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WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL
CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW
ROALD DZHAMALOV and IGOR ZEKTSER
head of Labs,
Water Problems Institute,
Russian Academy Sciences,
Moscow, Russia
World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and
Groundwater Flow
Digital World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and
Groundwater Flow
Version 2.0; Vertical Scale 1:10 000 000
Compiled by the
Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of
Sciences Under UNESCO Supervision
EDITORS-IN-CHIEF
Roald G. Dzhamalov and Igor S. Zektser
EDITORIAL BOARD
A. Aureli (Italy), H. Bitesnik (Argentina), N. da Franca
(Brazil), I. V. Diordiev (Russia), L. G. Everett (USA), V
Gilbrich (UNESCO), J. Jacobson (Australia), R. A.
Kanivetsky (USA), M. G. Khublaryan (Russia), V. A.
Kiryukhin (Russia), J. Margat (France), N. A. Marinov
(Russia), A. Mente (Brazil), L. P. Novoselova (Russia),
V. Ramnarong (Thailand), T. I. Safronova (Russia), B.
B. S. Singhal (India), S. Soekiban (Indonesia), W.
Struckmeier (Germany), A. Valdes (Cuba), V. A.
Vsevolozhsky (Russia), S. Wongsawat (Thailand)
AUTHORS
R. G. Dzhamalov, I. V. Diordiev, I. S. Zektser, V. A.
Ivanov, N. A. Lebedeva, V I. Nikonova, Yu. L.
Obyedkov, T. I. Safronova, T.N.Sorokina.
CARTHOGRAPHERS
Z. G. Golubeva and L. Ya. Gervits
CONSULTANTS
S. C. Csallany, B. Magyar, J. Stickel, T. Toth
Particularities of mapping and
presentation of main hydrogeological
information and groundwater flow
parameters on the Map.
World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and
Groundwater Flow is a special, thematic
hydrogeological map whose main content is
information on the distribution of several quantitative
characteristics of groundwater runoff as well as
geological and hydrogeological conditions of
groundwater generation.
World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and
Groundwater Flow grants a possibility, on a
quantitative basis, to solve important practical
problems of integrated use and protection of water
resources over all studied regions of the World.
In small-scale mapping of hydrogeological conditions
and groundwater flow, distinguishing aquifers and
aquifer systems is a severe problem. Therefore the
authors of the Map, having extensive experience in
mapping, have come to a conclusion that it is
necessary to distinguish principal groundwater flow
media-types of rocks with common conditions of
generation and spatial distribution of waterconducting properties.
A groundwater flow medium type is determined by the
genesis of water-enclosing rocks or the genetic type
of open space (pore, fracture, karst and other media);
a groundwater flow medium subtype is determined by
processes (generating conditions), controlling the
character and extent of the non-uniformity of medium
permeability.
Four principal types of groundwater flow media are
shown on the Map.
a) sedimentogenic - pore,
b) sedimentogenic - fracture,
c) karst and
d) magmatogenic – metamorphogenic
Groundwater flow or runoff is groundwater discharge
provided by its replenishment (recharge) under natural
conditions. In many cases for mean annual assessment
groundwater flow (runoff) value equals so-called natural
groundwater resources, namely that part of total
groundwater resources which renews from year to year in
result of natural recharge. Groundwater flow quantitatively
may be expressed by several specific values or
characteristics.
groundwater flow modules - average annual or
minimal groundwater discharge in liters per second
per square kilometer or in cubic meter per day per
square kilometer, in /1/s km2 or m/day km2;
groundwater flow coefficient - ratio between
groundwater flow and precipitation, in percentage;
coefficient of groundwater contribution to river
runoff – ratio between groundwater flow to river to
total river runoff, in percentage.
It is important to emphasize that on the Map,
represented special conditions of groundwater flow
generation, affected by human activities, intensive
karstification, sea water intrusion areas of surface
runoff engulfing in river channels crossing rift zones
and regional faults, occurrence of semipermeable
rocks, etc.
Legend of World Map (part)
WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL
CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW
(fragment)
1:10 000 000
The Map makes it possible to assess:
a) Groundwater runoff and natural fresh
groundwater resources for characterization
of water availability in individual regions of
the World;
b) Groundwater discharge to rivers for
determining the subsurface component of
river runoff (base flow) and prediction of its
possible variation under the effect of
groundwater development;
c) Groundwater recharge values for regional
evaluation of the safe yield and making
water-resources balances of economic
regions and the so-called natural-andterritorial complexes;
d) Groundwater discharge amount as an
element of the water balance of the country
areas and its separate regions; and
e) Direct groundwater discharge to seas and
oceans.
Present-day Water Resources
Availability of Continents
Континент
Площадь,
млн. км2
Водные ресурсы, км3/год
Средне
многоле
тняя
величин
а
(речной
сток)
подзем
ные
воды
Отношение
ресурсов
подземных
вод к
речному
стоку,
%
Водообеспеченность,
тыс. м3 на 1
км2
Европа
10.46
2900
677
23
344
Сев.
Америка
24.3
7890
1630
21
391
Юж.
Америка
17.9
12030
3634
30
876
Азия
43.5
13510
2420
18
366
Африка
30.1
4050
979
24
166
Австралия
и Океания
8.95
2405
312
13
304
Вся суша
135
42785
9652
23
388
Present-day and Modeling Runoff of Main Rivers in the
World, 103 cub.m/s
А. Высокие широты
Расходы
в ХХ веке
Прогнозные
расходы для
середины ХХI века
Изменения, в %
1. Юкон
12.0
14.5
+20.5%
2.Макензи
9.0
10.8
+20.8%
3. Енисей
15.6
17.7
+13.4%
4. Лена
16.7
18.7
+12.3%
5. Обь
7.7
9.3
+20.6%
6. Рейн
5.2
6.5
+24.5%
7. Волга
6.1
7.7
+25.1%
8. Дунай/Днепр
7.5
9.1
+20.7%
9. Колумбия
9.2
11.1
+21.1%
10. Св. Лаврентия
15.2
16.1
+6.2%
11. Миссисипи
11.6
11.7
+0.1%
12.Амур
9.2
9.1
-0.8%
13. Хуан Хе
16.7
16.8
+0.1%
14. Чанг Джиган
59.2
61.4
+3.7%
15. Замбези
31.1
30.9
-0.7%
16. Парана/Уругвай
23.5
29.0
+23.6%
17. Амазонка
308.0
343.0
+11.3%
18. Ориноко
34.3
36.8
+7.5%
19. Ганг/Брахмапутра
60.7
71.3
+17.5%
20. Конго
146.0
149.0
+1.8%
21. Нил
58.3
61.3
+5.1%
22. Меконг
42.2
39.6
-6.2%
Б. Средние широты
В. Низкие широты
Water Resources Changes in Different Russian
Regions in 1991-2000
Средние
многолет
ние
значения,
км3
Среднее
за 1991-2000
гг., км3
Отклонение от
среднего
многолетнего, %
Северный_
512
566
+9,5
Северо-западный
90,2_
96,1_
+6,3
Центральный
112
125
+10.5
Волго-Вятский
153_
174
+12,1
ЦентральноЧерноземный
20,9_
20,2
-3,5
Поволжский
276
316
+12,7
СевероКавказский
71,0
73,0
+2,7
Уральский
132
164
+19,5
ЗападноСибирский
583
589
+1,0
ВосточноСибирский
1124
1229
+8,7
Дальневосточный
1850
1892
+2,2
Калининградская
обл.
23,1
22,6
-2,3
Россия в целом
4262
4509
+5,4
Экономические
районы
Changes in Runoff of Main Russian Rivers
in 1991-2000
Река, створ
Средние
многолет
ние
значения,
км3
Среднее за
1991- 2000
гг., км3
Отклонение
от среднего
многолетнего,
%
Нева - устье
74,3
77,4
+4,2
Днепр Смоленск
3,0
3,2
+6,0
Дон Раздорская
25,3
22,7
-10,1
Кубань - устье
13,0
12,4
-4,8
Волга Лебяжье
227
263
+15,9
Урал - Кушум
9,7
12,4
+27,5
Северная Двина
- устье
101
114
+12,4
Печора - устье
129
137
+6,5
Обь - Салехард
405
403
-0,5
Енисей Игарка
572
617
+7,8
Лена - устье
537
558
+3,9
Амур Комсомольск
306
307
+0,2
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