Focusing on Purpose and Meaningful Work Douglas Fisher www.fisherandfrey.com TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY вЂњI do itвЂќ Focus Lesson Guided Instruction вЂњWe do itвЂќ Collaborative вЂњYou do it togetherвЂќ Independent вЂњYou do it aloneвЂќ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works In some classrooms вЂ¦ TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY вЂњI do itвЂќ Focus Lesson Independent вЂњYou do it aloneвЂќ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY In some classrooms вЂ¦ TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Independent вЂњYou do it aloneвЂќ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY And in some classrooms вЂ¦ TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction вЂњI do itвЂќ вЂњWe do itвЂќ Independent вЂњYou do it aloneвЂќ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY вЂњI do itвЂќ Focus Lesson Guided Instruction вЂњWe do itвЂќ Collaborative вЂњYou do it togetherвЂќ Independent вЂњYou do it aloneвЂќ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works Quality Indicators for Linking Purpose to Outcomes The established purpose focuses on student learning, rather than an activity, assignment, or task. The established purpose contains both content and language components. Students understand the relevance of the established purpose. Relevance requiresвЂ¦ вЂ¦making connections between the subject and its application outside of the classroom walls. What is a language purpose? вЂў An analysis of the language demands of the task вЂў An understanding of the way students demonstrate their thinking through spoken or written language Three Types of Language Purposes вЂў Vocabulary: (specialized, technical) вЂў Structure: (the way the vocabulary is used in sentences to express ideas) вЂў Function: (the intended use of those ideas) These language purposes build upon one another over a series of lessons. Vocabulary вЂў Specialized вЂ“ Words whose meaning changes depending on the context (problem, simplify, value) вЂ“ Multiple meaning words (run, place) These can be вЂњbrickвЂќ or вЂњmortarвЂќ words вЂў Technical вЂ“ Words that represent one concept only (denominator, photosynthesis) These are the вЂњbricksвЂќ of language Language Structure вЂў Grammar/syntax: rules for language use (e.g., plurals, noun/verb agreement) вЂў Signal words: guideposts to support understanding of listener/reader (e.g., If/then, first, last, compared to) вЂў Frames and templates: scaffolds for apprentice language users (вЂњOn the one hand, ________. But on the other hand, _______.вЂќ) Language Function вЂў Halliday identified 7 language functions (Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, imaginative, heuristic, representational) вЂ“ These are translated into classroom interactions (express an opinion, summarize, persuade, question, entertain, inform, sequence, disagree, debate, evaluate, justify) The вЂњbig a-haвЂќ The same content objective can have many different language purposes! CO: Identify the phases of the moon. LP #1: Name the phases of the moon. (vocabulary) LP #2: Use sequence words (first, next, last) to describe the phases of the moon. (structure) LP #3: Explain how the moon, earth, and sun move through the phases. (function) Relevance requiresвЂ¦ вЂ¦opportunities to learn about oneself as a learner. Relevance requiresвЂ¦ вЂ¦ learning for learningвЂ™s sake. Students can explain the established purpose in their own words. Physical properties: Characteristics or properties that can be observed without changing the identify of the substance are called physical properties. Shape Electricity conductivity Color Magnetism Volume Mass Buoyancy Classify objects (e.g., rocks, plants, leaves) in accordance How would you want your students to respond to the question: What are you learning from this lesson? The teacher designs meaningful experiences and outcomes aligned with the established purpose. INDICATORS Complexity of task: The task is a novel application of a grade-level appropriate concept and is designed so that the outcome is not guaranteed (a chance for productive failure exists). Joint attention to tasks or materials: Students are interacting with one another to build each otherвЂ™s knowledge. Outward indicators include body language and movement associated with meaningful conversations, and shared visual gaze on materials. Indicators of Success - Productive Group Work DRAF T 4-Exemplary 3-Applying 2-Approaching Task reflects purpose and what was Tasks provide multiple, clear The task is somewhat reflective of modeled. The task allows students an opportunities for students to apply the purpose of the lesson, but there opportunity to use a variety of and extend what was modeled. is little opportunity for student resources to creatively apply their Students have an opportunity to experimentation or innovation. knowledge of what was modeled. use a variety of resources to Students have an opportunity to creatively apply their knowledge experiment with concepts. of what was modeled. Students ask critical questions of each Body language, visual gaze, and Body language, visual gaze, and other, developing and forming language interactions provide language interactions provide some personal opinions and conclusions. evidence of joint attention to the evidence of mutual attention to the They are able to evaluate and task or materials by all members task or materials by most members. synthesize information, as well as of the group. Students can explain Students are not holding each other independently use a variety of their contributions and the accountable for purposeful resources to acquire new or unknown contributions of other group contributions. information. members. Argumentation not arguing: Student use accountable talk to persuade, provide evidence, ask questions of one another, and disagree without being disagreeable. Students reach a better understanding or consensus based on evidence and opinions provided by others. Students hold each member of the group accountable by using questioning strategies and evidence to persuade or disagree. The conversation is respectful and courteous. Language support: Written, verbal, teacher, and peer supports are available to boost academic language usage. Sentence frames are differentiated based on studentsвЂ™ proficiency and need. A wide range of frames are available for students and students use the frames independently in academic language and writing. Teacher modeling includes the use of frames as well as academic vocabulary and high expectations for language production. Teacher role: What is the teacher doing while productive group work is occurr i n g ? Teacher is purposeful in scaffolding using prompts, cues and questions and checks for understanding regularly. Evidence collected during this time is used to plan further instruction. Groups are flexible and change based on studentsвЂ™ proficiency, academic need, and/or content area. Productive group work occurs throughout the day. Grouping: Small groups of 2-5 students are purposefully constructed to maximize individual strengths without magnifying areas of needs (heterogeneous grouping). Students ask for and offer evidence to support claims. However, members continue to maintain initial beliefs or positions about a topic without considering the arguments of others. The conversation is generally respectful but some members may not participate. Students use one or two sentence frames from the variety that are available in a structured setting. A set of target vocabulary is available and used. Teachers model the use of frames. Students are encouraged to use the language support in guided instruction and productive group work. Some scaffolding and checking for understanding occurs but there are delays in corrections or changes to the instruction. There is a link to further instruction. Purposeful heterogeneous grouping occurs which are fluid in response to studentsвЂ™ proficiency. There is a process in place for accountable talk. However, student dialogue is limited and there are minimal efforts to support the product. The conversation is generally respectful, but is often dominated by one member of the group or veers of-topic. 1-Limited Task is an exact replication of what was modeled, with little or no opportunity for student experimentation with concepts. Students divide up the task so that they can work, then meet near end to assemble components. Body language, visual gaze, and lack of language interactions provide evidence of independent work occurring within the group. No clear process is in place to facilitate accountable talk. Lack of structure is evidence as students are off-task, in conflict, and/or are unable to complete product. Academic language related to the concept/standard is present. A frame may be provided. The teacher models at least once using target vocabulary or language frame. Students are encouraged to attempt using target vocabulary without opportunities for guided practice. Vocabulary is posted but its use is not modeled. Students are simply told to use words. Language frames are not provided. Scaffolding or checking for understand occurs but is not used to plan further instruction. Teacher manages, but does not interact with groups to scaffold conceptual knowledge. Some heterogeneous grouping occurs, but homogeneous grouping practices dominate. Decisions based on assessment are not apparent. Grouping practices are solely homogeneous and are done primarily for scheduling convenience. Quality Indicator #1 Complexity of Task: The task is a novel application of a grade-level appropriate concept and is designed so that the outcome is not guaranteed (a chance for productive failure exists). Quality Indicator #2 Joint attention to tasks or materials Students are interacting with one another to build each otherвЂ™s knowledge. Outward indicators include body language and movement associated with meaningful conversations, and shared visual gaze on materials. Quality Indicator #3 Argumentation not arguing: Student use accountable talk to persuade, provide evidence, ask questions of one another, and disagree without being disagreeable. Quality Indicator #4 Language support: Written, verbal, teacher, and peer supports are available to boost academic language usage. Quality Indicator #5 Grouping: Small groups of 2-5 students are purposefully constructed to maximize individual strengths without magnifying areas of needs (heterogeneous grouping). Quality Indicator #6 Teacher role: What is the teacher doing while productive group work is occurring? The teacher has a plan for determining when the established purpose has been met. Error Mid-sentence capitalization Period 1 JC Period 2 Colons and semicolons JC, JT, AG, DL, TV EC, MV, WK Ending punctuation JC, AG, SL JC, JT, DL, MM, SL, ST, ND DS WK, MW RT, VE, VD, CC Subject-verb Tense - consistency SJ, JM Spelling JC, MM WK, RT, AG, SJ Supporting evidence JC, JT, MM EC, SJ Period 3 Period 4 AA Period 5 AA, SK, MG, EM, BA, TS AA, BA HH, DP, MR, CH AA, MG, SC, PM, LG DP, DE AA, TR, PC AA, MG, BA, GL, PT, DO, DE, LR AA, MG, BA, GL, PT, DO, DE, LR, SK, EM, TS, LG, PM, DP, RT, HA, KJ, DE, RC, DW, DL, KS, DE MR SR, DC, MF DE, MR, DC, AT Purpose = Expectations Taking it Back Discuss with your elbow partner how you will infuse this discussion on PURPOSE with your current work.