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Policing Child Sexual Abuse Online: Understanding Grooming

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Policing Online Child Sexual Abuse:
Understanding Grooming in the
21st Century
Dr Elena Martellozzo
Defining online grooming
Type of on-line behaviour designed to �seduce’
or lure children into sexual behaviour or
conversations with or without children’s
knowledge (McCarthy and Gaunt,2005)
Process of on-line socialisation during which an
offender interacts with a child in order to
prepare him/her for sexual abuse (Davidson
and Martellozzo, 2008)
Chat Facilities & Sites for 6-14 year olds (Taylor, 2009)
The Metropolitan Police HTCU:
Policing Online Abuse
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Ethnographic 4 year research
1 Detective Undercover
Yahoo Groups and other Social Networks –Hi5- My
Space- Ringo- Multiply- Green Room- Bebo- FacebookTwitter
Lucy: 13- profile
Picture on line
Approx 2000 individuals were interested in her profile
27 arrests in 12 months
A spectrum of confidence from most confident to hyper-cautious
Hyperconfident
Hypercautious
Suspicious
Examples of text from covert operation (Taylor, 2009)
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12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
12 year old girl
fmlv_uk38
hi lucy here
hi how are you sweetie?
kwl
I used to play hockey in my younger days by the way
how old r u now
yeh
lol. not too old I hope. good at sex anyway lol
i dont play now
discovered boys and sex huh?
aint dun sex yet
interested though
corse
I'd love to be your first
yeh rite
lol
im only 12
I would though - I'm good at it. did you read my hi5 profile?
doesn't matter to me - if you want to that's all that counts
hav anothr look in mo
where r u im in London
south london
serious
of course. I don't lie hun. and if you wanted to visit I'd love that
Research
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Different phases before reaching the
sexual phase:
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Friendship-forming phase
Relationship-forming phase
Risk assessment phase
Exclusivity phase
Sexual phase
(Source: O'Connell, 2003:44 )
Findings
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In less than three minutes the suspect moves
directly to the sexual phase
“[have you] discovered boys and sex huh” and “I'd love
to be your first [lover]”.
In some cases not much time invested to form a
relationship with a child
In OPM it takes approximately 8 minutes for a
sexual topic to be introduced
No risk assessment
“if you wanted to visit I'd love that”
Offenders’ Modus Operandi
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Half of subjects used texting to further groom the
victim
Majority sent CII some type of pornography or child
abuse imagery
Two thirds of subjects exposed themselves to the CII
via photograph or web-cam
Two third turned up expecting to meet 12 year old
girl whilst others arranged but cancelled
Several claimed fantasy or that they knew they were
talking to an adult
Chatting to a child?
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“I believed it was another bloke role playing sexual
fantasy of some sort, and in moments of boredom I
would go along with it” (SO.7)
“I never genuinely believed that the person was a
child and certainly had no intent of any sort as
regards to committing any of these offences” (SO.2)
“I didn’t believe from day 1, I genuinely didn’t
believe that, that was a 14, 12, 13, 15 year old child”
(SO.4)
Offenders Characterises
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Majority of groomers were
White males aged 36 to 45
Majority have own children
who did not disclose abuse
Half were married or in
long-term relationships
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Most had no previous
criminal convictions
Vast majority had
child abuse imagery
on their computer or
on person when
arrested
Half were in
possession of Level 5
images
Conclusions
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Sex offenders use Internet to access indecent
images and to groom children
It is not possible to identify different �types’ of
internet offender
Groomed child victims often Do Not Report
Abuse
Online Reporting is necessary but not always
effective (Taylor, 2009; Davidson & Martellozzo,
2010)
Proactive Method of Policing is the only way
forward (Taylor, 2009; Martellozzo, 2010)
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