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October 1905 Revolution and its effects

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October 1905 Revolution
and its consequences
Nicholas tries to compromise
• 6 August : Nicholas issued
a manifesto creating State
Duma
– Consultative
– Elections secret, but not
general, equal, or direct
– allowed to discuss
proposals
– see budgets
– little real power
– Called for mid-January
1906
First Soviets created
• Origin: Shidlovsky commission
February 1905
• Workers began to organize
“councils” – soviets.
• Fall 1905: Petersburg and
Moscow soviets well organized.
• October strike wave renewed,
Moscow first.
• Turned into general strike, over
2 million strikers.
• October 14: Petersburg Gov.
Trepov publicly ordered police
to decisively suppress the
disorder: “if the crowd resists
do not use blanks and spare no
bullets!”
October Manifesto
17/30 October 1905
• “Lofty Manifesto about the
improvement of public order”
• Granted freedoms:
–
–
–
–
–
personal inviolability
conscience
speech
assembly
association
• Extended suffrage to State
Duma
• No law enacted without
Duma’s approval
Nicholas’s reaction
• Nicholas II’s diary, 17 October 1905 entry:
• “Сидели и разговаривали, ожидая, приезда
Витте. Подписал манифест в 5 час. После
такого дня голова сделалась тяжелою и
мысли стали путаться. Господи, помоги нам,
спаси и умири Россию!”
• “We sat and talked, awaiting the arrival of Witte. I
signed the manifesto at 5 pm. After such a day
[my] head was made heavy and [my] thoughts
became confused. Lord, help us, save dying
Russia!”
Public reactions
• Middle-class liberals reacted very
positively
• Workers and socialists of soviets
said “obman” fraud; tried to
bankrupt govt.; failed.
• Rightists, especially police and
army, responded with pogroms in
660 towns:
– 800 Jews killed
– 70 million rubles of property
destroyed
– Odessa: over 400 Jews killed
– Rostov on Don: over 150
– Ekaterinoslav: 67
– Minsk: 54
– etc.
First Calling of State Duma
27 April-6 July 1906
• Elections complex and very
indirect
• Elected by curia/estate
• Every ten male peasant
household heads elected a
desiatvornik
• At volost assembly desiatvorniki
elected two peasant delegates to
a district (uezd) assembly.
• district assembly elected
peasant electors to provincial
electoral assemblies, which
elected deputies to the Duma.
• Of 448 deputies, 153 Kadets, 63
autonomists, 13 Octoberists, 97
Trudoviki, 105 non-party, 7
others (socialists boycotted)
First State Duma opening ceremony, Winter palace, 27 April 1906
First Calling of State Duma
27 April-8 July 1906
• 23 April: Nicholas issued Fundamental
Law, limiting Duma’s power
• Duma demanded more:
• Legislative initiative
• Immunity
• Question ministers
• Real Focus: Land question
• 13 May: government rejected all
demands
• Duma responded with no confidence vote
• 6 June: More radical land proposal
declared (33 “SRs”)
• 8 July: claiming the Duma was “not
quieting the people but inciting more
sedition, “ Tsar dissolved first calling.
Vyborg Appeal, 9-10 July 1906
• 200 (120 Kadets; 80
Trudoviki) Duma
deputies signed
• passive resistance
• non-payment of taxes
• draft avoidance
“Citizens! Stand up strongly for the violated rights of the people’s representatives, stand up
for the State Duma! Russia should not remain even one day without the people’s
representatives. You have the means to achieve this: The government does not have the
right without the agreement of the people’s representatives to collect taxes or call the
people to military service. Therefore, now, when the government has dissolved the State
Duma, you have the right not to provide one soldier or pay any money.”
Second calling of State Duma,
20 February-3 June 1907
518 deputies:
–
–
–
–
–
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104 Trudoviki,
98 Kadets,
76 autonomists,
65 Social-Democrats
54 Octoberists,
50 non-party
30 Muslim party
16 people’s socialists
17 cossack party
• Much more leftist (only 32 from
first calling: 6 percent)
• Kadets called for forced sale of all
unused land to peasants
• Peasant deputies called for all
land without compensation.
3 June counter-revolution
• Petr A. Stolypin, 18621911
• 4 January 1906: violent,
effective suppression of
peasant uprising in
Saratov province
• 26 April 1906: Minister of
Internal Affairs (MVD)
• 8 July 1906: Prime
Minister and MVD
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