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CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION

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CHELATED
MINERALS IN
ANIMAL NUTRITION
Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.Balakrishnan
Madras Veterinary College
Chennai, INDIA
INTRODUCTION
Role of Minerals:
7 macro minerals
9 micro mineral.
Minerals fed to Cattle
Role as Buffer
1. Feed intake
2. milk production
3. Enhance milk composition
4. Sustain health
“All Physiological Function”
Mineral deficiency occur
пЃ±All Livestock & Poultry
пЃ± May be sufficient amount in diet
пѓ�
Interaction between minerals
пѓ�
Presence of Anti nutritional factors
пѓ� Phytate
пѓ� Oxalate
пѓ� Mimosine
пѓ� Gossypol
Extend of mineral absorption in ruminant
Minerals
Extent of
absorption (%)
Copper
Manganese
1-3%
3-4%
Iron
Cobalt
7-10%
25 %
Non-ruminant little higher with mineral
Factor affecting absorption
1. Chemical form – Organic, Inorganic
2. Other dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc.,
How to increase absorption
Complexing inorganic element with organic compound.
This is called �Chelates’.
Chelates :
It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an
organic molecule and a metallic ion. Held with in the
organic molecule as if by a “claw”.
Chelate -Greek word - �Claw’
Naturally occurring chelates :
Chlorophyll's
Cytochrome
Haemoglobin
Vitamin B12
Classification of organic minerals
1.Metal (specific amino acid) Complex
2.Metal Aminoacid Complex
3.Metal Aminoacid Chelate
4.Mineral proteinnates
5.Mineral polysaccharide complex
Complexation and Chelates
Cu2
+
[Cu (NH3)2 + NH3
NH3
(Lewis acid) (Lewis base)
COMPLEX
[Cu (NH3)2]
пѓ– Metalic ion + Ligand
Complex
пѓ– complex may be as simple as only one bond
пѓ–Or complex contain many bond - Chelates
Metal Complex
Cu
NH3
Metal Chelate
Classification of organic minerals
Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product
resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a
specific amino acid. Minimum metal must be declared.
When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be
declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex,
zinc lysine complex etc.
Examples are:
п‚·Copper lysine complex
п‚·Zinc lysine complex
п‚·Ferric methionine complex
п‚·Manganese methionine complex
п‚·Zinc methionine complex
Classification of organic minerals
Metal Aminoacid Complex – Product resulting from complexing of
a soluble metal salt (such as copper or manganese, etc) with an
amino acid(s). Minimum metal content must declared. When used
as a commercial feed ingredient.
Examples are:
п‚·
Copper amino acid complex
п‚·
Zinc amino acid complex
п‚·
Magnesium amino acid complex
п‚·
Iron amino acid complex
п‚·
Calcium amino acid complex
п‚·
Potassium amino acid complex
п‚·
Manganese amino acid complex
Classification of organic minerals
Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the
reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino
acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three
(preferably two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate
covalent bonds.
Amino acids molecular weight must be approximately 150
the chelate molecular weight must not exceed 800. The
minimum metal content must be declared. When used as a
commercial feed ingredient,
Examples are:
п‚·Calcium amino acid chelate п‚·Magnesium amino acid chelate
п‚·Cobalt amino acid chelate п‚·Manganese amino acid chelate
п‚·Copper amino acid chelate п‚·Zinc amino acid chelate
п‚·Iron amino acid chelate
Classification of organic minerals
Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the
chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or
partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a
ingredient as the specific metal proteinate.
Examples are:
п‚·Copper proteinate
п‚·Zinc proteinate
п‚·Magnesium proteinate
п‚·Iron proteinate
п‚·Cobalt proteinate
п‚·Manganese proteinate
п‚·Calcium proteinate
Classification of organic minerals
Metal Polysaccharide Complex –
is the product
resulting
from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide
solution declared as a
ingredient as the specific metal
complex
Examples are:
п‚·Copper polysaccharide complex
п‚·Iron polysaccharide complex
п‚·Zinc polysaccharide complex
п‚·Magnesium polysaccharide complex
How to prepare a chelate
By reaction
mineral salt +
Controlled
enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide condition
Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point
Form Ring
Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are
Zinc
Iron
Manganese
Cobalt
Copper
These are
“transitional”
element
It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent
bond- a hybrid form of linkage –
stable complex
Ca, Mg, k
Technology for preparation of chelated minerals
Hydrolysis of Protein
Separation by centrifuge
and ultrafiltration
Chelation process
Removal of unbound mineral
Drying grinding and storage
Dinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003
Chelated minerals...
Factors influencing stability
1. Charge / radius :
2. Neural binder – more polar – Higher tendency to coordinate
metal ion.
3. Alkaline binder – Stabilization by formation of covalent bond
4. Chelation effect :
1. Mono dentate – less stable
2. Multi dentate – more stable
5. Dimensions of Chelation :
1. 5 term
2. 6 term
7.
Shape: Steric Tension
High stability
Use of chelates in Animal Nutrition
Main Objectives :
1. Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among
minerals.
2. Improve the bioavailability of minerals
3. Counteract antinutritional factors, which affecting minerals
4. Performance improvement
5. Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition)
6. over all animal welfare
7. Improvement in animal produces quality (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,)
8. Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes
and feed.
9. Protect environment by reducing metal pollution.
Mode of action
Stable in rumen environment & abomasum
Delivered in small intestine as such.
Absorbed through active transport (more blood level)
It act as biological complex (more tissue level)
Enter into different pool
Metabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972)
(Pharmaco-dyanamics nutrient) (using 65Zn)
Ruminants
Mineral Amino Acid complex
Zinc methionine
Zinc lysine
Manganese methionine
Iron methionine
Copper lysine
Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend.
Not much research on zinc lysine & iron methionine in
ruminants.
Zinc mehionine
Not degraded
Remain intact
Bind with feed particle or micro organism
So no insoluble complex
Sperars 1989
Semi purifical diet deficient in zinc ZM compared
with zinc oxide.
Absorption similar
Metabolized differently, Zno. Excreted more
through urine.
CONCLUSION
пЂґChelated minerals usually cost more, per
unit of metal element, than the same metal
in inorganic form.
пЂґHistorically the argument against chelates
was that increased use of inorganics was
more economic than feeding chelates.
пЂґ However, there is indication that in some
situations, chelates can achieve biologic
endpoints that inorganics cannot.
пЂґChelated mineral can be used when
more amount of antinutritional factor or
interference affects mineral utilization
пЂґIt can be used as immuno-stimulant
but more data is needed.
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