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SET Procedures 2011
Update briefings
Purpose of briefing
• To give practitioners in the local
children’s workforce an understanding
of what has changed in the latest SET
• Identify how the Procedures can now
be accessed
Latest SET Child Protection Procedures available at:
How to use the SET
• These procedures are a reference
• Paper copies will not be available (under
review nationally-Munro review)
• The pdf document is searchable and the
index will allow users to jump to specific
So what has changed?
• All sections have been reviewed by a
multi-agency group comprising of the three
LSCBs within Essex in line with latest
guidance and best practice.
• Some new additions to Agency roles and
responsibilities reflecting the wider
involvement of agencies in child protection
So what has changed?
• Sections 5 and 10 in the old 2006
Procedures have been amalgamated in
one section (Section 9) to avoid
• Section 9 – Additional Procedures is the
area where guidance on protection in
specific circumstances is now given
Some new additions for 2011
• Animal abuse and links to abuse of
children and domestic abuse (9.3)
• Child abuse linked to belief in spirit
possession (9.5)
• Child victims of trafficking (9.6)
• Children missing from education (9.7)
• Hate crime /harassment (9.14)
• Honour based abuse (9.17)
Some new additions for 2011
• Safeguarding children and young people
affected by gangs (9.31)
• Unaccompanied children and young
people arriving in the UK (9.38)
• Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme
Animal Abuse
Recognition of links between animal abuse
and child abuse.
Protocol developed to work with RSPCA.
A child displaying intentional cruelty to
animals could indicate that the child has
been a victim of neglect and/or abuse
9.3 SET Procedures 2011
Child Abuse and Spirit
• Defined as the belief that an evil force has
entered a child and is controlling him or her
• Whilst the number of identified cases is currently
small, the nature of child abuse is disturbing and
impact on child is substantial and serious
• Procedures give advice on how best to respond
to this form of abuse
Child Victims of Trafficking
• Defined as the recruitment, transportation,
transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by
means of threat, or use of force or other forms of
coercion for the purpose of sexual or
commercial exploitation or domestic servitude
• Procedures outline a list of risk indicators and
appropriate way to respond if trafficking is
• All practitioners who have contact with children
and young people should be able to recognise
when a child is vulnerable to, or at risk of harm
from, gang involvement or activity (9.31.1)
• Range of risk factors identified and appropriate
response for different situations – this may be
initially at CAF level or in more serious cases,
requiring emergency protective action
Specific areas strengthened
for 2011
In addition to those new sections, some existing
areas have been revised and strengthened in
the new Procedures.
These include:
Domestic Abuse
Serious Case Reviews
Child Death Reviews
Guidance for Threshold of
Need and Intervention
Local authorities have a statutory duty to
publish guidance on thresholds for access
to Children’s Social Care
The guidance is regularly reviewed and
Please ensure that you are using the most
up to date guidance – January 2011
Guidance for Threshold of
Need and Intervention
Level Two
Level One
Children with no
additional needs
Level Three
Level Four
Children whose needs
are complex, prolonged
or critical
Duty to Refer
Everybody who works or has contact
with families (or pregnant women)
should be able to recognise and know
how to act upon, evidence a child’s
health or development (or that of an
unborn baby) is being or maybe
5.1.1 SET Procedures 2011
Referrals to Social Care
• Referrals to Social Care Direct can be made
via telephone, (0845 603 7627) fax, post or
• Referrals need to be submitted on an
ECC999 form, if a CAF has been completed
then attach it
• The Initial Response Team (IRT) offer a
consultation service Mon-Fri, office hours on
01206 266068
Listening to the Child
If the child or young person can
understand the significance and
consequences of making a referral to
Children’s Social Care, s/he should
be asked her/his view
This should be recorded on the
referral form
4.5.18 SET Procedures 2011
Informing parent/s of referral
Where practicable, concerns should be
discussed with the parent and agreement
sought for referral to Children’s Social Care
unless seeking agreement is likely to:
• Place the child at risk of significant harm
through delay or the parent’s action or
• Lead to the risk of loss of evidential material
4.5.20 SET Procedures 2011
When not to inform parents
Generally DO NOT contact parents
– Where discussion would impede a police
investigation or social work enquiry
– Where sexual abuse is suspected
– Where organised or multiple abuse is
– Where the fabrication of an illness is
– �One Chance Rule’
Do not delay referral where it is not possible to
contact parents/carers
If in doubt discuss with Social Care
Parental refusal for referral
If it is still considered that there is a need
for a referral:
• The reason for proceeding
agreement must be recorded
• Children’s Social Care should be told the
parent has withheld permission and a
discussion held about when and how s/he
should be told of the referral
Parental refusal for referral
The parent should be contacted to inform
him/her that after considering his/her
wishes, a referral has been made
(unless discussion with Children’s Social
Care concluded this action might increase
the risk of harm to the child)
4.5.27 SET Procedures 2011
Resolution of Professional
• Problem resolution is an integral part of
professional co-operation and joint
working to safeguard children
• The safety of individual child/ren and focus
on child/ren are the paramount
considerations in any professional
13.6 SET Procedures 2011
Children Missing from
•As a result of daily registration, schools are particularly
well placed to notice when a child has gone missing
•Specific Children Missing Education Policy
•There is a named point of contact in every local
authority and every practitioner working with a child has
a responsibility to inform this person if s/he knows or
suspects that a child is not receiving education
ECC contact is Rachel Thorogood, Tel: 01245 437900
9.7 SET Procedures 2011
Private Fostering
When a child under 16 (or 18 if disabled) is
cared for and provided with accommodation, by
an adult who is not a relative, for 28 days or
more, it is called private fostering.
A relative in this situation is either a grandparent,
brother, sister, uncle or aunt. They can be a full
or half relation and could be related by marriage.
Relatives also include step-parents.
Private Fostering
Professionals who work with children also
have a duty to notify the Council of any
private fostering arrangements they know
Essex contact number 0800 801 530 or
Domestic Abuse
Domestic abuse is defined by the Home
Office as
“Any incident of threatening behaviour,
violence or abuse (psychological, physical,
sexual, financial or emotional) between
adults who are or have been intimate
partners or family members, regardless of
gender or sexuality”.
9.10 SET Procedures 2011
Domestic Abuse
• On average two women a week are killed by a
current or former partner This constitutes nearly
40% of all female homicide victims
• 30% of domestic abuse starts in pregnancy 52%
of child protection cases involve domestic abuse
• 70% of children in UK refuges have been abused
by their father
• 90% of domestic abuse incidents occurs with the
children in the same or the next room (4)
What is MARAC?
• Monthly Multi-agency formal meeting
• Highest risk domestic abuse victims
• Considers risk to victims, children and other
vulnerable people in the household
• Includes same sex relationships, interfamily as
well as heterosexual relationships.
• Mainly female victims of male partner or expartner violence
• Any signed up agency can refer in cases which
meet the threshold
• Essex county MARAC coordinator is employed
by Essex Police
Aims of MARAC
• To share information to increase the safety,
health and well being of victims, adults and their
• To determine whether the perpetrator poses a
significant risk to any particular individual or to
the general community
• To jointly construct and implement a risk
management plan
• To reduce repeat victimisation
• To improve agency accountability
• Improve support for staff involved in high risk DV
Key Outcome
One of the key outcomes of MARAC
is that it moves the responsibility for
addressing the domestic abuse from
the victim to a broader group of
MARAC Co-ordinator
Domestic Homicide Reviews
•Are multi agency reviews following a
domestic homicide
• To ensure lessons are learned and to
identify what needs to change to
reduce the risk of such tragedies
happening again in the future
Honour Based
Honour based abuse is a crime or
incident which has or may have been
committed to protect or defend the
�honour’ of the family and/or the
9.16 SET Procedures 2011
• Some of the behaviours may be the same
as those used in domestic abuse
• Practitioners should be aware that a child
could be the victim of violence/abuse in
the name of honour for what an outside
person may perceive to be a minor issue
• �One chance rule’
• Involving families in cases of forced
marriage is dangerous
• Consider the safety of other siblings in the
• Accurate, detailed and clear record
keeping that is only available to those
directly involved in the case
Forced Marriage
�a marriage conducted without the valid
consent of both parties, where duress is a
factor’ (A Choice by Right, HM Govt, 2000)
There is a clear distinction between forced
marriage and an arranged marriage
9.13 SET Procedures 2011
Female Genital Mutilation
A collective term for illegal procedures
which include the removal of part/all
external female genitalia for cultural or
other non therapeutic reasons
FGM is illegal in this country by the
Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003
9.12 SET Procedures 2011
Risk Factors
• Parents from community that practise
• Mother has had FGM
• Parents indicate prolonged holiday
• Frequent trips to country of origin
• Child may talk of long holiday
• Older sibling may have had FGM
• Child may confide she is to have �special
procedure’ or �celebration’
Child Sex Offender Disclosure
Right To Ask – Sarah’s Law
The Review of the Protection of Children from Sexual
Offenders (June 2007) focused on how child sexual
offenders are managed, how sexual offending against
children can be prevented and how to provide greater
reassurance to the public.
This report created 20 actions, of which Actions 1 and
4 were of particular importance to the process.
Child Sex Offender Disclosure
Right To Ask – Sarah’s Law
Pilot a community awareness programme, in partnership
with non-governmental organisations, to provide better
child protection and develop messages to help parents
and carers safeguard children effectively.
Pilot a process where members of the public can register
their child protection interest in a named individual.
Where this individual has convictions for child sex
offences and is considered a risk, there will be a
presumption that this information will be disclosed to the
relevant member of the public.
Right to Ask in Essex
•Went live August 2010
•Enquiries can be made by anyone either in person or over
the phone if they are concerned that a child may be at risk of
sexual harm from a specific individual
•Police will then research all information given
•Checks are made with partner agencies
•Police will then decide if there is any information to disclose
•This information will only be disclosed to the most
appropriate person who has responsibility for safeguarding
that child
The Purpose & Stages of
12.3 SET Procedures 2011
'Relevant Offenders'
(Sec 68 CJCSA 2000)
All Registered Sexual Offenders. (Category 1)
All Violent & Other Sexual Offenders sentenced
to imprisonment of 12 months or detained under
a Hospital Order (Sec 37 MHA). (Category 2)
Any other Offender considered to �Pose a
Significant risk of Serious Harm to the Public’.
(Category 3).
Local Authority Designated
Officer (LADO)
All County level and unitary authorities
must have a LADO
An initial discussion must always take
place between the employer and the
LADO when the concern or allegation
meets the criteria
What is an
any concern that indicates a person
who works with children has:
– behaved in a way that has harmed, or
may have harmed, a child, or
– possibly committed a criminal offence
against or related to a child, or
– behaved towards a child/ren in a way
that indicates unsuitability to work with
Chapter 11 SET Procedures 2011
Allegations Management
Essex has 2 Local Authority Designated
Officers who can be contacted through the
Quality Assurance and Safeguarding
Service on 01245 436744
The Emergency Duty Service needs to be
contacted should advice be needed
outside office hours
These procedures apply to
situations when:
there are suspicions, complaints or
allegations of abuse by a person who
works with children in either a paid or
unpaid capacity
It is discovered that an individual known to
have been involved previously in child
abuse, is or has been working with
Recruitment, Selection and
• SET Procedures outlines the minimum
standards for safer recruitment-ESCB website
has safer recruitment guidance and audit tool
• Good practice requires at least one member of
an interview panel to be safer recruitment
• Safer recruitment training can be accessed via
your LSCB and Children’s Workforce
Development Council
Vetting and Barring Scheme
The following requirements, which came into effect
in October 2009, remain in place:
• it is now a criminal offence for barred individuals
to apply to work with children or vulnerable
adults in a wider range of posts than previously.
• Employers also face criminal sanctions for
knowingly employing a barred individual across
a wider range of work
• the three previous barring lists (POVA, POCA
and List 99) are replaced by the creation of two
new barred lists administered by the ISA rather
than several government departments.
Serious Case Reviews
Working Together Chapter 8
SET Procedures 13.3
Purpose of Serious Case
• Establish whether there are lessons to be learned
from the case about the way organisations work
individually and together to safeguard and promote
the welfare of children;
• Identify lessons both within and between agencies,
how and within what timescale they will be acted on
and what is expected to change as a consequence
• To improve intra and inter agency working and better
safeguard and promote the welfare of children
Referrals for SCR
• An SCR should always be undertaken when a child dies
(including by suicide) and abuse or neglect are known or
suspected to be a factor in the death
• The LSCB should consider whether an SCR should be
undertaken in cases of:
– Potentially life-threatening injury or serious and
permanent impairment of physical and / or mental
health or development through abuse or neglect
– Serious harm resulting from sexual abuse
– A parental homicide which is being subjected to a
domestic homicide review
– Serious harm to a child following violent assault
perpetrated by another child or adult
Key changes to SCRs:
• For any SCR commissioned from June
2010 LSCBs are obliged to publish SCR
overview reports in addition to an
Executive Summary for the case (subject
to appropriate redaction)
• SCRs and IMRs are subject to evaluation
by Ofsted
Serious Case Reviews
• Current process is under review
• Recommendation 9 of the Munro Review
on Child Protection (May 2011) proposed
changes to the way SCRs are conducted
• Government will consider this further in
late 2011
Themes from Essex serious
case reviews
• Composition of household
• Frequent visitors to the household
• Who has parental responsibility including
absent parents
• Race, ethnicity, religion and disability are
recorded and considered in assessments
about children’s needs and in planning to
meet those needs in all agencies.
Themes from Essex serious
case reviews
Frequent household moves within Essex
as well as across local authority
Missed medical appointments
Child Death Reviews
Working Together Chapter 7
SET Procedures 13.4
• All unexpected deaths of children should be subject to a
rapid response by designated local professionals
including a police officer and a nurse or paediatrician
• All deaths of children whether expected or unexpected
and irrespective of cause should be reviewed at a local
child death review panel
• The death of any child occurring in Southend, Essex or
Thurrock should be notified to the ESCB via the agreed
procedures –
• Statutory definition provided for a
�preventable death’ – those in which
modifiable factors may have contributed to
the death
• Addition guidance added to procedures –
communication with parents, retention and
destruction of records, protocol re CDR /
Corner interface
• For SET area the majority of neo-natal deaths
will no longer be discussed at local CDR panel
meetings unless concerning factors are
• When there is a death of a child in a household
and abuse and neglect are suspected to be
factors action must be taken by agencies to
ensure that the safety and welfare of other
children in the household or family network is
secured – senior managers should take
responsibility for actions taken and for
monitoring these (recommendation from Child B
/ 2008 SCR)
Key data (08-10)
• 224 deaths – Essex resident children
• 173 deaths discussed at panel – 29 deaths identified as
preventable or potentially preventable
• Key themes:
– Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy – presence of modifiable
– Road Traffic Accidents
– Recognition of the onset of serious illness
– Infections and immunisations
– Safety in the home and around water
Multi-agency Policies coming
Authoritative Practice
Neglect Guidance
Meetings Matrix
Drug & Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
Pre-birth Assessment
Supervision of parents of children in
hospital where there are safeguarding
Munro Review
June 2010 Government commissioned a
review of child protection by Prof Munro
Munro has now reported and the
Government has responded to the
Useful contacts
Essex Safeguarding Children Board
MARAC Co-ordinator
Children Missing Education, ECC contact
Notification of private fostering arrangements
Useful websites
Essex Safeguarding Children
Essex County child protection
resources for anyone working to safeguard
Policy briefings and reports
Safer recruitment training and information
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