By: Brett Kratchman Colorblindness is a defect of vision affecting the ability to distinguish colors, occurring mostly in males. Color blindness is caused by a defect in the retina or in other nerve portions of the eye. Also known as dichromatism, this disease consists of the inability to differentiate between reds and greens. The signs and symptoms of colorblindness depend on certain factors: вЂўIs the problem congenital, acquired, partial, or complete? вЂўDoes the patient have trouble distinguishing reds and greens? вЂўIs the patient experiencing reduced vision? Color vision deficiency is usually detected using colored charts called the Ishihara Test Plates. The plates consist of gray and colored dots. The patient is asked to identify the number in the middle of the circle. After the patient has identified what they see, more testing may commence. Vision test examples. Normal people should see 74. Color deficient people may see D=21. вЂўA random pattern of gray level dots is first put together. вЂўA digit pattern is then added which is defined by yellow/blue variation only. Since most people with red/green colorblindness can see yellow/blue they will be able to see the digit 5 in this test pattern. вЂўAnother digit pattern which is defined by red/green variation is added. Here is the pattern composed of the random brightness pattern and the red/green pattern. вЂўFinally all three are added: People with red/green deficiency will not be able to see the red/green pattern and will see the 5. People with normal vision will see both the patterns, but since the red/green is stronger than the yellow/blue, the normal person will see the digit 6. Most color-blind people see normally in all other aspects other than the color of their weakened cone. Color-blind people can usually learn by experience to associate certain colors with different sensations of brightness. Many victims of the defect are unaware that they are color-blind. Weak green cone Weak red cone Gene OPN1MW GC0XP148439 вЂўStart: 148,439,714 bp from pter вЂўEnd: 148,453,078 bp from pter вЂўSize:13,364 bases вЂўOrientation: plus strand Gene OPN1LW GC0XP147547 вЂўStart: 147,547,307 bp from pter вЂўEnd: 147,561,950 bp from pter вЂўSize: 14,643 bases вЂўOrientation: plus strand >ENST00000276348 ATGGCCCAGCAGTGGAGCCTCCAAAGGCTCGCAGGCCGCCATCCGC AGGACAGCTATGAGGACAGCACCCAGTCCAGCATCTTCACCTACACC AACAGCAACTCCACCAGAGGCCCCTTCGAAGGCCCGAATTACCACA TCGCTCCCAGATGGGTGTACCACCTCACCAGTGTCTGGATGATCTTT GTGGTCATTGCATCCGTCTTCACAAATGGGCTTGTGCTGGCGGCCAC CATGAAGTTCAAGAAGCTGCGCCACCCGCTGAACTGGATCCTGGTG AACCTGGCGGTCGCTGACCTGGCAGAGACCGTCATCGCCAGCACTA TCAGCGTTGTGAACCAGGTCTATGGCTACTTCGTGCTGGGCCACCCT ATGTGTGTCCTGGAGGGCTACACCGTCTCCCTGTGTGGGATCACAGG TCTCTGGTCTCTGGCCATCATTTCCTGGGAGAGATGGATGGTGGTCT GCAAGCCCTTTGGCAATGTGAGATTTGATGCCAAGCTGGCCATCGTG GGCATTGCCTTCTCCTGGATCTGGGCTGCTGTGTGGACAGCCCCGCC CATCTTTGGTTGGAGCAGGTACTGGCCCCACGGCCTGAAGACTTCAT GCGGCCCAGACGTGTTCAGCGGCAGCTCGTACCCCGGGGTGCAGTC TTACATGATTGTCCTCATGGTCACCTGCTGCATCACCCCACTCAGCAT CATCGTGCTCTGCTACCTCCAAGTGTGGCTGGCCATCCGAGCGGTGG CAAAGCAGCAGAAAGAGTCTGAATCCACCCAGAAGGCAGAGAAGG AAGTGACGCGCATGGTGGTGGTGATGGTCCTGGCATTCTGCTTCTGC TGGGGACCATACGCCTTCTTCGCATGCTTTGCTGCTGCCAACCCTGG CTACCCCTTCCACCCTTTGATGGCTGCCCTGCCGGCCTTCTTTGCCAA AAGTGCCACTATCTACAACCCCGTTATCTATGTCTTTATGAACCGGCA GTTTCGAAACTGCATCTTGCAGCTTTTCGGGAAGAAGGTTGACGATG GCTCTGAACTCTCCAGCGCCTCCAAAACGGAGGTCTCATCTGTGTCC TCGGTATCGCCTGCATGA >ENST00000218195 ATGGCCCAGCAGTGGAGCCTCCAAAGGCTCGCAGGCCGCCATCCGC AGGACAGCTATGAGGACAGCACCCAGTCCAGCATCTTCACCTACACC AACAGCAACTCCACCAGAGGCCCCTTCGAAGGCCCGAATTACCACA TCGCTCCCAGATGGGTGTACCACCTCACCAGTGTCTGGATGATCTTT GTGGTCACTGCATCCGTCTTCACAAATGGGCTTGTGCTGGCGGCCAC CATGAAGTTCAAGAAGCTGCGCCACCCGCTGAACTGGATCCTGGTG AACCTGGCGGTCGCTGACCTAGCAGAGACCGTCATCGCCAGCACTAT CAGCATTGTGAACCAGGTCTCTGGCTACTTCGTGCTGGGCCACCCTA TGTGTGTCCTGGAGGGCTACACCGTCTCCCTGTGTGGGATCACAGGT CTCTGGTCTCTGGCCATCATTTCCTGGGAGAGGTGGCTGGTGGTGTG CAAGCCCTTTGGCAATGTGAGATTTGATGCCAAGCTGGCCATCGTGG GCATTGCCTTCTCCTGGATCTGGTCTGCTGTGTGGACAGCCCCGCCC ATCTTTGGTTGGAGCAGGTACTGGCCCCACGGCCTGAAGACTTCATG CGGCCCAGACGTGTTCAGCGGCAGCTCGTACCCCGGGGTGCA GTCTTACATGATTGTCCTCATGGTCACCTGCTGCATCATCCCACTCGC TATCATCATGCTCTGCTACCTCCAAGTGTGGCTGGCCATCCGAGCGGT GGCAAAGCAGCAGAAAGAGTCTGAATCCACCCAGAAGGCAGAGAA GGAAGTGACGCGCATGGTGGTGGTGATGATCTTTGCGTACTGCGTCT GCTGGGGACCCTACACCTTCTTCGCATGCTTTGCTGCTGCCAACCCT GGTTACGCCTTCCACCCTTTGATGGCTGCCCTGCCGGCCTACTTTGCC AAAAGTGCCACTATCTACAACCCCGTTATCTATGTCTTTATGAACCGG CAGTTTCGAAACTGCATCTTGCAGCTTTTCGGGAAGAAGGTTGACG ATGGCTCTGAACTCTCCAGCGCCTCCAAAACGGAGGTCTCATCTGTG TCCTCGGTATCGCCTGCATGA Nucleotide substitutions (missense / nonsense) Accession Number Codon Nucleotide Amino acid Phenotype CM920309 203 aTGC-CGC Cys-Arg Trichromacy, deutan Nucleotide substitutions (missense / nonsense) Accession Number Codon Nucleotide Amino acid Phenotype CM951111 203 aTGC-CGC Cys-Arg Blue cone monochromatism ColorMax has recently introduced a tinted lens for glasses. ColorMax lenses are designed to improve the vision of specific colors that look the same to people with red green color deficiencies. However, the vision of other colors has actually been impaired. Other than these lenses, there isnвЂ™t much that can be done to cure color blindness, thus making research obsolete. Rhodospin, the receptor protein in rod cells, crosses the disc membrane seven times. Its odd shape is shared by three receptor proteins in cone cells. Retinal (which absobs light) is shown in purple. The other balls (yellow) represent amino acids which make up the rhodospin structure. Unfortunately, there is nothing that can be done once diagnosed with color blindness. Color blindness is a life long condition that can exclude people from certain jobs such as a pilot or a job that would include electronics. If you suspect colorblindness, you can visit an ophthalmologist or your health care provider. Being aware of the disease is the best way to help someone overcome this disease.