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Animal Welfare in the European Union – Emily McIvor

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Animal Welfare in
the European Union
Emily McIvor
Senior Advisor, Research and Toxicology
HSI-Europe
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union
18 November 2010. Brussels.
Humane Society International-EU
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Among the largest animal protection societies in the world
• 11+ million members globally
• Offices in Australia, Canada, China, UK, India, Latin America, USA
Spheres of activity
• Public & corporate policy, education, direct care (outside the EU)
EU Activities
• Cat and dog fur ban / ban on trade in seal products
• Environmental impacts of animal agriculture
• Animal experiments and testing, eg.:
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Product testing (cosmetics, pesticides, biocides, REACH)
Revision of Directive 86/609
Promotion of alternatives to animal testing and research
Approach
• Science-driven advocacy and lobbying
• Representing the views of supporters during policy-making and
legislative processes
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
European Union: Animal Welfare
Special EUROBAROMETER 225
"Social values, Science & Technology" 2005
'Over four in five EU citizens declare that we have a duty to protect
animal rights regardless the cost’
Agree: Belgium 78%, Denmark 82%, Germany 84%. Greece
91%, Spain 81%, France 88%, Ireland 77%, Italy 87%,
Luxembourg 89%, The Netherlands 81%, Austria 86%,
Portugal 88%, Finland 75%, Sweden 86%, United Kingdom
68%, Cyprus 89%, Czech Republic 70%, Estonia 83%,
Hungary 80%, Latvia 85%, Lithuania 76%, Malta 88%,
Poland 82%, Slovakia 68%
Also surveyed: Bulgaria 58%, Romania 81%, Croatia 85%,
Turkey 80%, Iceland 60%, Switzerland 79%
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
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Community Action Plan on the
Welfare & Protection of Animals
2006 – 2010: �Developing and guaranteeing animal welfare and
protection within the European Union (EU) and in other parts of the
world.’
The Commission would like to achieve the following objectives:
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define more clearly EU action on animal welfare;
continue to promote high standards in this field;
provide greater coordination of resource;
support research and promote alternatives to animal testing;
ensure the coherence and coordination of all EU policies on animal
welfare;
The action plan defines five main fields of interlinked action
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upgrading minimum standards
promoting research and substitute methods for animal testing;
introducing welfare indicators ;
ensuring that professionals and the general public are better informed;
supporting international initiatives for animal protection.
Strengthening Enforcement
Animal Experiments Directive (2010/63)
• requires for national inspections, some unannounced, and EU
controls of national inspections.
• EU level �control’ is essential in responding to citizens’ concerns,
and ensuring that best practice is not penalised.
• Enforcement currently perceived to be very weak.
Maintaining animal welfare deadlines and targets
• Cosmetics animal test and marketing bans (7th Amendment to the
Cosmetics Directive foresees complete test and marketing ban
implemented by 2013)
• Plans already underway to delay the 2013 deadline.
• Animal welfare organisations actively campaigning to keep the
ban in place.
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Directive 86/608 Enforcement
Article 7.2 prohibits animal procedures that can be replaced by
alternatives.
And yet:
• Last year and investigation in a UK lab found rabbits used to test
fever-causing potential of drugs, when this can be tested using an
alternative method.
• Shellfish destined for human consumption are injected into the
stomachs of mice causing �severe’ suffering when modern liquid
chromatography can be used instead (and is used routinely in
many countries).
• Even now that EFSA and the SCFCAH have accepted the
alternative methods, a two year phase out of the animal method
is envisaged.
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
International initiatives
Global Trade and Farm Animal Welfare Conference on
Global Trade and Farm Animal Welfare on 20-21
January 2009.
• The rules of international trade can have an immense impact on
animal welfare, and mostly on the welfare of farmed animals.
• The development of trade agreements can either undermine
important legislative achievements, or offer relevant opportunities
to promote animal welfare legislation and standards at the
international level.
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Farmed animals in Third Countries and the
implications for the EU (2002)
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Market mechanisms - consumers are increasingly willing to pay more for
"ethical" products;
Dialogue at the international level aiming at greater recognition of animal
welfare.
Promotion of animal welfare standards in trade arrangements;
Within the Commission, DG Trade is responsible for general trade
issues, including negotiations in the WTO), DG Agriculture as far as
trade in agricultural products is concerned;
Improvement of labelling regimes to respond to consumer demands for
higher standards;
DG Agriculture is responsible for the labelling of agricultural products, for
other labelling questions DG Enterprise is the responsible Commission
service;
Strengthening the position of animal welfare in EU agricultural policy as
part of the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy focusing on "quality
rather than quantity";
Launch of the Transatlantic
Animal Welfare Council - April 2010
Signatories to the declaration are: Animal Welfare Institute;
Compassion in World Farming; Eurogroup for Animals; Global
Animal Partnership; The Humane Society of the United States;
Humane Society International; International Fund for Animal
Welfare; Royal Society for the Protection of Animals; World
Society for the Protection of Animals
The text of the declaration can be found here:
http://www.eurogroupforanimals.org/tawc/
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Animal Welfare and
International Trade
• Consumers increasingly expect producers and governments to
consider AW in animal production
• Consumer demand and willingness to pay premium prices often
catalyses improvements in AW
• Lack of explicit international trade rules, expertise, capacity, and
equipment often lead developing countries to view AW
requirements as a “trade barrier.”
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Animal Welfare as an
Economic Benefit
Over the long term, investment in
stronger AW standards and practices
can yield significant benefits:
– Expanded market opportunities
– Enhanced food safety and quality
– Premium pricing
– Mitigation of the spread of disease
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Animal Welfare and
International Trade Agreements
International trade rules/agreements can
facilitate stronger AW practices:
– Clarify/strengthen/establish rules and
standards,
– enforce compliance,
– eliminate certain government subsidies,
– provide trade capacity building and
technical assistance
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Animal Welfare and Trade
Capacity Building
According to the OECD, Trade Capacity Building
programs enhance “the ability of policy makers,
enterprises and civil society in developing countries” to
establish trade policies that:
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set agendas and identify objectives;
increase the volume and value-added of exports;
diversify exports and export markets; and
increase participation and benefits from the global
trading system
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
HSI objectives re: animal
testing in trade agreements
Objectives:
Promoting harmonization of 3Rs best practices (data requirements &
acceptance of alternative/non-animal testing strategies) across regulated
product sectors
Ensuring that animal-based contract testing/research in third countries meets
EU standards as minimum
Trade in wild-caught animals for scientific purposes
Example:
EU-Korea FTA, Annex 2-E(Chemicals)
• promoting alternative methods for assessment of hazards of substances and
reducing animal testing;
• cooperating in the area of Good Laboratory Practices and Test Guidelines, in
order to seek a more harmonised approach to chemical assessment and
management for the purpose of seeking international harmonisation of
approaches thereto.
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Conclusions
In addition to raising standards through EU legislation,
overarching animal welfare objectives are necessary.
• Without robust and transparent enforcement measures, best
practice is not rewarded.
• Penalties for non-compliance should be built in to legislation
(such as ban on sale of animal tested cosmetics).
• Without greater activity at international level, EU measures can
be undermined, and producers applying higher standards
disadvantaged.
Advantages:
• Appropriate response to public opinion
• Level playing field for companies
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
Community Action Plan on the
Welfare & Protection of Animals
Action Plan 2011 – 2015 priorities
Enforcement
International activity
The welfare of animals used in research and testing to be given
appropriate attention
ECR Hearing: Animal Welfare in the European Union, 18th November 2010, European Parliament, Brussels.
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