An overview on animal welfare situation in Ethiopia Tekelye Bekele, SAW-Ethiopia P.O Box 3630, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia E-mail: email@example.com Background information on animal welfare вЂў A. W. can be defined and assessed using any one of the following four concepts. вЂў A) By assessing the physical, mental and natural states of an animal вЂў Physical state means the health of an animal вЂў Mental state means how it feels i.e. whether it has fear or anxiety вЂў Natural state means satisfying its natural needs i.e. association, grooming, perching, rooting, etc. Continued вЂў B) In association with five freedoms 1. Freedom from hunger 2. Freedom from discomfort i.e. having shelter 3. Freedom from pain and suffering from disease 4. Freedom to express its normal behaviour 5. Freedom from fear and distress вЂў C) In association with sentience вЂў Animals are sentient creatures which need care and protection against avoidable sufferings. вЂў Sentience implies that they Continued 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Are aware of their surroundings Have an emotional dimension Are aware of what is happening to them Have the ability to learn from experience Feel pain, hunger, heat, cold, etc Are aware of their association with other animals 7. Are capable to choose between different animals, objects and situations Continued вЂў D) In association with basic needs вЂў Life sustaining needs such as food and water required for ensuring survival вЂў Health sustaining needs for avoiding disease and injury вЂў Comfort sustaining needs for contributing to the quality of animal life i.e. housing Continued вЂў Animal welfare and productivity вЂў A. W. is inseparably linked with animal health and productivity. вЂў All are required for improving the physiology, survival and productivity of animals. вЂў Welfare, health and productivity should be tackled without undermining one and overemphasising on the other. Continued вЂў Historical perspective of animal welfare movement 1. England is the pioneer of the movement (15001800. Jeremy BenthamвЂ™s logic in the 18th century. The question is not whether animals can reason or talk, but can they suffer- fundamental concepts for the animal welfare movement. 2. Anthropomorphic view dominated in the 19th century i.e. ascribing human characteristics to animals and degrading them as non-humans & justifying their sufferings. Continued 3. First law in 1781 вЂ“ on treatment of cattle at Smithfield market in London 4. 1822-1840 вЂ“ Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) was established 5. 1876 law against vivisection i.e. against cruelty to experimental animals 6. 1911 вЂ“ The Protection of Animal Act in the UK 7. Different regulations appeared in different countries since that time. 62 out of 192 countries have animal welfare regulations in the world, 2004 WSPA study. Continued 8. 1970 - Movement split into animal welfare and animal right 9. In 2002 Germany became the first country to protect animals in its constitution 10. EU and EC has variable regulations on welfare, research, transport, agriculture and marketing 11. Shift from national movement to international campaigns and creating pressure on other countries: anti-whaling, sealing, bear farming, poaching, long distance transport, civet farming. 12. Current focus: Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare by United Nations Continued вЂў Animal welfare movement in Africa вЂў A. W. movement is recent in Africa вЂў First A. W. organization established in Ethiopia in 1954; but ceased to exist without accomplishing its objectives. вЂў At present six to seven organizations operate in Ethiopia. вЂў Almost all are dependent on external help. Animal welfare problems in Ethiopia 1. Problems of animal transport by trucks, trains, trekking by foot, carrying poultry up side down, etc include: вЂў вЂў Body weight loss, physical injury, stress leading to pasteurellosis, mortality loss and possibility of spreading animal diseases. Inhumane & inappropriate transportation Continued 2. Inhumane slaughter in abattoirs вЂў Inappropriate stunning by neck-stub method вЂў Stunning and bleeding at the same place or side by side вЂў Skinning conscious animals вЂў Forceful unloading, using excessive force when prodding Continued 3. Inhumane management of stray dogs вЂў Rabies is a very big problem in Addis Ababa since there are too many dogs with no proper control вЂў Free mixing of house hold and stray dogs вЂў No planned rabies control program вЂў Up to 30,000 stray dogs are killed yearly by an inhumane strychnine poisoning вЂў Strychnine makes animal suffer before resulting death by asphyxiation Continued 4. Inadequate handling of working animals вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Working long hours continuously No treatment for saddle sore Overloading when carrying or pulling loads Lack of proper outfit and not being shod Neglect to provide additional feed Continued 5. Abandoning animals вЂў Aged equines, animals suffering from incurable diseases such as epizootic lymphangitis and unwanted pets are frequently abandoned вЂў Selective abandoning of female puppies вЂў Change in living condition is forcing some owners to abandon their pets Continued 6. Drought and animal loss вЂў Heavy losses of animals has occurred in Ethiopia due to drought at different times вЂў Animals are neglected when providing emergency supplies вЂў They require water, feed and medicaments. But animal feed are bulky and difficult to deliver. They are not easily acquired from outside like human food stuffs as well. Continued 7. Mutilation of animal body and related cruelties вЂў Hanging broody hen upside down вЂў Inserting a thorn or a sharp piece of wood across the nostrils of broody hen вЂў Rubbing the mouth of a docile dog with an irritant to force it to change its behaviour вЂў Clubbing and stoning to death rabid animals вЂў Improper killing to contain outbreaks Continued 8 Animal welfare problems of wild life вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Encroaching habitat by bush clearing, cutting, burning, grazing, ploughing, settlement and commercial farming Killing by poaching, mistaken legal hunting, etc Problems in zoos Problems under captivity Wild life health problems Continued 9. Animal w. problems of environmental origin вЂў вЂў Danger of littering the environment with plastics and butchers refuse Animals are sometimes exposed to environmental toxicities such as toxic plants, chemicals, pesticides, acaricides and other industrial effluents Suggested solutions for animal welfare problems 1. Animal welfare regulation 2. Animal welfare education 3. Improving the health, management and welfare problems 4. Rabies control and dog ownership regulation 5. Population reduction in pets 6. Humane slaughter in abattoir 7. Humane euthanasia when required 8. Reforestation and environmental protection 9. A reliable animal rescue and long term Continued Intervention policy to overcome drought and other calamities 10. Organic animal agriculture Conclusion вЂў Ethiopia is a developing country which is struggling to reduce poverty and attain food security. The livestock sector of its economy is very high although it has not been utilized properly so far. But, it is still contributing about half of the agricultural sector of the national economy. Wild life is also contributing very much. Hence it is highly necessary to improve the health, welfare and productivity of such very big resource in order to fulfil the desired development goal.