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Presentations\Piaget

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FRENCH STRUCTURALIST
MOVEMENT
ANTHROPOLOGY: CLAUDE LEVISTRAUSS
LINGUISTICS: ROMAN JACOBSON
GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY: JEAN
PIAGET
JEAN PIAGET
A YOUNGER JEAN
PIAGET
A STILL YOUNGER
JEAN
FRENCH
STRUCTURALISM
FRENCH STRUCTURALIST MOVEMENT
WAS AGAINST
EMPIRICIST/BEHAVIORIST APPROACH
WORLD COMES ATOMISTICALLY
WE RECEIVE THE WORLD AS IT IS
THROUGH OUR SENSES
WE COMBINE THE ATOMS MENTALLY
THE ENVIRONMENT “IMPRESSES
ITSELF” ON THE MIND
BASIC TENETS OF STRUCTURALIST APPROACH
A. THROUGH RESEARCH, ONE CAN ARRIVE AT FORMAL PROPERTIES OF
THOUGHT
B. THESE PROPERTIES ARE UNDERLYING STRUCTURES, THAT ORGANIZE
THE WORLD AND ONE’S THOUGHTS
C.
FORMAL PROPERTIES OF THOUGHT ARE STRUCTURAL
INVESTIGATOR DEVISES A FORMAL MODEL (LOGICAL OR MATHEMATICAL) TO
DESCRIBE BEHAVIOR
D.
FORMAL MODEL IS INDEPENDENT OF CONCRETE REALITY
DESCRIBES MANY CONTENTS
E.
STRUCTURES ARE CLAIMED TO BE
1.
INDEPENDENT OF TRANSITORY PHENOMENA
A.
B.
C.
MOTIVATION
PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE (EMOTIONS)
FORMAL SCHOOLING
2.
UNIVERSAL
3.
INVARIANT SEQUENCE
4.
QUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STAGES
INABILITY TO RECONSTRUCT FORMER THINKING
PIAGET’S QUESTIONS
WHERE DOES NOVELTY COME FROM?
WHERE CAN ONE SEARCH FOR ANSWERS TO THAT QUESTION?
ONTOGENESIS (WORK WITH DEVELOPING CHILDREN)
PHYLOGENESIS (WORK WITH SNAILS)
HISTORY OF DOMAINS (WORK WITH GARCIA ON PARALLELS AND
THEIR LACK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICS CONCEPTS IN
THE DOMAIN OF PHYSICS – PRE – NEWTONIAN AND NEWTONIAN
CONCEPTS OF FORCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SAME
CONCEPTS IN ONTOGENESIS)
IN ONTOGENESIS, THE ANSWER TO THE NOVELTY QUESTION IS
STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT
1. SENSORIMOTOR (BIRTH - ~1 ВЅ)
2. INTUITIVE/PREOPERATIONAL (~1/12 - ~4,5)
3. CONCRETE OPERATIONS (~4,5 - ~11,12)
4. FORMAL OPERATION (FROM ~11-12 ONWARDS
THESE STRUCTURES/STAGES ARE AGE-RELATED BUT NOT AGEDEPENDENT
FASTER OR SLOWER DEVELOPMENT IRRELEVANT TO PIAGET
WHAT IS RELEVANT IS THE STRUCTURE/STAGE SEQUENCE
Structures/stage characterization
SENSORIMOTOR
CONNECTS BIOLOGICAL TO PSYCHOLOGICAL
INFANT BEGINS WITH REFLEXES
REPRESENTATION BEGINS AT THE END OF THE S-M PERIOD
DEFERRED IMITATION
INTUITIVE/PREOPERATIONAL
END STATES BUT NOT REVERSE DIRECTIONS BETWEEN THEM
IMAGERY TASKS
EGOCENTRIC REASONING
WITHOUT OPERATIONS
CONCRETE OPERATIONS
ABLE TO MENTALLY PERFORM OPERATIONS
HAS REVERSIBILITY
CONNECTED TO HERE AND NOW REASONING
FORMAL OPERATIONS
REASONS HYPOTHETICALLY AND DEDUCTIVELY
THINKS ABOUT POSSIBLE WORLDS
THINKS ABOUT ALL POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS
PROPORTIONAL REASONING
WITH WHAT IS THE
INFANT BORN?
THE SENSORIMOTOR STRUCTURE
IF PIAGET HAD CLAIMED THAT INFANTS WERE BORN WITHOUT
STRUCTURES, HE WOULD HAVE TO ANSWER THE QUESTION ABOUT
HOW INFANTS GOT STRUCTURES IF THEY WEREN’T BORN WITH
THEM.
WHAT IS THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENTITY THAT DEVELOPS?
MENTAL STRUCTURES
WHAT CONCEPTS DID PIAGET SEEK OUT TO EMPIRICALLY TEST
HIS IDEAS?
BECAUSE OF HIS PHILOSOPHICAL BENT, HE CHOSE
KANT’S CATEGORIES (AND OTHERS’)
SPACE
PERSPECTIVE-TAKING
3-MOUNTAIN TASK
MENTAL ROTATIONS OF SELF
YAEL AND HADAS DANCING
PENCIL ROTATING
MENTAL ROTATION OF OBJECTS
PUZZLE: MIRROR EXTEND RIGHT ARM; WHAT GOES OUT IN THE
MIRROR. THERE IS AN UP-DOWN MIRROR IMAGE. HOW CAN YOU
PROVE IT?
TIME
IMPORTANCE OF TIME IN PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY
AGAINST EMPIRICIST/BEHAVIORIST POSITION THAT ALL
KNOWLEDGE ORIGINATES IN OUR EXPERIENCES WITH THE WORLD
TIME IS NOT IN THE WORLD IN THE WAYS THAT OBJECTS
ARE HOW DO WE MEASURE TIME?
WATCHES MEASURE SPACE COVERED AND WE INFER TIME
IF TIME IS NOT EXPERIENCE YET WE CONSTRUCT
UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT IT, THEN IT IS A CASE IN POINT AGAINST
THE EMPIRICISTS/BEHAVIORISTS
PIAGET DISCUSSION WITH EINSTEIN
TIME’S COMPONENTS
SIMULTANEITY
SUCCESSION
DURATION
TASK TO MEASURE CHILDREN’S UNDERSTANDING OF TIME:
A--------------------B----------------------------------------
CARS A AND B BEGIN MOVING AT THE SAME TIME (SIMULTANEITY)
AND GET TO THE END OF THE TRACK AT THE SAME TIME
(SIMULTANEITY). DID THEY TRAVEL THE SAME AMOUNT OF TIME
(DURATION)?
PREOPERATIONAL CHILDREN: NO
CONCRETE OPERATIONS CHILDREN: YES
CAUSALITY
CLASSIFICATION/SERIATION
DREAMS
OBJECTS (CONSERVATION)
NUMBER (AGE 4,5)
LENGTH (AGE 6,7)
LIQUID QUANTITY (AGE 6,7)
SOLID QUANTITY (AGE 7,8)
WEIGHT (AGE 9,10)
DECALAGE
HOW DO STRUCTURE FUNCTION?
PIAGET SAW 2 FACES TO THE STRUCTURE AND ITS FUNCTIONING
ADAPTATION – FACE THAT TURNS OUTWARDS TOWARDS THE WORLD
ORGANIZATION – FACE THAT TURNS INWARDS TOWARDS ITSELF
ADAPTATION
THE STRUCTURE ADAPTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT
INVARIANT FUNCTIONS
ASSIMILATION – FITTING THE WORLD TO THE STRUCTURE
ANALOGY: DIGESTION – WE BREAK THE FOOD INTO
PARTS AND FIT THEM TO OUR BODY; THE REST GETS ELIMINATED
ANALOGY: WE CAN HEAR WHAT OUR MENTAL
STRUCTURE ALLOWS US TO HEAR; THE REST GETS IGNORED
ACCOMMODATION – FITTING THE STRUCTURE TO THE WORLD
ANALOGY: GRASPING IN INFANCY – THE WORLD COMES
IN DIFFERENT SHAPES AND FORMS; THE INFANT CHANGES HIS HAND
TO FIT THOSE SHAPES AND FORMS.
BY DOING THAT HE GENERALIZES THE GRASP, I.E., GENERALIZES
THE STRUCTURE. MAKES IT MORE FLEXIBLE
ORGANIZATION
THE STRUCTURES DEVELOPED DURING DECALAGE REMAIN IN
EQUILIBRIUM WITH THEMSELVES
EXAMPLE: THE CHILD BELIEVES THAT THERE IS CONSERVATION
(NUMBER CONSERVATION WITH SMALL NUMBERS OF OBJECTS) AND
NON CONSERVATION (NUMBER C OBSERVATION WITH LARGE
NUMBERS) AT THE SAME TIME. HE IS BOTH CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
AND PREOPERATIONAL AT THE SAME TIME.
WHAT IS THE MAIN MECHANISM OF DEVELOPMENT?
DISEQUILIBRIUM OF TWO TYPES:
ADAPTATIONAL DISEQUILIBRIUM
LACK OF A FIT BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE AND THE
ENVIRONMENT
LEADS TO DISEQUILIBRIUM
TENDENCY OF THE STRUCTURE IS TO BE IN EQUILIBRIUM
DONE IN 2 PRINCIPAL WAYS
1. STRUCTURE “IGNORES” THE DATA THAT DON’T FIT (COHERENCE
MECHANISM)
2. STRUCTURE CHANGES TO BE IN EQUILIBRIUM (LEARNING OF
DEVELOPMENT)
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE BY TURIEL (1969) PH.D. THESIS AT YALE
HEARING MORAL REASONING AT LEVELS DIFFERENT THAN YOUR OWN
ABOUT MORAL DILEMMAS
+1: CHANGED
+2: DIDN’T CHANGE MUCH BUT WHEN THEY DID, THE CHANGED TO +1
-1: LITTLE CHANGE
BY PROVIDING REASONING DIFFERENT THAN THE REASONING
PREDOMINANTLY USED BY THE CHILDREN, THERE IS A MISMATCH
BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL INPUT (MORAL REASONING) AND THE
CHILDREN’S STRUCTURE. THEREFORE THIS IS ADAPTATIONAL
DISEQUILIBRIUM.
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF ADAPTATIONAL DISEQUILIBRIUM
THAT WAS MOSTLY GOVERNED BY THE COHERENCE MECHANISM
BY STRAUSS, STAVY, & ORPAZ (1982).
10 C + 10 C = 20 C.
TEST IT WITH A THERMOMETER.
CHILDREN THINK THE THERMOMETER IS BROKEN
THERE IS A MISMATCH BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL
INFORMATION 10 C + 10 C = 10 C AND WHAT KIDS THINK: 10 C + 10 C
= 20 C
ORGANIZATIONAL DISEQUILIBRIUM
LACK OF FIT BETWEEN CHILDREN’S DIFFERENT STRUCTURES IN
DECALAGE
CHILD CONTRADICTS HIMSELF
STATE OF DISEQUILIBRIUM INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD THAT THE
STRUCTURE WILL BE CHANGED
COLD WATER + COLD WATER
10 C + 10 C = 20 C
пѓ€-SHAPED GROWTH
POTENTIAL ORGANIZATIONAL DISEQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN 2
CONTRADICTORY THOUGHTS THE CHILD HOLDS SIMULTANEOUSLY
WHAT ARE THE RELATIONS
BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT
AND LEARNING?
DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENT: THE CONSTRUCTION OF A STRUCTURE FOR
THE FIRST TIME
DEFINITION OF LEARNING: THE APPLICATION OF AN ALREADY-EXISTING
STRUCTURE TO NEW CONTENT FOR THE FIRST TIME.
EXAMPLE: A CHILD HAS THE CONCRETE OPERATIONS STRUCTURE
FOR NUMBER CONSERVATION ONLY. HE THEN HAS THE SAME STRUCTURE FOR
NUMBER AND LENGTH CONSERVATION. THIS IS LEARNING BECAUSE AN
ALREADY-EXISTING STRUCTURE (CONCRETE OPERATIONS) HAS BEEN
APPLIED TO NEW CONTENT (LENGTH CONSERVATION)
RELATIONS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING?
DEVELOPMENT RESTRICTS LEARNING.
LEARNING FOSTERS DEVELOPMENT. YOU CANNOT LEARN (APPLY AN
ALREADY-EXISTING STRUCTURE) TO NEW CONTENT IF THAT STRUCTURE HAS
NOT YET BEEN CONSTRUCTED (DEVELOPED).
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