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Polymers - University of Nebraska–Lincoln

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Polymers
Alex Stamm
and
Noah Brubaker
June 29th, 2011
Hydrocarbons
ex: Alkanes
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1 тАУ Meth2 тАУ Eth3 тАУ Prop4 тАУ But5 тАУ Pent6 тАУ Hex7 тАУ Hept8 тАУ Oct9 тАУ Non10 тАУ Dec11 тАУ Undec12 тАУ Dodec-
Hydrocarbons
at Room Temperature
яВЫ Gas
яВЫ Methane
яВЫ Ethane
яВЫ Propane
яВЫ Butane
яВЫ Liquid
5 to 19
Carbons
яВЫ Waxy
20 to 40
Carbons
яВЫ Plastic
40 or more
Carbons
Melting Point
As the length of hydrocarbons get longer, the
Melting Point grows Higher.
Why?
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Melting and Boiling Temperatures of Alkanes
600
500
Tempurature (╦ЪC)
400
Boiling Point (╦ЪC)
300
200
Melting Point(╦ЪC)
100
0
-100
-200
-300
0
5
10
15
20
25
Number of Carbons
30
35
40
45
What other material properties
change?
яВЫ Viscosity
яВЫ Hardness
яВЫ Toughness
яВЫ Flammability
Bonding
яВЫ Covalent
яВЫ Ionic
(NaCl)
яВЫ Polar
(H2O)
яВЫ Van
der Waals
Rubber Tree
яВЫ Sap:
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Sticky
Viscous
Gooey
яВЫ Goodyear
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Experiment
Luck
Profit ($0)
Vulcanization
Time for an Activity!
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Please find a partner.
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Follow me into the hall.
Molecular Structure
of Polymers
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Linear
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Branched
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Low Density
Polyethylene (LDPE)
Cross-linked
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High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), PVC, Nylon,
Cotton
Rubber
Network
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Kevlar, Epoxy
Chain Length: 1000 - 2000
Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Chain Length: 10,000 тАУ 100,000
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Chain Length: 2-6 million
Ultra-high-molecular-weight
polyethylene (UHMWPE)
Joint
Replacement
Helmet
Gears
Endless Possibilities
яВЫ New
Functional
Groups
яВЫ Different
Polymer
Backbones
Functional Groups
Chain Length: 4,000 тАУ 5,000
PVC тАУ (polyvinyl chloride)
More Polar яГа Stronger Bonding
Chain Length: 4,000 тАУ 8,000
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE)
тАЬPolyesterтАЭ
Ester
Nylon
Cotton
Long Strands of Cellulose
+ Hydrogen Bonds
Cellulose is the most common organic material on earth!
It is also a primary constituent of wood and paper.
Polymers in
Biology
Starch
DNA
Sugar
Proteins
Kevlar
Strong Network of Covalent Bonds
And Polar Hydrogen Bonds
Time for another Activity!
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How can we test which material is
stronger?
Endless Possibilities
яВЫ New
Functional
Groups
яВЫ Different
Polymer
Backbones
Inorganic Polymers
яВЫ Silicon
(Si)
Inorganic Polymers
яВЫ Silicon
(Si)
яВЫ Germanium (Ge)
Inorganic Polymers
яВЫ Silicon
(Si)
яВЫ Germanium (Ge)
яВЫ Boron-Nitrogen (B тАУ N)
Inorganic Polymers
яВЫ Silicon
(Si)
яВЫ Germanium (Ge)
яВЫ Boron-Nitrogen (B тАУ N)
яВЫ Aluminum тАУ Nitrogen (Al тАУ N)
яВЫтАж
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яВЫ On and on
Conclusions:
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Polymers make up all sorts of materials that
are all around us!
They can have a huge range or material
properties based on their:
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Functional Groups
Structure
Backbone
Keep thinking about how chemical
interactions on the nano-scale correspond to
material properties on the macro-scale
Links
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_recycling
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkane
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_alkanes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-high-molecular-weight_polyethylene
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycondensation
http://www.chemistryland.com/ElementarySchool/BuildingBlocks/BuildingOrg
anic.htm
http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/polymer.
htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/21c/materials/molecstru
ctpropertiesrev3.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_der_Waals_force
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulcanization
http://www.scribd.com/doc/26766586/08-Polymers-Why-is-Rubber-Elastic
http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/polymer.
htm
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