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Presentation on Finland and Germany PowerPoint 72 KB

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FINLAND
1
Pre-1970s
•
•
Volkschools (6 years)
After year 4:
o Some pupils to lower secondary (5 years) and
then upper secondary (3 years)
•
•
•
Inequality of opportunity
Socially divisive
Re-organised in 1970s
2
Current system
Age 6
• Pre-school year
Age 7-16
• Comprehensive schools
Post 16
• Upper secondary schools
• Vocational schools
3
Compulsory education
•
•
•
Close to pupils’ homes
Municipalities designate schools
Exceptions:
пѓ� Parental choice
пѓ� Over-subscription
пѓ� Helsinki
4
Assessment / outcomes
•
Continuous assessment
• Based on tests, classwork, homework
•
•
•
•
•
Graded on a scale 4 (lowest) – 10 (highest)
Pupil review
Parents meetings
No formal assessment or examinations
Grades on 4-10 scale at end of compulsory
education
5
Secondary education 16+
•
Upper secondary schools
пѓ� General education
пѓ� Places for up to c.60% of pupils
пѓ� Some schools specialise
•
Vocational schools
пѓ� Initial vocational education in a range of
occupational fields
6
Destinations: 2000
•
93% of pupils started post-compulsory
education:
пѓ� 54% to general upper secondary schools
пѓ� 36% to vocational schools
пѓ� 3% took an optional 10th year in lower
secondary
•
7% did not immediately continue education
7
Upper secondary: Admissions
•
•
•
•
•
Minimum average mark of 7
Can apply to any school in Finland
Schools can set higher level (eg 9.7)
Admissions decisions based on marks and
lottery
Specialist schools – aptitude/ability for
specialism – detailed application form
8
Upper secondary:outcomes
Upper secondary leaving certificate
• Entitlement to place in polytechnic
Matriculation
• General eligibility for a university place
9
Vocational schools
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-3 years to complete
Balance between breadth of study and
specialisation
Can apply to any school in Finland
Number of places limited
No minimum marks
Some courses heavily oversubscribed
Criteria for admission
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Priority if no previous vocational education
Success in previous studies
Work experience
Entrance and aptitude tests may be organised
10
Vocational schools: outcomes
•
Ongoing assessment of knowledge and skills by
teacher (through coursework, homework etc)
• Final assessment by
• Teacher
• By the employer (for on the job training)
•
Qualification certificate (confers entitlement to
place in Polytechnic and general eligibility for
university)
11
Issues / concerns
•
•
•
•
•
7% of pupils do not continue formal
education at 16
Increasing number with learning difficulties
Disaffection among 13+ boys
Some 15% of pupils underachieving
Socio- economic background and standard
of education of parents have an impact
12
Reasons for success
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-school support and pre-school education
Pupils ready to learn
Wide range of courses and subjects open to all
Professional teaching body which has flexibility
and responsibility
Focus is on the learning needs of the children
Key decisions about educational routes delayed
until 16
Schools have autonomy and responsibility
13
GERMANY
14
LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL
FRAMEWORK
пЃ¬
Not monolithic in nature
пЃ¬
Basic core common to all 16 Länder or states
пЃ¬
Responsibility for education lies with states not Federal
Government
15
SCHOOL STAGES IN GERMANY
Kindergarten (voluntary) 3 – 6 yrs
Places for 90% children
Compulsory Schooling
6 – 16 yrs
Grundschule
(Primary School)
6 – 9 yrs
(grades 1-4)
Lower Secondary
10 – 15 yrs
(grades 5-10)
Upper Secondary
16 – 18 yrs
(grades 11-13)
LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS
•
% grade 8 pupils
HAUPTSCHULE
- BASIC GENERAL EDUCATION
(preparation for work)
REALSCHULE
- MORE EXTENSIVE GENERAL EDUCATION 26%
(preparation for work or further education)
GYMNASIUM
- INTENSIFIED GENERAL EDUCATION
(preparation for further education)
GESAMTSCHULE
- GENERAL EDUCATION LEADING TO
DIFFERENT QUALIFICATIONS
(preparation for work or further education)
OTHERS
23%
29%
9%
13%
[schools offering hauptschule and realschule 7%; sonderschule (special
schools) 5%; Rudolph Steiner etc 0.6%]
17
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
POST-PRIMARY SCHOOLS
пЃ¬
No academic, vocational, technical split pre – 16 yrs
пЃ¬
General education (allgemeinbildend) provided by all
Schools
пЃ¬
Difference lies in:
-
pace and intensity of learning
-
no. of languages taken
(1 in hauptschule, 2 in realschule, at least 2 in
gymnasium, often 3)
18
UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION
пЃ¬
Gymnasiale oberstufe
- in gymnasium or gesamtschule
- leading to Abitur
- 30%
пЃ¬
Vocational education
and training
- in fachoberschule (tech sec.
school), berufsfachschule
(vocational school) or
berufsschule and workplace
(dual system)
- leading to vocational
qualification, entry to higher
education or employment
-
70%
19
SCHOOL LEAVERS BY
QUALIFICATION (1999)
пЃ¬
Abitur (allgemeine hochschulreife)
25%
пЃ¬
Realschule leaving certificate
40%
пЃ¬
Hauptschule leaving certificate
26%
пЃ¬
Without hauptschule leaving certificate
9%
20
TRANSFER
пЃ¬
Aim is to match child to education which meets needs and
abilities
пЃ¬
After fourth year in primary school (grundschule)
пЃ¬
No transfer tests. Primary school makes recommendation
but parent chooses
пЃ¬
Parent can ignore advice ( most Länder) or ask for formal
test – trial period also possible in some Länder
пЃ¬
Concept is that choice valid only if it meets childs needs
пЃ¬
Want to avoid “foreseeable failure”
21
TRANSFER:
PRIMARY SCHOOL PERSPECTIVE
пЃ¬ Ongoing consultation with parents
пЃ¬ Information evening for parents in October
 Transfer conference in January – principal + class
teacher(s)
пЃ¬ Parents can appeal:
– 1 or 2 in school each year
– 100 from 800 schools at regional level
– rarely reach Ministry (land)
22
TRANSFER:
GRAMMAR SCHOOL PERSPECTIVE
пЃ¬ Hold information days
пЃ¬ If choose gymnasium without recommendation must be
consultation
пЃ¬ 160 applications for 130 places
пЃ¬ 120 interviews (1 hour), reduced nos. to 132
пЃ¬ Lessing gymnasium:
– 10% of 132 had Realschule recommendation
– about ½ stayed to Abitur
23
ORIENTATION PHASE
(FГ–RDERSTUFE)
пЃ¬
First 2 years in all schools, similar curriculum
пЃ¬
Assess suitability of child for education offered
пЃ¬
Ongoing assessment based on tests, homework, attitude
etc.
пЃ¬
6 point scale (grades 4 and above are a pass)
пЃ¬
Failure in 1 subject – another test
пЃ¬
Failure in 2 subjects – repeat or transfer
24
FLEXIBILITY
пЃ¬ Sitzenbleiben (remaining stationary)
– repeat year
– cannot repeat same year twice or repeat more than
twice between grades 5 – 10
– 3.5% not promoted in Hessen
– about 10-15% not promoted in grammar school visited
– most held back proceed satisfactorily
пЃ¬ Transfer
– 25-30% leave grammar between entry and abitur
– most transfer is downwards
25
ADMISSIONS CRITERIA
пЃ¬ Regulations:
1. Proximity
2. Languages in order (English, Spanish)
3. Pursuing particular career
4. Aptitude in school specialism (specialist schools must be
recognised by district)
5. Lottery
пЃ¬ Not allowed to decide on basis of achievement
26
ADMISSIONS: PRACTICE
пЃ¬ Regulations ignored
пЃ¬ Use siblings, interviews
пЃ¬ Agree admissions between grammar schools to ensure get
1 of top 3 choices
пЃ¬ ВЅ local, ВЅ distant to get social mix (Hessen comp school)
пЃ¬ Comprehensive (NR Westphalia)
–
–
–
–
sex balance
20% foreigners (average in area)
pro-rata from primaries if possible
high and low ability
27
OBSERVATIONS ON
GERMAN SYSTEM
пЃ¬
Highly selective – match children to courses
пЃ¬
Clear concept of achieving standard/competence before
progressing
пЃ¬
Flexible
- school transfer
- sitzenbleiben/repeating
- almost 50 ways to gain Abitur
пЃ¬
Parity of esteem
28
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