close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Life Course Research - Sociological Methodology Workshop series

код для вставкиСкачать
Life Course Research:
Theoretical Issues, Empirical Applications
and Methodological Problems
Karl Ulrich Mayer
Sociological Methodology Workshop Series
Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
September 20-24, 2004
Outline of Sessions
I.
Life Course Analysis as a Research Program
II.
Introduction to Event History Analysis
III. Event History Analysis: Basis Models
IV. Life Course Data: Exploratory Data Analysis
V.
Historical Changes in Life Course Patterns
VI. Career Mobility and Labor Market Analysis
VII. Family Formation and Social Demography
VIII. Research Design, Measurement and Data Collection
IX. National Differences and Institutional Conditions
Session 1:
Life Course Analysis as a Research Program
Outline
Introduction to Life Course Analysis
Concepts
The “Archaeology” of Comparative Life Course Sociology
Life Course Time Paths
Event Structure of the Life Course
Life Course and Social Change: Time Scales and Mechanisms
The Basic Model of the Sociological Explanation
An explanation of the depth correlation of protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism
Life Course and Social Change: Prototypical Questions
A Preliminary Definition of the Research Domain (Introduction to Life Course)
Assumptions and Tenets
Counter-Assumptions: Heuristics or Testability?
Proto-Typical Questions of Life Course Research – The Example of the Transition to
Post-Communism in East Germany
Interlude
Introduction to Life Course Analysis
The Paradigm of Life Course Research: Origins, Approaches, Assumptions, ProtoTypical Questions
Life Course “Theory”: Macro-Contexts and Micro-Processes
Measurement: Prospective and Retrospective Survey Designs and Methods of Data
Collection
Data Analysis: Exploratory and Explanatory Event History Analysis
Substantive Research Applications: e.g. Life Courses in East German Transformation,
Gender, Social Class and Family Formation, Education, Training, and Labor Market
Entry
Concepts
life
life span
aging
human development
ontogenesis, phylogenesis
life cycle
population process
cohort succession
life history
life story
biography
autobiography
life design
life planning
life review
age groups
age differentiation
life phases
life stages
curriculum vitae
life script
life course
life events
transition
passages
trajectories
life curves
careers
family cycle
residential history
educational tracks
The “Archaeology” of Comparative
Life Course Sociology
Life Cycle/Life History
(Thomas/Znaniecki)
Human Development
(Erikson/Clausen)
Age Stratification
(Riley)
Generation
(Mannheim)
Age Differentiation
(Eisenstadt/Parsons)
Biography
(Bertraux)
Life Course
(Elder)
The Tripartite Life Course
In the Work Society
(Kohli)
Cohort
(Ryder/Easterlin)
(Welfare) State
General
(Mayer/MГјller)
Differential
Life Course Time Paths
Event Structure of the Life Course
Life Course and Social Change:
Time Scales and Mechanisms
The Basic Model
of the Sociological Explanation
Social
Situation
Collective
Explanandum
(d)
(c)
(a)
Actor
Action
(b)
Source: H. Esser (1993): Soziologie. Allgemeine Grundlagen. Frankfurt am Main/New York: Campus, p. 100.
An explanation of the depth correlation of
protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism
Protestant
Ethics
Spirit of
Capitalism
(d)
(c)
(a)
Familial
Socialization
(b)
Achievement
Motivation
Source: Coleman, James S. (1990): Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA/London: The Belknap
Press of Harvard University, pp. 6-10.
Life Course and Social Change:
Prototypical Questions
A Preliminary Definition of the Research Domain
(Introduction to Life Course)
By the term LIFE COURSE RESEARCH we denote an interdisciplinary program of theory and research
which emerged during the last 25 years in the US and Western Europe.
The objectives of this research program are the description and causal explanation of individual level life
outcomes and macrosocial processes in a common conceptual and empirical frame of reference.
By LIFE COURSE RESEARCH we thus mean the study of social processes extending over the individual
life span or significant portions of it, especially the family cycle (marriage and child rearing), educational and
training histories, and employment and occupational histories.
The life course is shaped by, among other things, economic opportunity structures, cultural beliefs about the
individual biography, institutionalized sequences and roles and positions, legal or conventional age
restrictions, and decisions of individual actors, processes of socialization and selection.
The goal of LIFE COURSE RESEARCH is not only to provide better descriptions and explanations of the
processes shaping the life course, but also to link these together.
LIFE COURSE RESEARCH is an important and indispensable instrument for studying societal change and
differences between cohorts (generations).
Life courses are here understood as units of social structure rather than as changes of individual
personalities (individual development).
LIFE COURSE RESEARCH is interdisciplinary since it breaks down and transcends long held disciplinary
boundaries. It covers a domain formerly treated by demography, microeconomics, social history, sociology of
the family, education and labor markets, social stratification and mobility, socialization and psychology.
Assumptions and Tenets (1)
Social structure is conceived as interrelated elements of varying duration, not as a crosssection of positions. (Linton 1939; Mayer 1986)
The life course is an element of social structure that is a product of institutional and historical
forces, organizational processes and individual action. It refers to socially patterned, i.e.
institutionalized trajectories not to individual biographies.
Life courses are historically emergent structures based on individuals as autonomous actors
as against collectivities.
Life courses must be considered within the context of the collective histories of birth cohorts.
Inter- and intra-cohort competition and selection are important population-level shaping life
courses. (Featherman 1986)
Life course research is multi-level analysis. It needs to relate individuals, families,
organizations, cohorts and national societies. (Blossfeld 1986; Mayer/Huinink 1990)
Life course research is multi-time analysis. It refers, among else, to age, duration in social
positions, durations of organizational membership, historical time, exposure times, etc.
These distinctions need not only to be made conceptually, but must also be incorporated in
formal models for empirical tests. (Featherman/Petersen 1986)
The life course is not identical with aging. Age norms and age groups are secondary rather than
primary determinants of the life course. Chronological age is not a good indicator of the life course.
Assumptions and Tenets (2)
Psychological development and biological growth and aging should be seen as independent
mechanisms which only partly condition the life course.
Life course research is multi-life domain analysis. Events and trajectories within a single life
domain, such as the family or the labor market, usually cannot be explained without
references to events and trajectories in other life domains. Life domain specific sociologies,
like the sociology of the family, the sociology of work and occupation construct misleading
less than useful boundaries.
Single events or life phases cannot be adequately understood in isolation (like marriage,
divorce, youth, adulthood, old age) but must be studied in the context of the prior (and
future) life course, as outcomes and consequences of earlier conditions, events and
experiences. The life course constitutes an endogenous causal system.
Life time is an important resource and constraint. Timing of life events is often highly
consequential. The life course has more and less 'sensible phases'. Being 'off time' or 'on
time' with regard to either statistical or social norms may have effects with regard to duration
of exposure, time left for other activities, perceptions of relative success or failure. (Hogan
1978; Marini 1984; Rindfuss et al. 1987)
The life course of an individual is a self-referential process. The individual handles himself or
behaves on the basis of his accumulated experiences and resources. Life history in all its
dimensions is involved with each actual action and decision-making process without
committing one or the other.
Counter- Assumptions:
Heuristics or Testability? (1)
Social structure is best conceived as a fairly permanent form of social organizations which
persist while human beings flow through positions and roles.
The life course is almost fully the product of individual action, it is not, like social positions,
subject to institutional regulation.
The life course from birth to death via reproduction is a universal feature of the human
condition, it is not subject to historical change.
Differences between cohorts are neither constitutive nor consequential for life courses.
All life course dynamics concentrate on the individual level and endogenous processes on
that level. Little is to be gained by introducing other levels, very much in analogy to organic
growth and psychological development.
Age is the overriding time dimension in the life course. Other time dimensions are not very
important.
Counter- Assumptions:
Heuristics or Testability? (2)
Life course and aging are identical concepts and processes. Chronological age is a good
indicator for position in the life course.
Life domains are institutionally well-separated. They follow their own logics and do not
impinge on each other. Life cycles are domain specific, such as the family cycle,
occupational careers, residential cycles.
Each life event, life transition or actions across the life course can be understood
situationally as such without the context of the prior life course. They have intrinsic meaning
and constitute a self-contained set of rules and norms (rites de passage) or action patterns.
All life stages or phases are equally important and consequential.
Being 'off time' or 'on time' with regard to either statistical or social norms has no effects
with regard to duration of exposure, time left for other activities, perceptions of relative
success or failure.
Proto-Typical Questions of Life Course Research –
The Example of the Transition to Post-Communism
in East Germany (1)
In which way and to which extent do societal macro-institutions - the educational system, the
labor markets, the welfare state - shape and influence individual life courses, i.e. family
formation and dissolution, education and training paths, employment trajectories and
occupational careers, status and income changes across the life?
How do macro-developments and historical conditions constitute and impact individual and
collective life histories and in which way are these impacts conditional on age, life stage or
cohort?
Which importance have biographical resources and prior experiences on later life course
outcomes? Which mechanisms account for continuity or discontinuity?
How do specific life course adaptations and patterns aggregate back up as a motor in the
formation of societal structures and institutions? How do they shape social inequalities and
specific problem arenas for social policy?
What are appropriate life times for social policy intervention?
How do major institutional differences, such as the one between a welfare -capitalist society
and a socialist party regime and command economy - shape both the private and public lives
of individuals?
Proto-Typical Questions of Life Course Research –
The Example of the Transition to Post-Communism
in East Germany (2)
In which way did the party-state policies of total ideological and material control shape
individual lives? Which professed goals were attained and which were the unintended effects?
In contrast, what are the specific manners in which the private economy and Western welfare
state measures provide a framework of life courses?
In which way will the institutions of East Germany be changed: by dissolving institutions, by
shifting persons or by socializing persons?
How will the stratification and class system be transformed institutionally and personally? Will
the old privileged be the new winners according to a resource model?
How will family structures change under the impact of transformation, the re-shaping of power
relations between men and women, between parents and children?
The questions show that the analysis of the life course is not something like a combined
sociology of youth, middle age and age. Its significance has little to do with age norms and
issues of individual development? And the subjective biography?
In contrast, it concerns processes and linkages between individual action, family convoys,
cohort membership, institutional arenas, cultural development and historical conditions.
Interlude
Up to now we have defined the questions for LIFE COURSE
RESEARCH, a research program, just a conceptual frame or
theoretical guidelines.
How do we get the answers?
Which answers have already been found?
This requires
-
procedures for data collection
procedures for data organization
methods of data description and exploration
theory construction and formal models
methods of data analysis and estimation
re-integration with existing theory and knowledge
Finally:
Is it worth the efforts, costs and complexity?
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
4
Размер файла
242 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа