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ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS

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ETHICAL TREATMENT OF
ANIMALS
Home Assignment for next week…
Access the websites on the next slide.
Find at least two other sites, one that
promotes animal welfare and one that
promotes animal rights and bring the url
for each.
AGST 3000
Agriculture, Society, and the Natural World
Some Interesting Sites
http://www.animalagalliance.org/main/home.cfm?Se
ction=Main&Category=Home
http://www.animalplace.org/
http://www.prorodeo.org/animals/
http://www.peta.org/
http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/index.html
http://www.hsus.org/ace/11513
History
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Animal Ethics issue began in Europe in the
1960s.
Harrison’s Animal Machines
пЃ® Brambell Committee 1965
пЃ® Ruth
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1993 UK Farm Animal Welfare Council
published the 5 new freedoms.
HISTORY
1866 – Henry Bergh founds American Society
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1896-1900 – Legislation is proposed in
Congress to restrict vivisection via a system
of regulations and periodic inspection of
laboratories.
1951 – Animal Welfare Institute founded
1954 – Humane Society of the United States
founded
HISTORY
1958 – Federal Humane Slaughter Act is passed.
1966 – Congress passes the American Welfare Act
(AWA)
1990 – The Animal Legal Defense Fund and the
HSUS both sue the USDA. The USDA extends AWA
coverage to horses and other farm animals used in
research.
A Global Look
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New Zealand has had an Animal
Protection Act of 1960, but as the issue
of animal ethics evolved the Act became
inadequate.
Consumers, both domestic and overseas
(the U.S.), wanted assurances that
animals were being treated humanely.
Est. Animal Welfare Act of 1999.
пЃ® It focuses on Preventing animal cruelty.
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A Global Look cont.
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Switzerland is another example of a
country with an Animal Welfare Act.
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1981 Swiss Animal Protection Act - this
act made Switzerland the first country to ban
cages in egg production.
Nests & perches
пЃ® 800 sq. centimeter
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Swiss poultry farmers have made profits
using this method.
Two Major Points of View
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(1) Animal Rights - the goal is ending
all animal use
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no food, clothing, entertainment, medical research
or hunting
(2) Animal Welfare – demands that
animals must be treated and used
humanely.
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Animals can be used for any purpose, but the
responsibility of care and humane treatment lies
with the human
ANIMAL WELFARE THOERY
Animal welfare is the theory which
maintains that it is morally
acceptable to use nonhuman animals
for human purposes as long as they
are treated humanely and do not
impose unnecessary suffering on
them.
The goal of animal welfare is the
regulation of animal use.
ORGANIZATIONS
• The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)
• Animal Agriculture Alliance
• The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
• The American Veterinary Medical Association
(AVMA)
• The California Veterinary Medical Association
(CVMA)
ANIMAL RIGHTS THOERY
The animal rights theory maintains
that we have no moral justification
for using nonhuman animals for
human purposes however humanely
we treat them.n
The goal of animal rights activists is
to abolish the use of animals.
ORGANIZATIONS
• People for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals (PETA)
• The Animal Place
• The Humane Society of the United States
(HSUS)
Understanding Agriculture
пЃ®
Animal producers see themselves as more
understanding of their animals’ needs than
do the general public.
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During WWII farmers still relied on their animals
for their livelihood.
By the 70s there was a move to commercial
production (industrialization of Agriculture).
General Public might not be so well
informed…
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Society is concerned with animal wellbeing and depending on who they listen to
determines peoples impressions
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this has prompted a response from the food
industry.
Resulted in industry changes
McDonald’s Animal Welfare Guiding Principles
 Wendy’s Animal Welfare Auditing Program
пЃ®
Economic Significance
пЃ®
Treating animals inhumanely results in
economic costs.
пЃ®
Bruising of animals costs the industries
millions of dollars each year.
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Australia $36 million
With Pigs, using electric prods causes
bruising.
Improvements in these areas will
improve animal welfare as well as
human safety.
Examples
ISSUES
Animal Cruelty is against the Law!
Difficult Topic, No Easy Answers
Very Political
Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare
How Animals are used
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Animals
Animals
Animals
Animals
Animals
Animals
Animals
Animals
Other?
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
for
meat
milk
fiber
pharmaceutical production (live)
pharmaceutical production (organs)
research
companionship
exhibition
Animal Agriculture
Pastoral vs. Confinement
Define
Pastoral vs. Confinement
Example
Free-Range System offer chickens a choice
between large indoor and outdoor runs.
Agriculture as the target
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Why? Unscrupulous Producers…
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Media sensationalism
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PETA, ALF
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Again, what is justified, scientific, and valid…
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Continues to be a difficult area for most people
Specific Food and Fiber
Specie Issues
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Husbandry practices:
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Based primarily on safety and health, consumer
preference, and economics.
Some specific practices, poorly understood by
the public and are sources of misinformation
disseminated by opponents of animal agriculture
CATTLE
1. Restraint
2. Management practices
a. branding
b. dehorning
c. castration
d. ear tagging/marking
3. Dairy Industry
a. BST (Bovine Somatotropin)
b. Genetics (bio-engineering)
c. Calf rearing (confinement)
d. Veal production (abuses)
Industry Conflicts
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BEEF Industry:
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Practices such as dehorning, castration and
branding which cause some pain and can
be seen as animal cruelty.
Dehorning: benefits both cattle and human
handlers
Castration: unwanted breeding, reduces
male aggressiveness and produces better
quality meat
Branding: used for identification mainly in
the Western States
BEEF cont.
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Another issue is the Feedlot vs Pastoral
grazing.
пЃ®
Carefully managed feed, receive the best
health care, all their needs are met.
Dairy Industry Issues
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Pastoral vs Confined
Animal activists lean towards pastoral grazing
пЃ® In Sweden they passed legislation that says that
grazing is a right.
пЃ® Problems with pasturing are:
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short grazing season
inefficient nutrients required for high milk yield
Tail Docking is an emerging issue (new
Zealand).
Example
Sheep
a.
b.
c.
d.
Castration
Ear tagging/marking
Docking
Shearing
POULTRY
1. Confinement production
a. caged laying hens
b. large scale broiler
2. Production
3. Force molting
4. Beak Trimming
SWINE
1. Confinement production
a. farrowing crates
b. market hog production
c. gestation stalls
2. Management practices
a. ear notching
b. tail removal
c. needle teeth removal
HORSES
1. Confinement
2. PMSG production
(Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin)
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increases the number of follicles developing in
the ovary of non-horse species
Used to induce labor in horse and some other
species
3. Show strategies
Groups Involved
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American Veterinary Medical
Association (AVMA) - focus on animal
welfare
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proper housing, nutrition, humanely
handling and humane deaths
Promote point of view:
advocate their policy on Federal
legislation (they have a Governmental
Relations Division)
пЃ® In Process: Amendment to the Humane
Methods of Slaughter Act.
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Groups involved cont.
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Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) - animal
welfare supporter
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work to protect endangered species, improve lives
of animals used in experiments and advocate
humane farm practices
Promote:
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established Animal Welfare Approved: the
program focuses on the animal in food production
the standards try to emulate the animals natural
behavior
Example
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Animal Welfare Approved Standards for
Beef Cattle and Calves
must be allowed to graze
пЃ® room to walk around and lay down on side
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Also promote through their legislative
division, Society for Animal Protective
Legislation (SAPL).
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They are dedicated to promoting and
protecting animal welfare in local, Federal
and International Legislation.
Groups Involved cont.
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PETA (People for the Ethical
Treatment of Animals) - animal rights
supporter
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work to stop animal abuse
compare animals to human children
Promote: they get involved directly
consumer boycotts
пЃ® recognition internationally due to the media and
have been able to bring about long term changes
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Groups Involved cont.
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Animal Liberation Front (ALF) - animal
rights advocate
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fighting the injustice which they compare to the
fight to abolish slavery
consider themselves “the ultimate freedom
movement.”
Promote: through direct action
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damage and destroy property and equipment
free animals from laboratories
use arson
Laws and Regulations
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The Animal Welfare Act of 1966, 1970.
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Defines how animals are used, treated,
housed, transported, processed, etc.
Many different organizations have
established rules and regulations:
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Professional Rodeo Association - have 60 rules
and regulations.
Humane Slaughter Act 1958
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Humane Methods of Slaughter Act 1978
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extended the 1958 policy to all Federally inspected
slaughter plants
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
enforces the Act
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veterinarian and inspectors present
Animals used for Research
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Medical Research
Consumer Research
Agriculture Research
Psychological and Social Research
Environmental Research
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Are there alternatives?
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Laboratory Animals for Research
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23 million mice are used in research each year (95%)
Rats make up the second largest group
Followed by birds
Companion Animals
пЃ® Animal
Cruelty
пЃ® Neglect
пЃ® Abuse
пЃ® Pet
Shops
пЃ® Puppy mills
пЃ® Fighting
Tough one…
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It is up to the individual as to how they feel
personally.
Research the issues
What are the alternatives?
Vegetarian, human research subjects, no
companion animals?
No easy answers!
Journal
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the difference between Animal Rights and Animal
Welfare?
What are some of the organizations that promote animal rights
and what is their recurring theme(s)?
What are some of the organizations that promote animal welfare
and what is their recurring theme(s)?
There are a large number of animals utilized for research. Do
you think this is right ? Are there alternatives, what are they?
5.
Do you think that people should be allowed to have pets?
6.
Should we be concerned about how farm animals are treated?
7.
Where do you stand on this issue and why? (I believe that…)
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