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Changing gender roles and changes in family formation in Finland

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Changing gender roles and
changes in family formation in
Finland, India and east Asia
Stuart Basten1,2
Yu-Hua Chen3
1 KONE
Postdoctoral Researcher, Väestöliitto
2 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Social
Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford
3Associate Professor, Population and Gender Studies
Center, National Taiwan University
The �gender revolutions’
Contraceptive revolution
Educational revolution
Work revolution
Role in household
decision making п‚­
Female empowerment п‚­
Education п‚­
Access to extrahousehold economic
opportunities п‚­
Opportunity cost of
children п‚­
Desired number of
children п‚Ї
Knowledge of
contraception п‚­
Likelihood of
contracepting п‚­
Fertility rates п‚Ї
Negative relationships
• Education and
fertility
• Income and
fertility
• HDI and fertility
But an �incomplete’ revolution?
1. Incomplete �public’ revolutions
• In many settings:
– Female education poorer
– Discrimination at home and at work
– Social and cultural barriers to empowerment
– Underinvestment in female opportunities
– Women’s value lower
• Often in negative feedback with poor
economic growth and other development
issues
Consequences
• High fertility and stalled
fertility decline in many
settings
• Incursions of women’s
(reproductive) rights
and opportunities
• Violence against
women
• Sex selection bias
– Abortions, infanticide
– Squeeze on marriage
India
Source: Baochang Gu & Yong Cai. (2011). Fertility prospects in China. Expert Paper. No. 2011/14. Department of
Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations.
2. Incomplete �private’ revolutions
• Even in the most developed countries,
changes in women’s domestic roles have
not caught up with changes in their public
roles
• Opportunity costs of childbearing
Education revolution
– Korea: female tertiary enrolment rose from
20% in 1975 to 81% in 2005 (Tsuya et al.
2009)
% achieved tertiary education (2009)
70
Taiwan, 2009
60
50
40
Male
Female
30
20
10
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
Age group
Source: Manpower Survey Statistics, DGBAS, Executive Yuan.
Participation in labour force
• New and growing opportunities
– �The life options of young women have widened’
(Rindfuss et al. 2004)
• Income inequality decreasing
• Highly competitive economies and
governments – high productivity and low
wages
– �Relatively unforgiving of the divided loyalties
inherent in the effort to combine child-raising with
working’ (Jones et al. 2009)
The �package’ of marital roles
•
•
•
•
Childbearing and rearing
Care for the elderly
The watchful gaze of the �in-laws’
Responsibility for educational success of
children
– Including extra-curricular activities and �cram’
schools
• Heavy household task load
• Possible co-residence with parents-in-law
Reflected in trends
8.0
7.0
6.0
TFR
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
Taiwan
China
China, Hong Kong SAR
Japan
Republic of Korea
India
Singapore
Thailand
Viet Nam
Japan - context
•
Source: Japan Time Use Survey 2005
A perfect storm?
• Patriarchal, patrilineal tradition
• Women expected to have very different
gendered roles in public and in private
• History of age gap between husband and
wife
• Highly educated women: opportunity costs
at breaking point
• Context for cross-border marriages?
– MEN want to get married – but just not to
Taiwanese women (and vice versa)
Men – crucial to the future
• Do we �downgrade’ women, or �update’ men?
• No question!
• The role of men in shaping the future of gender
roles and relations in Taiwan is tremendous
• An under-researched topic world wide
Population policy, fertility and
gender equity
• Question the fundamental link between
population policy and fertility
• Rather familiar assumptions on spending
on family policy and child benefit and link
to increased fertility (many studies)
• But is that the only answer?
2.00
France
NW Europe
1.80
Scandinavia
TFR
1.60
Italy and Spain
1.40
(Latvia)
1.20
(Germany)
CEE
y = 0.022x + 0.8304
RВІ = 0.4586
1.00
Developed East Asia
0.80
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Time spent on domestic/childcare duties as % of women
Source: EUROSTAT Harmonised Time Use surveys, EUROSTAT fertility database,
Asia time use surveys, UN World Population Prospects 2010, Taiwan DGBAS
50
Micro-level evidence from Finland
3
2
1
0
Desired family size
4
5
Study of Finnish males at Parity 0 and 1.
Desired family size and views on gender equity
(Division of household/childcare tasks, women in
public sphere etc)
Traditional
Egalitarian
Gender equity index
Source: (Rotkirch, Basten and Mietinnen 2010)
Micro-level evidence from Finland
3
�Househusband’
model
�Equal sharing’
model
1
2
�Half-and-half’
model
0
Desired family size
4
5
�Male
breadwinner’
model
Traditional
Egalitarian
Gender equity index
Source: (Rotkirch, Basten and Mietinnen 2010)
Extrapolate up to national level?
3
Scandinavia
NW Europe
1
2
East Asia, S and E
Europe
GENDER EQUITY
MISMATCH
0
Desired family size
4
5
Yemen, Niger,
Afghanistan
Traditional
Egalitarian
Gender equity index
So what to do?
• Clearly – women’s work should be made
more compatible with childbearing
• Return to subsidy vs. reform
• Broader social change required
• Try to usher in more equal responsibilities
between women and men with respect to
childcare and housework
Finland, India and East Asia?
• Gender is a thread that runs through
partnership- and family formation in each
of these regions
– Attitudes towards gender equity among men
– Women [and men] struggling to reconcile
work and family
– Fundamental questions concerning gender
roles
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