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УУЛ УУРХАЙН САЛБАР ДАХЬ УСНЫ

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??????????? 2014
WATER RESOURCE IN MONGOLIA
Total water resource
км
Resource for potential
consumption
3
700
608.29
600
500
410
400
300
200
90
100
10.79
62.9
34.6
0
Усн ы н є є ц
Газры н
Го л м є рє н
до о рхи ус
Цэн гэг
устай н уур
Давстай
н уур
М є стлє г
Total water resource: 608.29 km3, of which;
Resources of potential consumption:
? Rivers: 34.6 km3
15.75 km3, of which:
? Lakes: 500 km3
? Surface water resource: 4.96 km3
? Permanent frost, glacier: 62.9 km3
? Underground water resource: 10.797 km3
? Underground water: 10.79 km3
Water resource and quality characteristics
of Mongolia
Water resource distribution, quality and contents vary significantly depending on location,
natural zones, sediments formation and compounds of water.
About 70% of Mongolia?s surface water
resource are concentrated in Altai,
Khangai and Khentii mountain ranges,
as well as Khuvsgul and Great
Khyangan mountains, i.e. mostly in
high land of mountainous areas which
cover 30% of the entire territory.
Main resource origins belong to river basins
draining to estuaries out to North or Pacific
Oceans, while some to continentally-blocked
Central Asian river basins. Altogether 17 big
rivers and their tributaries create the main
source.
Surface water resource
Mongolia has 5,121 rivers, 9,340 streams
and creeks, 3,732 lakes and 262 glaciers
in total.
Steppe and deserts zones cover 76.6% of
the entire territory which do not have
permanent-flown rivers or streams.
Underground water resource
Total underground water source
estimated at 10.79 km3/year.
is
Hydrogeology thorough surveys and
examinations have been carried out cross
the entire territory and identified
consumption resource of 140 underwater
deposits.
Climate changes
In the last 60 years, the average yearly temperature has warmed by 1.9*C, while the annual
precipitation has fallen down by about 10%.
1.5
2.5
2.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5 1941
1946
1951
1956
1961
1966
1971
1976
1981
1986
1991
1996
1940
2001
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-1.0
-2.0
-2.5
-1.5
55
In the first half of 21st century, the accrued vaporization level tends to exceed by 6-10
times over the precipitation growth. Dynamics of temperature and precipitation changes
differ depending on location cross regions.
55
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
50
1.25
1.73
1.42
1.53 0.931.02
0.00
2.12 2.05
1.06
1.16
1.24
1.43
0.86
2.19
1.55
1.57
1.23
1.81
1.69
1.01
1.40
1.72 1.13
1.03
1.66 0.34 1.15
0.18
2.92
1.52
0.62
1.00
0.65
1.08
1.15
1.07
1.51
1.67
1.32
1.34
0.94
1.25
1.13
1.79
1.66
0.72
1.92
1.58
1.48
1.87
1.05
0.91
1.70
1.55
1.48
1.76
1.55
2.12
to
to
to
to
to
-80.00 to -50.00
-50.00 to -30.00
-30.00 to 0.00
0.00 to 30.00
30.00 to 50.00
50.00 to 80.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
3.00
45
40
90
95
100
105
110
115
56.3
50
1.60
1.51
27.9
20.8
44.9
-20.1
67.7
17.2
1.06
-23.7
27.0
25.0
23.1
-10.7
-35.2
36.3
29.5
-6.7
12.0-79.9
-9.2
5.9
-38.0
-31.1
-58.4
1.9
-27.2
15.0
-25.6
-68.5
-60.2
-78.3
-50.4
33.3
35.4
-30.3
4.7
47.6
28.5
19.3
-13.0
-1.0
16.5
-43.1
44.1
-22.2
14.5
45
-50.8
17.8
18.9
-26.3
65.6
-3.3
12.6
-1.9
13.7
-17.2
15.1
13.0
25.6
35.5
40
90
95
100
105
110
35.9
66.8
115
Water pollution
According to studies in recent years, it is identified that 28 rivers and streams in 8 aimags
have been polluted due to gold mining, while a similar number of rivers and streams due to
industrial wastage or urbanization factors. The trend looks to continue further.
1991-1993 оны байдлаас їзэхэд улсын хэмжээнд
їйлдвэр, албан байгууллага жил бїр 99.5-115.7
сая шоометр ус хэрэглэж ???????? 53.2 хувийг
тїлш, эрчим хїч, уул уурхайн їйлдвэрт, 2013 оны
байдлаар нїїрсний 31, алтны 117, зэс болон бусад
тємєрлєгийн 10 гаруй, жоншны 10 гаруй, барилгын
материал, давс, бусад хїдрийн бус ашигт малтмалын
14 нийт 182 уурхай ажиллаж байгаа бєгєєд
эдгээрийн дотроос ?????????, Эрдэнэт, Тємєртийн Овоо,
Олон овоот, Бороо зэрэг уурхайнууд нь томоохон ус
ашиглагчдын тоонд зїй ёсоор орж бай???. Уул уурхайн
їйлдвэрїїдийн жилийн нийт ус хэрэглээ 100 ?????
сая шоометрт ?????? ?????\.
??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????
????????
2012 ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? 1076 ?? ????? ??????? 1169
?????? ??????????? 166 ?? ????? ??????? 259 ???? 22% ?? ??????????
?????. ?????? ???????? 184 ?????? ????????? ?????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????
?? ????? ??????? ???
?????? ??????????? ???
166
259
1076
1169
1. ???
????? ???? 397 ?? ????? ??????? 455 ?????? ??????????? 108 ?? ?????
??????? 118 ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ?????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ????, ????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ?????,
???????, ??????, ???????, ???? ????, ????? ???, ????????, ?????, ?????,
?????????, ????, ???????, ??? ??, ?????? ?????, ???, ?????? ??????, ??????
????? ???, ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????????
???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????. 118 ?????????? ?????? ???????????
??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????.
?????????? ?????????? ????
26%
74%
???????? ?????
???????? ???????
????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? 1 ?3 ?????? 4 ?3 ?? ??????? ????????
?????. ??????????? ???? 70%-??? ????????? ?????? 30% ???????????? ?????
????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
???????????? ??????? 118 ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????
????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? 43?300?342 ??? ????
?? ??????? ?????. ?????? 30% ???? 12?990?102 ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????
?????? 70% ???? 30?310?239 ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????.
????? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????
????? ??
???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????
45%
55%
2. ????? ????? ???????
?????????? ????, ??????? ??????, ????????, ?????, ????, ?????? ?????
???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????????,
??????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????.
????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????????
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????
?????. ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???
????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????.
?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? 87?938?314 ???
/???????, ???-?????, ????? ? ?/ ???? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ??????
30% ???? 26,400,000 ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? 70% ???? 60 ??? ?????
??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????.
3. ????????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????
??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???, ?????? ??????? ??? ???, ????? ??????
???, ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
?????.
?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? 989?828 ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????. 30? ???? ?? ????????? 296,948 ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??????
?????.
?????, ???????
? ?сны харицааны эрхзїйн гол субъект ??? болох вэ гэдгийг тєрийн бодлогын
хїрээнд тогтоож тїїнийгээ їндсэн болон салбарын хуулиудад нэмэлт
єєр?лєлт, шинэ?илсэн найруулга хийх замаар энэ салбарын эрхзїйн
зохицуулалт, менежментийг боловсронгуй болгох шаардлагатай юм.
? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???
??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????,
????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????. ???
??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????
????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???? ??????,
??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????
??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????. ???? 5-15 ???? ??????????
???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? 10-20 ?????
??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????
??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????.
? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??
?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????
???? ???????? ???????????? 200 ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????. ??????
????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? /???????? ??, ????? ??/
? ?йлдвэрїїдийн
ус
ашиглалтанд
тавих
хяналт,
мониторингийг
тогтворжуулах, энэ нь їйлдвэр бїхэнд хїрдэг байх хэрэгтэй.
? Ор?ин їеийн технологоор усыг хэмнэлттэй, эргїїлэн ашиглаж буй
їйлдвэрийг эдийн засгийн хєшїїрэг хэрэглэн урамшуулах, хоцрогдсон
техник технологоор олборлолт явуулж, усны нєєцийг гамгїй хэрэглэсэн,
бохирдуулсан, судалгаагаар тогтоож єгсєн ашиглалтын горимыг зєр?иж,
усны эко ор?инд сєрєг їр дагавар їзїїлсэн їйлдвэрт хариуцлага
ноогдуулах, ус бохирдуулсны тєлбєр тогтоодог болох зэрэг арга хэмжээ
ав?? ????????.
? ??? ??????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????
???????? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????
????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???, ????????-????? ???????? ????? ?????
????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ????????, ???????????
???????? ??.
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