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Political Culture and Forest Programmes in Finland.

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Political culture and Forest
Programmes in Finland
Pekka Ollonqvist & Harri Hänninen
Finnish Forest Research Institute
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
Political culture and Governance in Finland
пЃЅ Elements of Political Culture
пЃЅ State and Local Governance
пЃЅ Main features of power structures of political
arena:
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
dominance of president during 1956-1981
steps to parliamentary democracy during 19821991
adaptation to international communities from 1992-
пЃЅ Forest policy culture through decades
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
The Concept of Political Culture
пЃЅ Political culture Case: Parliamentary democracy
Concentration of public and private power and activities on
policy arena
пЃ® Legal base of institutions; extent and coverage
пЃЅ Levels of political arena
пЃ® Legislative level - President/constitutional monarch - Parliament
 Executive level - Government – NGOs
пЃЅ Political culture implement:
пЃ® how to legitimate social institutions
пЃ® the set of legitimate actions for:
Public power
NGOs on legislative(lobbying)/executive (corporatist
networks) levels
пЃ® set of candidate actions to modify or revise social institutions
пЃ® set of candidate agendas to modify or revise social institutions
пЃ®
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
State governance in Finland
пЃЅ Legislate level
пЃ®
president
 common (currently direct) election,
 a six-year term,
 prior strong status dismantled for parliament
пЃ®
unicameral parliament
 common (proportional) election
 a four-year term
 president can dissolve (for specified reasons)
пЃЅ Executive level
пЃ®
government
 multi-party tradition
пЃ®
non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
 strong advocacy colitions among labour unions and agriculture
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
Local governance in Finland
пЃЅ provincial advocacy administration
пЃ® only executive institutions on state power
(parliament election, justice, defence, environment…)
пЃЅ strong municipal self-governance
пЃ® 450 municipalities
пЃ® common (proportional) election
пЃ® access to taxation, educational and health institutions
пЃЅ Multicultural regions in culture, language, religion and strong
minority rights
пѓљ Identification of citizenship on local and national
state level
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
President substituted Parliament
and Government during 1956-81
Political arena
Forest policy arena
Towards Scandinavian welfare
state
Intensive, expanding timber
production
Legislate level:
пЃЅ president and elite dominates
Executive level:
пЃЅ Governments
пЃЅ short lived
пЃЅ short run policy targets
пЃЅ freqent parliamentary minority
пЃЅ NGOs
пЃЅ increasing political power
пЃЅ single advocacy for organised
Legislate level:
interest
пЃЅEconomic Council
пЃЅ major arena neo-corporatist
actions
пЃЅ Unchanged STM
Executive level:
пЃЅ Timber investment programs
(MERA I-III, 1963-1975)
пЃЅ integrated part of macroeconomic
planning
пЃЅ initiative from forest strong, closed
network
пЃЅ top-down approach
пЃЅ technocrat planning
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
Towards parliamentary democracy during 1982-92
Political arena
Parliamentary state for individuals
Legislate level:
пЃЅ new president initiated actions to
strenghten parliamentary power
Executive level:
пЃЅGovernments
пЃЅ
multi- party majority
пЃЅ living parliamentary period
пЃЅ long run policy tragets
пЃЅNGOs
пЃЅ multiple advocacies for organised
interest
пЃЅ strong diversified political power
strong
пЃЅ Economic Council
пЃЅ neo- corporatist actions extends to
Forest policy arena
Intensive, expanding timber production
and use
Legislate level:
пЃЅ Unchanged STM
Executive level:
Programs for timber investments
and use
пЃЅ Forest 2000 (1985)
пЃЅ Rev Forest 2000 (1992)
пЃЅ Economic Council initiator
пЃЅ forest network
пЃЅ dominating role
пЃЅ forest science society higly involved
пЃЅ extended representation of interest groups
пЃЅ first ENGO since 1991
пЃЅ top-down approach
market prices and social policy
пЃЅInternational dimension
пЃЅ associate contracts to international
networks
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
Adaptation to international communities
during 1992-2003
Political arena
Forest policy arena
Internationalization & pluralism
Increasing timber use parallel with
ecological biodiversity preservation
Legislate level:
пЃЅstrog parliament substitutes president
into formal position by new
constitution
Executive level:
пЃЅGovernment
пЃЅ multi-party parliamentary majority
пЃЅ living parliamentary period
пЃЅ detailed long run policy tragets
пЃЅNGOs
пЃЅ multiple advocacies for organised
interest
пЃЅ diversified arenas
пЃЅ pluralist participation
пЃЅMarket allocation
пЃЅInternational dimension
пЃЅ restricting agreements &
commitments
пЃЅ EU & EMU membership
Legislate level:
пЃЅcomprehensive revision of legislation
for SFM
Executive level:
пЃЅ Environmental Programme for
Forestry (1994)
 Finland’s NFP (1999)
пЃЅ formal status by government
пЃЅ forest network
пЃЅ forest science society in minor role
пЃЅ pluralist participation
пЃЅ many ENGOs involved
пЃЅ new participation channels
пЃЅ bottom-up approach
пЃЅregional forest programmes
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
Forest policy culture through decades
пЃЅ Policy initials: government substitute forest networks
пЃЅ Policy preparation: from mono-corporatism to pluralist-
corporatism
пЃЅ Policy agenda:
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
from closed preparation to new channels providing access
to participation
from top-down approach towards bottom-up approach
from technocratic planning towards participatory planning
пЃЅ Policy implementation:
пЃ® from fixed compherensive plans towards iterative policy
formulation
METSГ„NTUTKIMUSLAITOS
SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET
FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.metla.fi
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