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Online Assessment Techniques - CourseShare - E

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Part I: The 3 T’s of Online Assessment:
Tools, Techniques, and (Saving) Time
Curtis J. Bonk, Professor, Indiana University
President, CourseShare
http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk; cjbonk@indiana.edu
Vanessa Paz Dennen, Assistant Professor
Florida State University
http://www.vanessadennen.com, vdennen@fsu.edu
Session Objectives
пѓ� Detail
online assessment techniques
пѓ� Discuss how to match learning activities with
learner assessments
пѓ� Examine instructor time and comfort issues
пѓ� Discuss ways to limit and detect cheating and
plagiarism
пѓ� Document online tools and resources for
assessment
Online Assessment
Techniques
(with some time-saving
tips added in…)
Is this motivating?
How would you feel?
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
You take an online class.
You read some Web pages.
Maybe you watch some videos or hear some
audio clips.
Maybe you ponder some study review
questions.
You take a multiple choice test online.
You receive an automated score on the test.
Class is over.
How about this scenario?
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
You take an online class.
You “meet” your fellow students on the d-board.
You read some materials. You find and share
some materials too.
You participate in some discussions of course
concepts.
You take a multiple choice test.
You receive an automated score on the test.
Class is over.
Commentary on Scenario 1
пѓ� No
interaction with peers.
� Students don’t feel “missed” if they don’t
participate.
пѓ� Not clear why course is online (except
perhaps for media elements).
пѓ� Potential for immediate feedback is nice -but assessment format is limiting.
Commentary on Scenario 2
пѓ� Interaction
with peers is great. Serves as a
motivator.
пѓ� Community is likely to develop.
пѓ� Students will feel involved and important if
they share examples and resources.
пѓ� Assessment format may not be well
aligned given the activities.
пѓ� Class lacks closure in a manner
appropriate to the activities.
Assessment and Learning
пѓ� Course
objectives, activities, and
assessments should be in alignment
пЃ¬
This tends to be an issue in courses
regardless of medium.
пѓ� Example:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
In class students conduct a debate
Students are tested on their ability to recall
facts
Mis-aligned Online Learning
and Assessment
пѓ�
A not-uncommon scenario
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пѓ�
Discussion is used as a learning activity
Students are required to participate
Participation is noted by how many messages were
composed by a student
But does this method measure learning?
Common Online
Assessment Complaints
пѓ� Instructor
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
perspective
There’s too much to assess!
I don’t know what activities to assess!
I don’t know if students really are ready for the
test!
How do I know the student actually did the
work/took the test?
Common Online
Assessment Complaints
пѓ� Student
perspective
� If they’re supposed to discuss, why
doesn’t that count as part of their grade?
� If they’re just supposed to do something,
why does quality matter?
пѓ� I just got a number, no feedback.
� I didn’t get participation feedback.
The Feedback Issue
пѓ�
Students participating in online activities look for
feedback to know:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пѓ�
A. the instructor is reading their contributions
B. their participation is valued
C. their participation is adequate, in terms of quality
and quantity
Feedback need not be individualized to be
effective
пЃ¬
Whole class commentary provided on a regular basis
was found to be just as satisfactory from the student
point of view (Dennen, 2001)
The Assessment Issue
пѓ� Often,
online activities go
unassessed
 “Add-on” syndrome: Adding an
online activity to a previously
designed class because it
sounds like a good idea
The Assessment Issue
пѓ�
Students are more likely to participate when
then know there is impact on their grade
пЃ¬ Direct impact: graded on participation
(quality, quantity or both)
пЃ¬ Indirect impact: participation should
bolster performance on other
assessments
пЃ¬ Students quickly become aware if an
online activity is not related to assessed
learning objectives
The Assessment Issue, Cont.
пѓ�
Sometimes the wrong things are assessed
пѓ� Examples:
 Assessing students’ online moderation
skills when the course topic/learning
objectives have nothing to do with online
moderation
пЃ¬ Assessing quantity of participation, but
not quality
• which, granted, is easier, but encourages
sloppy message posting rather than thoughtful
learning dialogues
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
пѓ� A useful
tool for checking alignment
пѓ� Also great to guide your course design!
QuickTimeв„ў and a TIFF (Uncompress ed) decompressor are needed to s ee this picture.
To Find Out More…
A Taxonomy
For Learning
Teaching and
Assessing
By Anderson
And Krathwohl
QuickTim eв„ў and a TIFF (Un co m press ed ) de com pres so r are n eed ed to se e this p ictu re .
Assessment Techniques
Options…
пѓ� Formative or Summative
пѓ� Student-led (Self or Peer) or Teacher-led
пѓ� Public or Private
пѓ� Process or Product
Other issues to consider…
� “Objective” or Interpretive
пѓ� Rubric-based or Wholistic
Formative vs. Summative
Assessments
Formative
пѓ� Alleviate student
anxieties re:
expectations
пЃ¬
пѓ�
Seem especially high
in online classes
Encourage working
toward mastery
пѓ� Can be informal
Summative
� Used for student’s
grade
� Assumed to be “best”
effort
Example: Online
Formative Assessment
пѓ� Paper
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
draft discussion forum
Start a discussion forum for papers-inprogress
Have each student start a thread and post
elements of their papers as they complete
them (e.g., topic, major claims, research
sources)
• A schedule for each element is useful
пЃ¬
Monitor and provide feedback
Student vs. Teacher Led
Teacher-led
� “Traditional”
assessment
пѓ� Most often summative
Student-led
пѓ� Students may assess
self or peers
пѓ� May be formative or
summative
пѓ� Can greatly relieve
instructor burden
пѓ� Students reinforce
concepts through
feedback process
Examples: Online SelfAssessment
пѓ� Self-tests:
Use test tool to create self-tests
(multiple choice, true false)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
May wish to track student efforts
Can incentivize use (essentially, use as a
learning tool)
пѓ� Reflection
papers: Have students submit
brief, focused papers expressing the
strengths and assessments of their
assignment(s)
Example: Online
Peer Assessment (Formative)
пѓ� Feedback
groups: Assign students in
groups to provide formative feedback on
projects and papers
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Often raises quality of assignments
Need a structure with clear deadlines
Need prompts and models to guide students
May wish to assess feedback
process/contributions
Example: Online Peer
Assessment (Summative)
пѓ�
Conference Presentations: Have students
“present” their work and ask questions/provide
feedback to others.
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
In d-board, have students attach papers to
messages; post a message with a synopsis; or attach
a powerpoint presentation
Each student/team should have their own thread
Feedback should occur during a defined period of
time.
May consider allowing students to rate assignments
on certain dimensions
Public vs. Private
Private
пѓ� Work is submitted to
the teacher only
пѓ� Entire burden of
feedback is on
teacher
пѓ� Important if assessing
at fact level
Public
пѓ� Peers can see each
others’ work (either in
process or
completed)
пѓ� Peers may comment
on each others’ work
пѓ� Often increases
quality of work
submitted
Process vs. Product
пѓ�
Product
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
The end deliverable
Look for polish,
accuracy
пѓ�
Process
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
How the student got
there
Look for
thoughtfulness of
approach, intent
Assessing Process
пѓ�
Easy to do
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пѓ�
Many technology tools will archive student
work/interactions
Students create a document trail in process
Helps students develop metacognitive
knowledge
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Instructors structure/model/encourage productive
work processes
Students learn how to manage their own work
processes
Why Assess Process?
пѓ� For
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
the instructor …
Provides formative feedback on course
(e.g., helps gather data about why students
have difficulty with product-oriented
assessments)
Clarifies who is doing most work in small
group assignments
Helps prevent cheating
Why Assess Process?
пѓ� For
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
the student …
Typically improves the quality of their products
Helps them develop productive work
processes
Puts on a schedule
Shows that you care about individual growth
Assessment Project Cycle
пѓ� From
Classroom Assessment Techniques
by Angelo & Cross (1993)
пѓ� Step 1: Plan
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Choose class
Focus on assessable question
Design project to answer question
Assessment Project Cycle [2]
пѓ� Step
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Teach target lesson
Collect assessment data
Analyze data
пѓ� Step
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
2: Implement
3:
Interpret results
Communicate results
Evaluate assessment project
I. Term Papers
пѓ� How
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
to do online:
Have students each start their own thread
and post topic of interest
Peers and instructors give feedback
Students post thesis statements, research
sources, etc., with iterations of feedback
Final paper is posted
Term Paper Assessments
пѓ� Product:
the paper
пѓ� Process: quality and timeliness of
student work from time when paper is
assigned
пѓ� Process: quality and timeliness of
feedback provided to peers
пѓ� Process: responsiveness to feedback
received from instructor and peers
II. Discussion Assignments
1. Chain of thought
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students develop a solution to a
problem
Have students indicate what led them to
a particular conclusion, method or
approach
Can be done in a discussion board
Discussion Assignments
2. Theory to Practice
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students match up theories you are
learning about to actual problems
Present students with problems and have
them explain what theories they would
use to solve these problems and how they
would approach it
Debrief the assignment
Discussion Assignment
3. Synthesizer (i.e., wrapper)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students take roles being the
weekly synthesizer of class discussion
Add a “meta” level in which students
narrate their own experiences while
reading the weekly discussion
пЃ¬
Reflect on how life relates to discussion
III. Group Projects
пѓ�
Tools used
пЃ¬
Chat: brainstorming ideas, making group decisions,
regular way to feel connected (should be archived)
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Discussion board: commenting on drafts
E-mail: quick feedback
File exchange: sharing project files
MS Word: Track changes
Group Project Assessments
пѓ� Product:
project files that are turned in
пѓ� Process: online archive demonstrating
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Who contributed what
Who provided peer feedback
Who worked in a timely manner
How collaborative a group was
пѓ� Process:
peer ratings
пѓ� Process: interim instructor consultations
Group Project Assignments
1. Work Plans
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students develop a plan of work
for their project
Make them outline topic, schedule,
resources needed, division of labor and
anticipated form of final deliverables
At end of project, have students
evaluate how well they followed their
own plan and how useful it was
Project Assignments
2. Research Trail
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students document the steps
they took in the research process and
the results
Ask for a brief reflection on how
effective their process was and what
they might change the next time
Project Assignments
3. Process Presentations
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students focus on their process as well
as their product in class presentations
To maintain focus, ask them to share 3 main
lessons learned
Might ask for some process documents to be
shared, like an early draft
Project Assignments
4. Design Journal
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have students maintain a journal of all
ideas related to their project
Encourage sketches, lists, organizational
charts, etc.
Require journals to be turned in with final
projects
IV. Reflection Assignments
пѓ� Have
students keep a weekly journal of
their thoughts on readings and course
content AND real-world related
instances that they noticed
пѓ� May make these public, with each
student having their own discussion
thread
Making it Happen
пѓ�
Learners need to see that process is valuable:
пЃ¬ Model appropriate processes
пЃ¬ Provide students with scaffolding (guide
sheets) to structure their processes
пЃ¬ Give students feedback on their process
пЃ¬ Require students to reflect on their processes
пЃ¬ Grade students on process
Vanessa’s Top
Time-Saving Tips
Before you assign it, ask yourself “can I
reasonably assess it?”
пѓ� Rely on students/peers for providing some
feedback
пѓ� Let students know what to expect up front
пѓ� Choose the right tool for the job
пѓ�
пЃ¬
пѓ�
Get to know the editing and commenting features of
your favorite programs
Use rubrics!
пЃ¬
I make them in Word, and then while grading I
highlight or bold the section that applies to the
student’s projects. Add a few comments at the bottom
= speedy grading!
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