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The Russian Revolution

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The Russian Revolution
пѓ French vs. Russian Revolutions
Start your own Venn
Diagram
Pre-Revolutionary Russia
• Only true autocracy left in
Europe
• No type of representative
political institutions
• Nicholas II became tsar in
1884
• Believed he was the
absolute ruler anointed by
God
• Russo-Japanese War
(1904) – defeat led to pol.
instability
Pre-Revolutionary Russia
• Russo-Japanese War
• Russia goes into Manchuria
and seeks influence in Korea
• Japan had taken Korea in the
Sino-Japanese War
• Sets stage for Russian /
Japanese conflict
Pre-Revolutionary Russia
• Russo-Japanese War
• Russia loses this war and
leads to conditions being
ripe for revolution
Pre-Revolutionary Russia
• Russo-Japanese War
• Ends with the Treaty of
Portsmouth
• Portsmouth New
Hampshire
Revolution of 1905
• Liberalism is starting to
come to Russia
• Small middle class begins
to emerge
• Poor economy / strains of war
/ and the Proletariat (urban
workers)
Revolution of 1905
• March on the Tsar’s winter
palace (200,000)
• Peaceful march
• Lead by Father GOPON
• Head of assembly of Russian
factory workers
• Have religious icons and
singing hymns
• Want to present petition to
Tsar
Revolution of 1905
• Bloody Sunday
•
Kill about 300 and injure 1,000
• General Strike of the people as a
result
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
• General strike from January to
October
• Peasants / factory workers / nation
wide
• Finally Nicholas gives concessions
• October Manifesto
Revolution of 1905
• October Manifesto
• Largest concession DUMA
• Serfs need not make payments on
state lands that they received from
emancipation
• More civil rights: assembly, press
speech, assembly– liberal changes
Revolution of 1905 DUMA
• Duma– Mostly Liberal
• Meet in the Spring of 1906
• Advisory body to the Tsar without much
power
•
•
•
•
Moderates okay with this
The People have not been hears
Tsar still absolute authority
No Checks and Balances
• Revolutionaries are divided now
• Tsar is dissolved twice in 1906 due to them
having freedom of speech and he doesn't’t
like what they have to say
Peter Stolypin
• Prime Minister
• How do we defeat Revolutionaries
and still make the people loyal to
the Tsar
• HE is VERY harsh on
revolutionaries
• Hangs them– STOLYPIN
NECKTIES
• Breaks down collective village of
land– gave it to the peasants that
are enterprising
Peter Stolypin
• Prime Minister
• Assassinated by….
• Nobles not the peasants
Birth of socialism in Russia
• 1898- Social Democratic Workers
Party founding in Minsk with
Lenin as leader– Organizational
and inspirational force
• Lenin’s brother is executed by
Alexander II when it was thought
he was in an assassination attempt
• Lenin exiled in (1896)
• Siberia
• Travels through Western Europe
and learns socialist ideals
Birth of socialism in Russia
• Lenin wants to destroy capitalism
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proletariat– we are feeding everyone
Bourgeoisie– we eat your food
Military– we shoot at you
Church – we fool you
Monarchy– we rule
Wants to turn it upside down
3 basic ideas central to Lenin’s
philosophy
• 1. Capitalism could be destroyed
only by VIOLENT REVOLUTION;
denounces trying to just make
revisions
• Agrees with Marx on this point
• 2. Socialist revolution is possible
only under certain conditions, even
in relatively backward Russia
Karl Marx – Lenin is
Heir to Marxist
dies in 1883)
• Peasant were poor and thus ripe for
revolution
• Marx believed Russia would be the last
place for it to work. You need industrial
workers to make it work… Lenin said
the presents can take the industrial
workers role
3 basic ideas central to Lenin’s
philosophy
• 3. Necessity of a highly disciplined
workers party, strictly controlled by
a dedicated elite of intellectuals and
full time revolutionaries
•
•
Differed from Marx – thought everyone
would be involved
Needs to be instigated
1903, Social Democratic Party
• Splits into two factions
• MENSHEVIKS (minority) actually
larger group
• Wanted to await the evolution of
capitalism and the proletariat
• Sought a more democratic party with
mass membership
• BOLSHIVICKS (majority) actually
smaller group.
• Lenin agrees with having small
groups so he fits into this group
Back to the DUMA
• DUMA was weak and
ineffective but increasingly
critical of Czars poor
leadership
• Bolsheviks in exile planned
a revolution
• Lenin and Trotsky formed workers’
Soviets (councils of workers,
soldiers, and intellectuals)
TROTSKY
Revolution- Beginning and end of
1917
• WORLD WAR I became the
major cause of the Russian
Revolution (straw that
broke the camels back)
• Massive Russian casualties (15 million)
food shortages
• Russia is WAY behind– technology,
socially
• Nicolas dismissed the Duma and goes
out to lead his troops
• Horrible military leader
• His dad Alexander III called his son a
Girly Girl
• When he leaves he puts his wife in
charge
Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne
• His wife Alexandria is left
in charge
•
•
German – they are fighting the
Germans
Russians don’t like her and are
suspicious
• Even more blindly committed
to autocracy than her husband
• She was under the influence of
Rasputin
• Origins of Rasputin’s power • Scandals surrounding
Rasputin served to discredit
the monarchy
Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne
Alexis: Alexandra’s Son with
Hemophilia
• Womanizer
• Tried to kill him multiple times
The Collapse of the Imperial Government
• Alexandra and other high
government officials
accused of treason
The Collapse of the Imperial Government
(cont.)
• Rasputin assassinated in
December of 1916
• Complete mismanagement of
the wartime economy
• ind. production plummeted,
inflation and starvation were
rampant, and the cities were
overflowing w/ refugees
• they became a hotbed for pol.
activism, and this was ignited
by serious food shortages in
March 1917, esp. in St.
Petersburg
The Two Revolutions of 1917
• The March
Revolution
(March 12)
• The November
Revolution
(November 6)
The March Revolution
• Origins: Food riots/strikes
• Revolution started by women
rioting for bread in Petrograd
(formerly St. Petersburg)
• Workers and soldiers join in
The March Revolution
• Duma declared itself a
Provisional Government on
March12 1917
• Tsar ordered soldiers to
intervene; instead they joined
the rebellion…the Tsar thus
abdicated on March 17
The March Revolution
• the Menshevik Alexander
Kerensky headed the
Provisional Government (mostly
liberals), along w/ Prince Lvov
• Very Popular Revolution
• Kerensky favored gradual socialist
reform/ saw the war effort as #1
priority
• Petrograd Soviets control army
• San Culottes/ Jacobins in the French
Revolutions keep pushing them to
more radical movement.
Alexander Kerensky
• Implements liberal program
•
•
•
•
•
Equality before the law
Freedom of religion
8 hr. work week
No Revolution at the moment
Lenin wouldn't’t follow this ideal
Summer of 1917
• Anarchy in Russia
• Chaos in army
• Chaos in government
Rise of Vladimir I Lenin
• Ger. was aware of the Russ.
situation and began to
concentrate on the W. Front
• Ger. even played a role in
returning Lenin to Russia, so he
could foment rev.
• Having been granted “safe
passage”, Lenin returned
in April 1917
• Germany put him in a
sealed train
• The virus of Bolsheviks
will infect Russia and get
them out of the war
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Lenin Steps into This Vacuum
• Amnesty granted to all political
prisoners in March of 1917
• Lenin’s arrival in Petrograd
• A tremendously charismatic
personality
• “Peace, Land, Bread”
• “All Power to the Soviets”
• He preached that the war was a
capitalist/imperialist war that offered
no rewards for the peasants/workers;
he also felt the war was over w/ the
czar’s abdication
• Bolshevik party membership
exploded; their power was
consolidated
• Lenin formed the MilitaryRevolutionary Council and in
May 1917 he urged the
Petrograd Soviet to pass
Army Order # 1
• This gave control of the
army to the common
soldiers; discipline thus
collapsed, and Kerensky
was undermined
The November Revolution
• Nov. 6, 1917…
• this was the ideological aspect of
the rev., w/ the coup itself planned
by Leon Trotsky, who had gained
the confidence of the army (= the
“Red Miracle”)
• Lenin went on to consolidate his
power in Jan. 1918 when he
disbanded the Constituent
Assembly (had replaced the Duma)
– the Bolsheviks had not gained a
majority there in late Nov.
elections - Russ. dem. thus
terminated пѓ a Council of
People’s Commissars was created
• All private property was abolished
and divided among the peasantry
• Largest industrial enterprises
nationalized
November Revolution (cont)
• Political Police
organized: CHEKA
• Revolutionary army
created with Trotsky
in charge = “Red
Army”
• Bolshevik Party
renamed Communist
Party in March of
1918
November Revolution (cont)
• Lenin’s 1st task was to get
Russia out of the war so he
could concentrate on internal
reform…
• The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
negotiated with the Germans,
giving them much Russian
territory, population, and
resources
• Civil War followed, 1917-1920
пѓ вЂњReds” versus “Whites”
• Complete breakdown of
Russian economy and society
Interpreting the Russian Revolution
• The official Marxist
interpretation
пѓ The importance of a
permanent international
revolution
• Function of Russian History
and Culture
• Imposed Revolution on an
unwilling victim
• A Social Revolution…
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