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Embryonic Motility

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Prenatal Development of
Behavior
How and where is embryonic
behavior first produced?
Is it myogenic? or…
Is it neurogenic?
What part(s) of the body move first?
Functions of Embryonic and
Fetal Behavior
Necessary for normal anatomical and
physiological development
Serves adaptive functions as a behavior
Serves as practice for future behavior
Is an epiphenomenon of no particular
importance
Coghill’s View of Behavioral
Development
Earliest movements are spontaneous rather
than elicited
From the beginning, movements are “mass
actions”
“Mass actions” become “individuated” into more
localized and discrete movements
Summary
1. The behavior pattern develops as a regular, orderly
sequence of movements, which is consistent with the
order of development of the nervous system and its
parts.
2. In a relatively precise manner physiological processes
follow the order of their embryological development in
the functions of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion and
feeding.
3. Behavior develops from the beginning through the
progressive expansion of a perfectly integrated total
pattern and the individuation within it of partial patterns
which acquire various degrees of discreteness.
Windle’s View of Behavioral
Development
First movements are forelimb
proprioceptive reflexes
other local reflexes follow
(oral reflexes appear next)
Complex behaviors emerge as local
responses become integrated with each
other
Conceptions of Behavioral
Development
Coghill
behavior is sculpted
from undifferentiated
precursor, much like a
sculptor chips away all
of the stone that is
unwanted, leaving the
final, differentiated
form
Windle
behavioral
development is
achieved by putting
together small pieces,
much the way a
machine is assembled
Why do Coghill and Windle
disagree?
species differences
experimental artifacts
types of behaviors studied
Who’s right? Can their
positions be reconciled?
How would Coghill respond to Windle?
Which view is more consistent with what
you have learned already?
How can you reconcile Coghill’s and
Windle’s positions?
Who cares?
Why is the distinction between the views
of Coghill and Windle important?
Are there implications beyond the
appearance of embryonic behavior?
Behavior of
the Duck Embryo
(Video)
Classes of avian embryonic behavior
1. Type 1 behavior
“jerky, uncoordinated” movements of the limbs
found from the onset of motility until pre-hatching
2. Type 2 behavior
startle-like behavior
found from the onset of motility throughout incubation
3. Type 3 behavior
pre-hatching, hatching
highly organized, not predictable from Types 1 and 2
occurs only in the days immediately prior to hatching
Comparative Embryology
of the
Chick, Rat and Human
(Handout)
Human Crown-Rump Lengths
The Appearance of Fetal Movements in Early Pregnancy
Movement
Gestation of First Appearance (wks)
Heartbeat
6
Any movement (lateral head movement) 7
Startle
8
Generalized movements
8
Hiccups
8
First cutaneous sensitivity (cheek)
8
Isolated arm movements
9
Head retroflexion
9
Hand-face contact
10
Breathing
10
Jaw opening
10
Stretching
10
Head anteflexion
10
Swallow
10
Cutaneous sensitivity (palms)
11
Yawn
11
Suck
12
Cutaneous sensitivity (soles)
12
From De Vries et al. (1982). The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects.
Early Hum Dev; 7: 301-22
The Appearance of Fetal Movements
in Early Pregnancy
Movement
Lateral head movement
Startle
Generalized movements
Hiccups
Isolated arm movements
Head retroflexion
Hand—face contact
Breathing
Jaw opening
Stretching
Head anteflexion
Yawn
Suck and swallow
First Appearance
(Wks. Gestation)
7
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
12
Note. From De Vries et al. (1982).
The emergence of fetal behavior:
I. Qualitative Aspects.
Early Hum. Dev., 7, 301-322.
Embryonic stages: conception to 8 wks
de Vries, J.I.P. & Fong, B.F. (2006) Normal fetal motility: An overview. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and
Gynecology, 27, 701-711.
Pillai, M. & James, D. (1990) Development of fetal behavior:
A review. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 5, 15-32.
Other examples: Sleep; ingestive behavior; thermoregulation;
locomotion; cognition?
Fetal
Yawning
More
Yawns
http://www.layyous.com/ultasound/
ultrasound_video.htm
Maturation of Sensory Functions in Humans
Somatosensation
7 wk
8-9 wk
11 wk
15 wk
13-14 wk
first responses to upper lip
peribuccal free nerve endings found 8-9 wk
face, palmar, plantar
trunk
whole body responds
20-25 wk
vestibular
4 wk
11 wk
20-30 wk
trigeminal (somatosensation)
ciliated receptors
functional olfaction
12 wk
taste buds
4 wk
8 wk
18-20 wk
20 wk
20-25 wk
23-29 wk
24-28 wk
27-28 wk
33 wk
cochlea begins to differentiate
organ of Corti begins to develop
organ of Corti begins to function
cochlea appears mature
first cardiac responses to sound
first responses obtained
first responses to vibro-acoustic stimuli
first responses to pure tones
inner ear mature
30-32 d
13 wk
20 wk
optic vesicles form
rods, cones, begin to form, not complete until after birth
eyes open
Proprioception
Chemosensation
Olfaction
Gustation
Audition
Vision
Gottlieb, G. (1971) Ontogenesis of sensory function in birds and mammals.
In E. Tobach, L.R. Aronson & E. Shaw (Eds.) The Biopsychology of Development. N.Y.: Academic Press.
What Role(s) Does
Experience Play?
Facilitation
Maintenance
Achievement
25
No Experience
20
15
10
5
0
Age
Experience
Induction
No Experience
35
Achievement
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Age
Experience
Facilitation
and Maintenance
Tees, R.C., (1974) Effect of visual deprivation on development of depth percepton
in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86, 300-308.
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