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Metal Detection

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Metal Detection - The Basics
North America
Europe
Fortress Technology Inc.
Fortress Technology (Europe) Ltd.
Toronto, Canada
Banbury, UK
Phone: (416) 754-2898
Phone: +44 (0) 1295 256266
Fax:
(416) 754-2976
Fax:
+44 (0) 1295 265277
Email: fortress@fortresstechnology.com
Email: europe@fortresstechnology.com
Fortress Technology Ltd.
1
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Contents
1. Metal Detection - The Basic Principles
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Theory of Operation
Product Effect and Phasing
Metal Free Area
Sensitivity
Types of Metal
Shapes and Orientation
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Test Sample
Frequency
Procedure
Records
2. Testing
3. Sources of Interference
4. Applications
4.1 Conveyor (End of Line)
4.2 Gravity
4.2 Pipeline
5. Good Practice Guidelines
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Balanced Coil
Transmitter Coil
Receiver 1
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Receiver 2
3
Balanced Coil
Receiver 2
Transmitter Coil
Receiver 1
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4
Product Effect
Conductive Scale
Magnetic Scale
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Phasing
Resistive (Conductive) R
Stainless Steel (1 mm) I.e 304. 316
Non Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Copper, Brass, Ali.
Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Iron Steel
0
Reactive (Magnetic) x
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Phasing With Product
Resistive (Conductive) R
Conductive/ Wet Product (meat, cheese, moist bread)
Stainless Steel (1 mm) I.e. 304. 316
Non Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Copper, Brass, Ali
Ferrous (1 mm) I.e. Iron, Steel
Reactive (Magnetic) x
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Metal Free Area
Total Metal Free Area
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Sensitivity
3
1
2
1
Aperture Size
2
3
Position in Aperture
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Types of Metal
2.0mm Fe
2.0mm Fe
2.0mm Non Fe
3.0mm Non Fe
4.0mm SS
3.0mm SS
Dry Product Mode
Wet Product Mode
(Example of Ratios ONLY)
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Shapes & Orientation of Metal
Ferrous Wires:
Travel
• A - Easiest position, biggest signal.
• B, C - Hardest Position, smallest signal.
A
B
C Non-Ferrous and Stainless Steel Wires:
• B, C - Easiest position, biggest signal.
• A - Hardest position, smallest signal.
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Typical Guidelines for Sensitivity
Aperture Height
Dry Product
Ferrous & Non Ferrous
Wet Product
Ferrous
Non Ferrous
Up to 50 mm (2 In)
< 0.8 -1.0 mm
< 1.5 mm
< 2.0 mm
Up to 125 mm (5 In)
< 1.0 -1.2 mm
< 2.0 mm
< 2.5 mm
Up to 200 mm (8 In)
< 1.2 - 1.5 mm
< 2.5 mm
< 3.0 mm
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Detector Performance
• Isolated Rollers - prevent loops
• High Quality Belt - Metal Free, Carbon Free, Interlocked finger
Splice, or Plastic Modular Belt (White or Natural)
• Low vibration and Static
• Adequate metal free area
5. Metal Free Belt
1. Metal Free Area
2. Non-Metallic
Slider Bed
6. Roller Isolation
3. Clearance
4. Foot Isolation
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Typical Metal Detector Conveyor Reject Reject Options
Air Blast
Retracting Belt
Reject
Diverter
Reject
Photo Eye
Reject
Flap Gate
Pusher
Reject
Reject
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Drop Through / Gravity Metal Detector
D1
Detector
Overall Length
Plastic Pipe Selection
D2
Detector To
Valve Distance
Drop Height
Distance
Product Freefall Start Point (Test Piece Access)
Reject Output
Good Product Output
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Drop Through / Gravity Metal Detector
A drop through / gravity detection system is ideally suited to inspecting
dry, free flowing products such as :
Grains, flours, cereals
• Rice, nuts, sugar
• Plastic pellets and flakes
The following critical factors must be known when designing a
successful drop through / gravity detection system:
• Flow rate
• Bulk density
• Free fall distance
• Pipe size
• Space available
• Testing procedure (insert + recovery)
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Pipe System
Non Metallic Pipe Section
Detector
D1
Reject Valve
Good
Product
Flow
Rejected
Product
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Pipeline Metal Detector
A pipeline inspection system is ideally suited to inspecting liquid,
slurries or paste products that can be pumped through.
Typical pipe products would include:
• Sauces
• Dairy products
• Meat slurries
• Juices etc.
The following critical factors must be known when designing a
successful pipeline detection system:
• Pipe I.D.
• Pipe clamp connection style (tri-clamp, I-line etc)
• Product flow rate (GMP)
• Product viscosity
• Product temperature range
• Product pressure
• Expected cleanup procedures (wash down, pipe pig, etc.)
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Metal Detection System Sensitivity Q&A Test Form
F O R M # 1 (a)
F a cto ry:
D A IL Y M E T A L D E T E C T IO N S Y S T E M S E N S IT IV IT Y T E S T S H E E T
L IN E
ID E N T IF IC A T IO N :
DATE:
*
пЂґ
IF O .K . o r
пЂё
TEST STANDARD:
T IM E
PRO DUCT:
IF T E S T F A IL E D (R eq u ires a ccep ta b le retest b efo re resta rtin g lin e)
F erro u s
(F e)
N o n -F erro u s
(N on F e)
S ta in less
(S S )
DETECTED*
Fe
N on
Fe
SS
R E JE C T E D *
Fe
N on
Fe
Location
mm
mm
mm
T E ST F A IL E D
C O R R E C T IV E A C T IO N (IN C L U D IN G R E T E S T )
CHECKER
S IG N /D A T E
Date & Time
SS
Samples Used
Results
(signals)
Corrective Action
M anage m e nt R e vie w :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __
S ig nature
D ate:_ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ P rod uct R eleased (Y es/N o ):_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _
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Good Practice
1. Prevention
1.1 Training
1.2 Controlled Maintenance
1.3 Regular Inspection & Good Housekeeping
2. Sensitivity
2.1 Identify Standards for products (maximise sensitivity)
2.2 Use Security methods (passwords)
3. Testing
3.1 Determine Frequency
3.2 Create Test packs
3.3 Document
4. Rejected Product
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Isolate & screen
Repeat 3 times / change orientation
Investigate – trained personnel / off line
Identify potential source& resolve
5. Maintain Records
5.1 Test / Production / Maintenance
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