Dwellings
2
Persons
(CPR)
5
2
Householddwelling
units
Families
Persons
3, 4
3
Register of Enterprises
and Establishments
(SF)
Establishments
Enterprises
4
7.6.2007
B 28
7.6.2007
B 29
Personal identification number (PIN)
taken into use in 1964 in Finland
пЃ® ddmmyysxxxc
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
ddmmyy = birthday
s = century (+ 1800, - 1900, A 2000)
xxx = individual number
odd = men
even = women
c = checking code
f. ex. 240105A036B
7.6.2007
B 30
Domicile code
• Municipality (3 digits)
091
• Village /town district code (3) 602
• Block (4)
0042
• Real estate (4)
0003
• Check code (1)
K
• Building number (3)
• Entrance (1)
• Flat number (3)
• (Flat divider code (1)
001
Building
code
(18 digits)
Domicile code
(23 digits)
A
003
B)
Dwelling code
(5 digits)
7.6.2007
B 31
Business identification number (organisation
number)
taken into use in tax administration 1987
пЃ® organisation numbers also for person businesses
пЃ® 8 digits (+checking number)
пЃ® establishment code (maintained by Statistics Finland),
9 digits
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 32
The best example of the use of administrative data
sources in Statistics Finland is the register-based
population and housing census system
7.6.2007
B 33
7.6.2007
B 34
Population Register, Register of Buildings and Dwellings
пЃ®
пЃ®
Population information is used for various purposes in society.
The Population Information System contains the official
information for the whole country on:
пЃ¬
Finnish citizens and aliens residing permanently in Finland
пЃ¬
buildings and residences and their holders
пЃ¬
real estate units and office and business premises.
The Population Information System provides data to the
administrative authorities and courts of law as well as for
statistical and research purposes. Business enterprises and
private citizens may obtain for example address information.
7.6.2007
B 35
Population Register, Register of Buildings and Dwellings
пЃ®
The Population Register Centre
пЃ¬
develops and controls the registration,
пЃ¬
maintenance and delivery of population information together
with the local register offices.
пЃ¬
is responsible for the national information services and permit
decisions relating thereto.
пЃ¬
was founded in 1969 and it operates under the Ministry of
Interior
7.6.2007
B 36
The Population Information System in Finland
People
moves
Parishes
marriages,
christenings
Hospitals
Courts
births
deathe
divorces
custodys
paternity
adoption
POPULATION INFORMATION SYSTEM
Population Register Centre
Local Register Offices
Changes of names
Coynty
Covernments
Citizenship
Directorate
of immigration
Data on buildings
and dw ellings
Building
inspection
Data on
real estate
Real estate
authorities
7.6.2007
B 37
Units in the Population Information System of
Finland
owns
Person
Real estate
owns
locates
lives/owns
Building
locates
Dwelling
Construction
Projects
locates
Business
premises
Companies
People
7.6.2007
B 38
The data content of the population information system (1)
Persons
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
names
personal identification number
municipality of birth (or country)
municipality of residence
place of the residence, it contains:
пЃ¬ municipality (special code if living abroad)
пЃ¬ village
пЃ¬ real estate/block
пЃ¬ building
пЃ¬ stair number
пЃ¬ dwelling number
7.6.2007
B 39
The data content of the population information system (2)
Persons
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
street address
post area code
citizenship
language (mother tongue)
voting district
ID-number of spouse
ID-numbers of children
ID-number of father (if alive in 1970)
ID-number of mother (if alive in 1970)
date of marriage
date of divorce
date of death
7.6.2007
B 40
The data content of the population information system (3)
Buildings
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
identification codes of the building (place of location)
пЃ¬ municipality
пЃ¬ village
пЃ¬ real estate/block
пЃ¬ building
street address
map co-ordinates
owner (name and address)
type of building
floor area
equipments
пЃ¬ electricity, sewage, running water, hot water
пЃ¬ elevator, mechanical ventilation, air raid shelter, swimming pool, connection
to the area networks (in the buildings completed later than 1980)
7.6.2007
B 41
The data content of the population information system (4)
Buildings
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
year of construction
year of renovation
type of ownership
number of storeys in the building
sauna
principal type of heating
principal heating fuel
construction material
intended use
day of the building permits granted (in the buildings completed later than 1980)
7.6.2007
B 42
The data content of the population information system (5)
Dwellings
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
identification codes of the building (place of location)
пЃ¬ municipality
пЃ¬ village
пЃ¬ real estate/block
пЃ¬ building
пЃ¬ stair number
пЃ¬ dwelling number
year of construction, year of renovation
floor area
tenure status
number of rooms, kitchen
equipment (toilet, bath, water etc)
intended use
7.6.2007
B 43
Data on employment relationships
пЃ®
From several different sources
пЃ¬ Employment relationships within the private sector
(including the self-employed)
пЃ¬ employment relationships within the government sector
пЃ¬ employment relationships within the local government
sector
пЃ¬ other registers
7.6.2007
B 44
Work pension security system in Finland
Type of Employer
Priv ate enterprises
ID-number of
employees
- period of work
- wages and salaries
Ow n account w orkers/
Entrepreneurs
ID-number of worker
- period worked
- earnings
Central Gov ernment
ID-number of office
ID-number of worker
- period worked
- wages and salaries
Local Gov ernment
ID-number of office
ID-number of worker
- period worked
- wages and salaries
Pekka Myrskylä -95
Insurance Institutions
I
n
s
u
r
a
n
c
e
c
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s
Finnish
State
Treasury
Central
Pension
Security
Institute
Statistics
Finland
Pension Institute
of Local
Governem ent
7.6.2007
B 45
Data on self-employed
the Central Pension Security Institute supplies data on the
self-employed
пЃ® most important data
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
type of the self-employed persons’ pension scheme
period of scheme
entrepreneur code
7.6.2007
B 46
Data on employees
the Central Pension Security Institute, State Treasury and
Municipal Pension Institute provide almost all data on
employment relationships
пЃ® bases on obligatory employee pension schemes
пЃ® all employment periods
пЃ® most important data
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
date when the employment started and ended
type of pension scheme
identification of employer (name of the employer or organisation
number)
in the public sector also establishment number
7.6.2007
B 47
Other sources on employment
the Social Insurance institution
пЃ® the Bank of Finland
пЃ® Helsinki University
пЃ® Government of Г…land Islands
 National Church Board’s Register of Employees
 the register of seamen’s Pension Scheme
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 48
Data from Taxation Authorities
пЃ®
different type of incomes
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
wages and salaries
entrepreneur incomes
pension incomes
social security benefits
total earned incomes etc
data on employers
пЃ® wages/salaries for all employees
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ®
also link between employee and employer
(occupation)
7.6.2007
B 49
Data on unemployed
derived from the Ministry of LabourВґs Register of Job
Applicants
пЃ® covers all persons who have applied for work through the
employment exchange
пЃ® Most important data derived from this register are:
пЃ®
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
date when unemployment started and ended (each unemployment
period
reason for end of unemployment
date when job placement started and ended
7.6.2007
B 50
Data on students
different sources
 Statistics Finland’s register of students was founded 1997
пЃ¬ it covers all students after lower secondary education
пЃ® the Register of Study Aid to Students
пЃ® the Joint Selection Register
пЃ® the Register of Completed Education and Degrees
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 51
Data on completed education and degrees
the Register of Completed Education and Degrees
пЃ® basic data collected in the Population Census 1970
пЃ® maintained by Statistics Finland since with reports from
educational institutions
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 52
Data on pensioners
the Social Insurance Institution’s Register (national
pensions)
пЃ® the Central Pension Security Institute (statutory earnings
related pensions)
пЃ® Most important data
пЃ¬ initiation date of pension
пЃ¬ type of pension
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 53
Data on conscripts and conscientious objectors
пЃ®
the data obtained from:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
the General Headquarters Register of Conscripts
the Ministry of LabourВґs Register of Conscientious Objectors
date when the military service/non-military service started and
ended
7.6.2007
B 54
From register to statistics (1)
Received data is not a statistics => there is a lot of work
before the statistics can be published
for example:
пЃ® Checks for population data
пЃ®
no missing data for some variables (e.g. sex, place of residence,
mother tongue, citizenship)
пЃ¬ municipality codes are valid (everybody has to have home
municipality)
пЃ¬ checks of other codes also (mother tongue, citizenship, birth
country etc)
пЃ¬
7.6.2007
B 55
From register to statistics (2)
пЃ®
Checks for population data
child’s data on his/her parents has to match to the parent’s data
on their child
пЃ¬ usually a child cannot be older then his/her parents (rare
exception adoptions)
пЃ¬
пЃ®
If there is some errors in the received data and we
ourselves cannot solve it => contact to the Population
Register Center
7.6.2007
B 56
From register to statistics (3)
пЃ®
Checks for data on buildings and dwellings
building has a minimun size (20 m2)
пЃ¬ agricultural buildings are not accepted in building stock
пЃ¬ summer cottages is separated from the building stock
пЃ¬ very old buildings where no one is living and with very poor
equipment are not accepted in building stock
пЃ¬
7.6.2007
B 57
From register to statistics (5)
There is no specific register item on families and householddwelling units in the Population Information system
пЃ® These are formed on the basis of people living together using
certain rules by Statistics Finland
пЃ® => later an example of the method on defining families by
register data
пЃ®
7.6.2007
B 58
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