For The Eighth Asian Bioethics Conference вЂњBiotechnology, Culture, and Human Values in Asia and BeyondвЂќ March 19-23, 2007, Century Park Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand вЂњFuture of bioethics вЂ“ rational BioCosmologyвЂќ Konstantin S. Khroutski, M.D., Ph.D. Novgorod State University after Yaroslav-the-Wise, Novgorod Velikiy, Russia "For, truth is rightly named the daughter of time, not of authority. It is not wonderful, therefore, if the bonds of antiquity, authority, and unanimity, have so enchained the power of man, that he is unable (as if bewitched) to become familiar with things themselves." From Francis Bacon's "Aphorisms on the Interpretation of Nature and the Empire of Man" What is вЂњCosmosвЂќ During my last presentation of BioCosmological conception, at the ABC5 (in Tsukuba, 2004), Prof. Sang-yong Song inquired me about the meaning of the terms in use: вЂњcosmosвЂќ, вЂњcosmicвЂќ, вЂњcosmistвЂќ. пЃ® At the ESPMH 20th conference in Helsinki (August, 2006) my presentation on BioCosmology was put into the session, entitled вЂњMedicine, religion and metaphysicsвЂќ. пЃ® Indeed, the contemporary meaning of вЂњcosmosвЂќ is either (1) вЂњsystematic whole held to arise by and persist through the direct intervention of divine powerвЂќ; or (2) вЂњthe entire celestial вЂ“ astrophysical вЂ“ cosmosвЂќ, as well as (3) вЂњthe world of human experienceвЂќ вЂ“ a subjective harmonious, orderly harmonious whole вЂ“ in contradistinction to вЂњchaosвЂќ. пЃ® I would like to add one more (realistic) definition: Cosmos is everything we are talking (feeling, perceiving, experiencing) about. For example, ABC8 is a true cosmist event. пЃ® Objective reality is that every life process is the direct subject of BioCosmology пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Indeed, the Earth itself and the entire evolutionary process of life (Greek. вЂ�BiosвЂ™) on Earth (briefly, Evolutionary Process or EvoProcess), including naturally every life process (biological, personalist, sociРѕlogical) are unconditionally the product and the integrated part of Cosmos, subordinated to the common Cosmic laws, hence, every life process or event is the direct subject of BioCosmology (including our conference as well). The natural sciences fact of cosmic origin of Evolutionary Process (and hence of every current life process, be it biological, personalist or sociological) is the Universal objective law of the life on Earth. This fact does not depend upon any of the existing idealistic assumptions (not validated by experiment) of origin and (macro)evolution of the life on Earth: like Self-Origination, Creationism, Pan-Spermia, Big Bang, Darwinian evolutionism, etc.), вЂ“ in any case, the life on Earth has been developed and is ever held from cosmic matter and energy. The life on Earth (EvoProcess, every human ontogenesis, every social history) is a cosmic phenomenon (process) вЂ“ this is an objective (naturalistic) fact, a posteriori truth. Objective laws of EarthвЂ™s (Cosmic) life What are the objective laws of EarthвЂ™s (Cosmic) life вЂ“ its rational true fundamental principles: пЃ® Fundamental cosmism (naturalism); пЃ® Fundamental universalism, first of all the structural-functional universalism, which a natural sciences truth at least since the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick; пЃ® Fundamental self-(macro)evolutionism вЂ“ every subject of life is the self(macro)evolutionary process and every subjectвЂ™s ontogenesis is a selfdependent emergent evolution; пЃ® Fundamental macro-evolutionary cyclic recurrence of life processes (a kind of triadicity), which essence is that diametrically opposed, but successive cycles-stages (like Day-Night-NewDay, or Systole-DiastoleNewSystole, etc.) substantively realize the ontogenesis of every living subject (biological, personalist, sociological), overruling each other by turns. пЃ® All these laws are evident a posteriori truths corroborated by natural sciences data. пЃ® Crucial principles and notions of BioCosmology пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® (1) EvoProcess (Evolutionary Process) вЂ“ a BioCosmological cornerstone вЂ“ is the one common whole cosmic evolutionary process of life on Earth. It is an objective phenomenon and (meta)naturalistic truth, demonstrated by the natural sciences. EvoProcess is proposed to have the same significance (for science) as the notions of gravity or electromagnetism or affinity, etc. EvoProcess is basic and ultimate (cosmic) substance of life processes on Earth and a scientifically evident phenomenon simultaneously (integrating a posteriori and a priori thinking). In other words, EvoProcess is not a belief (conviction, credence, dogmatism, faith, etc.), but an objective phenomenon demonstrable by the natural sciences. (2) Subject вЂ“ a universalizing notion, it means every living organism and ontogenesis вЂ“ from a molecule to HumanKind (person, society) and EvoProcess itself; (3) HumanKind вЂ“ likewise serves as universal equivalent: Stressing the evolutionary equality of the Earth's Nature (Biosphere), Man, and Society (as equal elementsmeans of the one whole EvoProcess), and having the basic meaning of a man (of a human active-evolutionary functioning), the term 'HumanKind' accentuates that a person, in the current epoch, is the leading element of the entire EvoProcess of life on Earth, determining the evolutionary fitness of any conscious 'human kind' subject (as a person, society, civilisation, mankind) and wellness of Evolutionary Process itself. Consequently, the term 'HumanKind' refers as much to a man (basically), as to any conscious living subject. Quarks (other ultimate particles) are not nearer than EvoProcess. The integrated scientific knowledge (In the figurative image) Designations: M/F вЂ“ The morphological-functional (structuralsystem) or Individualist approach (which is totally dominant, in the present) to studying the phenomena of the life on Earth. F/S вЂ“ The functionalist-system (Cosmist evolutionary) approach, insufficiently used, but which is absolutely necessary in the sphere of universal (complete) comprehension of the processes of the life on Earth. Eq вЂ“ ' equator ' of the modern objects of scientific researches: the person, animals, plants, microorganisms and their social organizations, as well as their constituting cells, tissues, organs and their system organizations. In the current time, all actual objects of research are totally subordinated only to the (M/F) pole, leaving indifferently the (F/S) pole вЂ“ of the universal sphere of rational exploration of the phenomena and processes of the life on Earth. Cosmos (universe) вЂ“ uni-vesus вЂњCosmosвЂќ is synonymic to the terms вЂњNatureвЂќ and вЂњUniverseвЂќ, and the etymology of the latter is from uni- + versus, which means вЂњturned into oneвЂќ. пЃ® Significantly, EvoProcess вЂ“ is a basis for reduction (to a вЂњBasic Cosmist FunctionalityвЂњ вЂ“ a вЂњfunctional organвЂќ вЂ“ of universal participation in the cosmic world) вЂ“ is not farther than quarks (fundamental particles) or genes (morphological units of heredity) or a person her/himself (which is a common morphological or individualistic reduction, i.e. methodological reductionism). пЃ® Therefore, subject (in BioCosmology) means an integrated functionalist subject, which forever integrates autonomously and hierarchically other subjects (to be the functional whole) and, simultaneously, is always functionally integrated it/her/himself by the higher organized subject (organism) вЂ“ to make good use of the effects of a subjectвЂ™s (personвЂ™s) inherent functioning that sprung from its/her/his primary intentional (functionalist) activity (and the effects of which are demonstrable for the selection from the future). Every subject is a вЂњfunctional organвЂќ, and the conception of вЂњfunctional organвЂќ (and, further, вЂњdominantaвЂќ) is a long ago established scientific approach by Russian scientist Aleksei Ukhtomsky. Later on his ideas were substantially developed by academicians Petr Anokhin, Alexandr Ugolev, Pavel Simonov and other. пЃ® Basic (Cosmist) Functionality (BCF) пЃ® (4) Basic (Cosmist) Functionality (BCF). EvoProcess as we understand it allows the universal functionalist reduction of all living subjects. Every living subject on Earth is ultimately a function of EvoProcess вЂ“ of the allembracing self-evolving organism of life. Hence, every living subject on Earth has its/her/his basic (ultimate, cosmist) functionality (BCF). This means that all subjects are intrinsically and basically dedicated for the realization and execution ultimately of its/her/his definite function, which is the realization of a subjectвЂ™s (HumanKind's, first of all) entire wholesome ontogenesis. In a subjectвЂ™s life process basic functionality hierarchically organizes man's biological and social needs in one integral order. This order, in principle, repeats the hierarchy of the main stages of biological and social evolution on Earth. Hence, biological and social needs (and the realized physiological, biosocial and psychological systems of their satisfaction) may be considered tools for BCF to implement its selfunfolding and ultimate self-actualization. So to speak, 'we eat to live, but do not live вЂ“ to eat'. As it should be, all biological and social needs of humans conform to the ultimate end of his or her specific functionalist contribution to EvoProcessвЂ™s wellness. The latter is mainly possible at the high creative level of mature social stability, the culminating stage of man's wholesome ontogenesis. The consonance of BioCosmology with Eastern вЂњfundamental naturalismвЂќ пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® BioCosmological concept is concordant with the notion of вЂњfundamental naturalismвЂќ (per se, вЂ�fundamental cosmismвЂ™), Prof. Hyakudai Sakamoto used in his presentation of the вЂњGlobalization of Bioethics вЂ“ from the Asian perspectiveвЂќ (at the ABC5 and, previously, in Kiev, 2001). Professor Sakamoto establishes that a new global bioethics should be вЂњholisticвЂќ in contrast to European вЂњindividualisticвЂќ bioethics, and that it requires вЂњsome sort of communitarian way of thinking of a non-western or Asian type.вЂќ His cornerstone position is as following: вЂњWe should now establish a new humanism without human-centrism, a new methodology to complement this new humanism, and also cultivate new sciences and technologies to control human evolution, adopting the Asian ethos and wisdom to avoid the European excessive inclination to the manifold natural-artificial dualismвЂќ. Hyakudai Sakamoto has introduced a new emergent (epistematic, non-western) type of bioethical thinking and a new type of naturalism (based on вЂњAsian ethosвЂќ, but not on common Western rational fundamental world-viewing principles) вЂ“ in the form of his biopolitical вЂњbargain consensusвЂќ conception and the вЂњSocial Tuning TechnologyвЂќ, aimed at the realisation of the harmony in (future) global bioethics. Prof. SakamotoвЂ™s harmonious (naturalistic) bioethics is concordant, to my mind, to the conception of harmonious environmental ethics by Prof. Abhik Gupta; the idea that вЂњBioethics is Love of LifeвЂќ, by Darryl Macer; and the conception of Chutatip Umavijani (with which I have acknowledged before the conference). Asian naturalism vs Western naturalism пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Prof. SakamotoвЂ™s naturalism is basically distinct from the common current (global, Western) naturalism. First of all, from the objective point of view, вЂњAsianвЂќ naturalism is realistic (it treats man and nature as one whole, this is a natural sciences truth), but irrational (rationally unfounded вЂ“ not reducible to any rational substance and, thus, Acosmic in essence). On the contrary, Western bioethics of-today is rational, but unrealistic, inasmuch as it is based on the common (for modern Western philosophy and science) fundamental world-viewing principles that have вЂњdualisticвЂќ and вЂњnatural-artificialвЂќ essence вЂ“ of basic AntiCosmism (disintegration of man with nature) and absolute anthropocentrism (human being is the ultimate creation and, thus, the ultimate epistemic certainty is a person him/herself). BioCosmology вЂ“ as a form of the вЂњThirdвЂќ evolutionary way in contemporary bioethics пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® The proposed BioCosmology is a form of the Third naturalism and the Third evolutionary way in contemporary bioethics (and, in the former metaphorical expression, - a NewDay, in relation to the Eastern Day and Western Night, which all are the necessary cycles and always existing processes of the one whole EvoProcess). BioCosmology is rational and realistic. It is based on a posteriori fundamentals, i.e. its basic a priori notions reflect the real (natural) matter of fact, as it is demonstrated by natural sciences. In contradistinction, the contemporary Western world-viewing is based on a priori (speculative, abstract) fundamental principles, like British empiricism, Continental rationalism, Kantian (and his followers) apriorism, American pragmatism, etc. This is naturally (realizing a Night-cycle of world development) a not natural relation to the embracing process (EvoProcess) of the life on Earth, really a вЂњmanifold naturalartificial dualismвЂќ (Sakamoto, 2004). Three basic questions пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Do we need the First (Eastern or Asian) way of bioethical (biopolitical) development? Yes, absolutely, we really need to resolve a great number of conflicts and problems in various spheres of world development. Do we need the Second вЂ“ current dominant (Western) вЂ“ way of bioethical development? Yes, this is an absolute need, inasmuch as we constantly cope with the task of crucial importance вЂ“ to realize the protection and secure the rights of a person and society by neutralizing (minimizing) the possible harmful influences of present-day technologies within contemporary civilizational practice (biomedical as well) on regional and global level. (Many of the topical bioethical problems are put on the agenda of the ABC8). Do we need a Third (Cosmist) evolutionary way in bioethics? Yes, likewise, this is an absolute need, inasmuch as we have a lot of global paradoxes that are not solvable in neither First (Eastern, of Acosmism) or Second (Western, of AntiCosmism) epistemes. The paradoxes of the present day (firstly, on the example of contemporary Russia) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® The evident paradoxes of the present day are: 1.The loss of a вЂњmotivational basisвЂќ to procreation and the directivity on a family with one child in favor of hedonistic models in realizing her or his vital energy (in current Russia one new-born accounts for three deaths; the objective prognoses of demographers show that already in 50вЂ“80 years Russia will meet demographic collapse and disappear from world scene). 2. The вЂ�social hypersexualityвЂ™ as a feature (norm) of social life (at least in present Russia), simultaneously with the decrease of births and inability to realize birth control вЂ“ the catastrophic surplus of deaths over births. 3. The increase of depressions concurrently with drug addiction (alcoholism, first of all) вЂ“ accordantly with the growth of wealth of a democratic society. 4. The super-popularity of sporting competitions (and super-success of sports industry), alongside (comparatively) with insolubility of many bioethical problems, as well as inaccessibility and inadequacy of (open to general use) qualitative education, science, health care, etc. The paradoxes of the present day (continuation - 2) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 5. The current leading role of the philosophy of postmodernism that affirms basic pluralism (in objectively universal world) вЂ“ randomness of creativity. 6. The so-called вЂ�anthropological evolutionary paradoxвЂ™, in relation to personality: a person is a uterine element of the one common whole cosmic evolutionary process of life on Earth (that is a natural sciences truth); however we deny the search for universal evolutionary knowledge and rely on the plural (different and often incompatible) sources of knowledge in defining humanвЂ™s nature: biological, sociological, psychological, etc. 7. The global biomedical paradox: The inability, in the hi-tech age, to obtain the etiological вЂ“ curing, healing вЂ“ approaches, as regards chronic non-infectious and non-traumatic diseases. 8. The global bioethical paradox: up-to-date bioethics tackles the problems that are the effects of unreasonableness of current science and technologies, while, on the contrary, the up-to-date bioethics has no intentions (the aim itself!) to unravel the reason of the existing civilizational unreasonableness! The paradoxes of the present day (continuation - 3) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Actually, modern bioethics has fundamentally the secondary role (in relation to science) вЂ“ of вЂњtechnology assessmentвЂќ (the term of Prof. Sakamoto, used by him at the ABC5), correcting dangerous (to individual or community health) errors (the effects of unreasonable application of technological innovations), while the basic role of bioethics (of disclosing and treatment of the primary reason(s) of unreasonable activity of a man and society) is missed. 9. The global political paradox: we are witnessing global senseless (from rational humanitarian positions) foreign policy вЂ“ arm-twisting policy of expansion (military intervention), at that the number of billions of dollars having been spent at its realization is ten times enough to resolve all the bioethical problems (and the more vigorous projects) we are speaking (and mentioning) now about. 10. Finally, global civilizational paradox has evidently emerged itself: Western civilization, although based on rational principles (stated above), has arrived at the reality of utmost plural (irrational) global world вЂ“ of extremely different (frequently opposite) evaluations and reflections (and reactions) to the same issues and problems arising from the one common, objectively universal world вЂ“ cosmic evolutionary process of life on Earth (EvoProcess). Thank you! In conclusion, if the challenge to realize and elaborate the Third evolutionary way in world bioethics (philosophy, science, culture, civilization) is an objective reality, then: Is the time to awake? The discussion on BioCosmology is opened in the free bi-lingual E-LOGOS: ELECTRONIC JOURNAL FOR PHILOSOPHY (http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/elogos/). You are most welcome!