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The Russian Revolution

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The Russian
Revolution
The story of Russia to USSR
Readings: Spodek, pp. 658-661
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
пЃ· Hated Industrial
Revolution and French
Revolution
пЃ· Wanted to make world
safe for autocracy
пЃ· Fought against progress
in Russia and Europe
Alexander II (1855-1881)
пЃ· Son of Nicholas I.
пЃ· He came to the throne
during the Crimean
War
пЃ· Emancipated the serfs
in 1861
Alexander III (1881-1894)
пЃ· Increased the
repressive powers of
the police
пЃ· Limited the power of
the local assemblies
пЃ· Pograms against
anyone who was not
Russian
Nicholas II (1894-1917)
Russo-Japanese War (19041905)
пЃ· Imperialistic Conflict over Korea and
Manchuria
пЃ· Russia trying to ward off rebellion
Bloody Sunday-January 22,
1905
пЃ· Began in St Petersburg
пЃ· Disaster of Russo-Japanese War
revealed corruption and
incompetence of czar
пЃ· Created Duma, limited economic
reform
World War I/ Rasputin
пЃ· Had control over the
Tsar Nicholas II and
the Tsarina
пЃ· Was murdered in
December 1916
пЃ· World War I was a
disaster.
The Revolutions of 1917
пЃ· February Revolution (March 8, 1917)
пЃ· Czar Nicholas Abdicates
How Do Bolsheviks Get Power?
пѓ�Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St.
Petersburg)—April 16. 1917
пѓ�Lenin calls for armed insurrection
—Oct. 16, 1917 (Russian Calendar)
пѓ�October Revolution begins, October 24,
1917 (Russian Calendar), November 6,
1917 (Western European Calendar)
пѓ�Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin
Treaty of Brest Litovsk—
March 3, 1918
пЃ· Lost 32% of
the land
пЃ· Lost Estonia,
Latvia,
Lithuania
пЃ· Much of the
Ukraine
пЃ· Much of
Belarussia
Civil War and Lenin’s Rule
пЃ·From 19181921
пЃ·Reds
пЃ·Whites
пЃ· Creation of USSR
пЃ· Nationalization of
all land and banks
пЃ· New Economic
Plan
пЃ· Lenin dies of a
stroke
Power Struggle after Lenin’s Death
and Stalin’s Rule
пЃ· Forced
collectivization
 “The Great Famine”
 “The Great Terror”
пЃ· Purges
пЃ· Gulag
Contemporary Problems
пЃ· Cold War with US from
1945-1991
 Mikhail Gorbachev’s
Glasnost allowed
Democracy to Emerge
 Perestroika—socialism
not possible in capitalist
world
пЃ· Resigns December 25,
1991
пЃ· End of Soviet Union and
the end of the Cold War
Boris Yeltsin
пЃ· Problems:
– Economy was a
–
–
–
–
mess
Workers not paid
National Debt
IMF and World
Bank Money to
Cronies
Politics a Mess
Today in Russia and the Former
Soviet Union
пЃ· A weak Boris Yeltsin names Vladimir Putin,
former KGB agent, Premier then President
пЃ· Communists Still Have Some Power: Many want
stability of Old System back
Today’s Russia (continued)
пЃ· Ethnic groups want
autonomy or
Independence
пЃ· Putin has destroyed
Chechnya
пЃ· Reports of rapes and
pillage
пЃ· Nationalists want
powerful Soviet Union
пЃ· Questions still needing
answers
Winners and Losers
пЃ· Winners
пЃ· Losers
– Communist Party
– Poorest peasants
– Some Workers
– Traditional Russian upper
– Massive Literacy Project—
classes
– Many of those in
traditional Russian middle
classes
– Those killed or imprisoned
because of oppressive
regime
– Jews, Muslims, other
ethnic minorities
all those who learn to read
and write
– Vastly improved health
care—all those who lived
longer and healthier
– Women
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