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Alkali metal reduction (sodium reduction)

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Alkali metal reduction
(sodium reduction)
Status & POPs application
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Process has been used commercially for
approximately 20 years. It has been used
extensively in particular in North America,
France and in Germany where most of the oil
above 50 ppm now has been treated
POPs application:
PCB-contaminated oils up to 10,000 ppm and for Askarel
transformers (>10,000 mg/kg of PCBs)
Canada DCR model
Alternative 1 : Direct operation
mode with transformer
P01 : Feeding pump with contaminated oil
P04 : Feeding pump of the de-watering
devices
P16 : Filter press pump
P18 : Dewatered oil discharge pump
R01 : Nitrogen cylinder
S03 : Nitrogen production device
V : expansion tank
V
Transformer
Mobile unit
R01
P04
P16
P18
P18
P01
S03
Alternative 2 : Indirect operation
mode using intermediate oil tank
P01 : Feeding pump with contaminated oil
P04 : Feeding pump of the de-watering devices
P16 : Filter press pump
P18 : Dewatered oil discharge pump
R01 : Nitrogen cylinder
S03 : Nitrogen production device
V : expansion tank
Storage
Tank
Transformer
Mobile unit
R01
S03
P04
P16
P18
P01
PART I : Adaptation Technology – Country
A. Performance:
1.
Minimum pre-treatment:
De-watering to avoid explosive reactions with metallic sodium. Drying oil
is normally accomplished to achieve a moisture content of approximately
100 ppm
2.
Destruction Efficiency:
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DE nor DRE has been reported (DE typically 99% - 99.9% in
most applications, it is also possible to go to a much higher
DE
DE values of greater than 99.999 percent reported for
chlordane and HCB (Ministry of Environment of Japan, 2004
PART I: Adaptation Technology - Country
A. Performance:
3. Toxic by-products:
Salt solution contains some oil and biphenyl polymer. Analysis for to dioxins
and furans and have been found to be innocuous. Residue can have a high ph
because of the presence of NaOH or KOH. Air at vent routinely analysed for PCB,
chlorobenzene + other organic compounds in Canada. PCB at the vent must be < 1
microgram/m3 in Canada.
4. Uncontrolled releases:
Steel pan under process equipment collect any leak from piping + vessels. Hoses
between units +tanks+ transformers are typically wrapped with sorbent material at
connections are underlain by plastic liner
5. Capacity to treat all POPs:
PCB-contaminated oils up to 10,000 ppm and for Askarel transformers
(>10,000 mg/kg of PCBs)
6. Throughput:
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пѓ quantity [tons/day, l/day]
Wide range: Mobile facilities are capable of treating 15,000 litres per day of
transformer oil.
For mobile DCR units average flow rate 1000 L/hr.
PART I: Adaptation Technology - Country
A. Performance:
7. Wastes/residuals:
пѓ Secondary waste stream volumes:
Residues include sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide,
polyphenyls and water, sometimes solidified polymer.
Separation of by-products:
Re-use decontaminated oil (after treatment) and organometallic reagent re-used.
Rest NaCl + Small amount sludge generated contains NaCl +
solidified polymer with some oil and water normally solidified
and directed to approved landfill
пѓ Off gas treatment:
nitrogen and hydrogen gas + organic compounds relatively minor finally
treatment by granular activated carbon
PART I: Adaptation Technology - Country
A. Performance:
пѓ Complete elimination:
пѓ Certain limits :
пѓ Lot of experience on:
In case decontaminated oil is circulated in transformer and
returned to treatment unit, a certain amount of cleansing of the
internals of the PCB transformer takes place, especially if the
transformer remains in operation; some of the PCB in the porous
constituents gets desorbed in the hot clean oil that returns to the
treatment unit; (no reagent is directed to the transformer).
% decontamination in transformers after on-line treatment +
leach back etc.
PART II: Adaption Country – Technology
A. Resource needs:
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100, 200, 300 DCR mobile Unit Canada
Power requirements: 60 Amp at 575 V
Water requirements: none
Fuel volumes: none
Reagents volumes: 200 kg
Weather tight buildings: yes
Hazardous waste personnel requirement:
Sampling requirements/facilities:
Peer sampling:
lab module GC
Laboratory requirements:
Communication systems:
Number of (un/skilled) personnel required: 2 (1 skilled)
PART II: Adaption Country – Technology
B: Costs for:
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0.15 US$/l low PCB, 0.7 /high PCB
Installation + commissioning: --Site preparation: --Energy & Telecom installation: --Compliance:--Reporting: --Run without waste:--Run with waste:--Decommissioning: --Landfilling:--Transport residues:---
PART II: Adaption Country – Technology
C. Impact & D. Risks
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Discharges to air: --Discharges to water:--Discharges to land:--Risks reagents applied:
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Risks of technology:
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Operational risks:
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explosion dispersed metallic sodium can react violently with water пѓ lot of
measures
fire пѓ scenarios
water contact, electricity пѓ safety features
PART II: Adaption Country Technology
E. Constructability & F. Output
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Ease of installation & construction of plant:
standard units
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Ease of shipping/transit:
container sized units
Ease of operation:
environment + safety training + on the job
training
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Ease of processing:
continuing process units for transformer oil
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Generated waste (% of input waste):--Deposited waste at landfill (% of input waste):
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Waste quality properties (pH, TCLP)
Experiences France: Mobile system
Exhaust of electrofilter
(purification gases)
Italy: mobile treatment transformer
7.5 tons oil from transformer
Treated total 45 tons!!
Storage des bottles CO2 and Nitrogen
Fullers earth treatment of oil
Storage tank
of new oil
Feeder
Pre-mixing unit
for the reagents
Waste
coming from
mobile unit
Drying installation
Inside: Di-electrical oil, during (brown color) and
after (yellow color)
the operation
Canada: Inside view
Oil + reagent tanks
Oil fired heater of PCB
contaminated oil
Centrifuge separation oil-liquid and sludge
Control panel
Canada: Process schedule
Strength’s
Weaknesses
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Proven long time experience for
PCB’s
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Fire пѓ need for high quality risk
management
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Flexible treatment at site
possible
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With continuous treatments
limits on total cleaning
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Mobile units
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Lower and higher quantities
possible
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Minimum interference for
transformers
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